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  • Just got back from ESTC and found out that all the pics of the music Dollard showed were blurry. Can some one direct me to the name of the sheets he used? I am trying to re-create the sounds he played here on my kb. I know it was a Fuge and in C. Thanks much

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    • Originally posted by aminnovations View Post
      Hi,

      I have added a new post to my website, this is the first in a series exploring negative resistance and associated phenomena:

      http://www.am-innovations.com/negati...scharge-part-1

      Negative resistance is a feature of the I-V characteristic of a discharge between two electrodes, and if correctly utilised can lead to unusual electrical phenomena within an electrical circuit. In this first part on this topic we explore the I-V properties of the negative resistance (NR) region of a carbon electrode spark gap (CSG), or carbon-arc gap. When the CSG is biased into the correct region, and combined with a switched (non-linear) impetus from the generator, the impedance of the circuit can be seen to reduce from the conventional short-circuit case, increasing the current in the circuit and intensifying the light emitted from an incandescent lamp load.
      Dear Adrian,
      Thank you for the fascinating and well described (as usual!) experimental work. I find your results very noteworthy:
      by operating the CSG around the abnormal glow region of its characteristcs more power is drawn in through the line supply, reflecting a reduction in impedance in the experimental circuit below that of the normal short-circuit impedance at the CSG electrodes or through the vacuum relay.
      What potential explanations do you see for the phenomena of reducing impedance below that of a short circuit?

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      • t-rex You may find the following video interviews of interest. Catt describes himself as having made the first advancement on Heaviside's work in the 50 years after Heaviside published:

        Comment


        • Hi Marcus,

          Originally posted by Marcus Neuhof View Post

          Dear Adrian,
          Thank you for the fascinating and well described (as usual!) experimental work. I find your results very noteworthy:


          What potential explanations do you see for the phenomena of reducing impedance below that of a short circuit?
          Your question has enabled me to expand the conclusions section of the web page with my considerations as to the possible underlying source of the observed phenomenon. I have added the following:

          "... From this it is clear that to utilise the unsual properties of negative resistance they must be combined with a non-linear impetus, which also suggests a process that may be related to underlying displacement events. It is always in the presence of a non-linear condition that the mechanism of displacement can be engaged or observable within the electrical properties. It appears to surface in non-linear scenarios where the boundaries of the dielectric and magnetic fields of induction would lead to a discontinuous condition in the electrical properties of the circuit. It is conjectured that displacement appears to "act" in order to rebalance this discontinuous condition and restore dynamic equilibrium between the induction fields within the circuit.

          With regard to the phenomenon observed in this experiment, it is conjectured that the apparent reduction in circuit impedance below that of a short-circuit primarily results from a coherent inter-action between the dielectric and magnetic fields of induction. The analogy is drawn to both the superconducting state in metals at low temperature[7,8], and also to ballistic electron transport in a high mobility electron gas[9], also at low temperature. In the case of the superconducting state two electrons became weakly bound together through exchange of a lattice phonon. In so doing they form Cooper pairs where the coherent phonon exchange extends across the entire material on a macroscopic scale. This coherent phonon exchange, and subsequent binding together of Cooper pairs, leads to a band-gap opening in the conduction band of the material, and hence electron-pairs can traverse the dimenion of the material without scattering in this band. In this way conduction of a current via electron movement through the superconducting material has zero resistance, and is considered to be coherent.

          In the second case of ballistic electron transport, the electronic energy band structure of the semiconductor is so arranged to provide a quantum well, narrower than the phonon wave number, at the fermi level within the well. This confines electrons to a 2D sheet in the well, reducing scattering and increasing the mean free path. Further confinement laterally leads to a 1D wire where the scattering with the lattice is further reduced and the mean free path of an electron becomes longer than the injection contacts at either end of material. In this case, and at low temperature, electrons can travel ballistically from one terminal to the other (e.g. in a quantum wire channel). The ballistic conduction reduces the resistance between the contacts below that normally expected for the diffusive condition, since the scattering with the lattice has been reduced to a point where the electron path between the contacts can be considered as coherent.

          In both of these analogies reduction in impedance of the transmission medium is considered the result of a coherent conduction process. In the experiment reported here I conjecture that the reduction in impedance results from the coherent inter-action of the dielectric and magnetic fields of induction, where that coherent configuration is brought about by a displacement event. The displacement event is in itself revealed through the non-linear drive to the experiment, and "mixed" through the negative resistance properties of the CSG. The final product of the displacement event through the negative resistance characteristics, is to re-balance the electrical dynamics of the circuit by coherently aligning the dielectric and magnetic fields of induction yielding a reduced circuit impedance. This conjecture, based on the results so far, requires considerable further work to establish its scope of validity, and would also ideally benefit from a suitable mathematical treatment, when such a form of mathematics is available to describe the properties and processes under exploration."

          All work in progress.

          Best wishes,
          Adrian

          Comment


          • Dear Adrian,
            That is a very interesting perspective. It is perhaps worth clarifying that we are discussing AC impedance, and not DC resistance, yes?

            Since it is AC impedance which is under consideration, could it not be argued that the reduction is due not to any abnormally low impedance of the CSG, but rather due to the (relatively speaking) high impedance of the short circuit?

            The "Tesla hairpin circuit" is, after all, a famous demonstration of the high impedance which a short circuit may be made to present.

            Comment


            • Hi Marcus,

              The AC impedance of the CSG circuit is dominated by the resistive component as shown by the network analyzer scans in the experiment, and is driven at the UK line frequency of 50Hz. For all intents and purposes the circuit appears resistive at low frequency. I do not think AC impedance effects are having a significant impact in this experiment.

              I don't think it can be argued that the observed phenomena results from a relatively high impedance of the short circuit, as from my perspective the active source of the change in impedance occurs in the CSG and not at the short circuit. The short circuit appears to remain constant impedance in all configurations of the circuit in the experiment. The active change in the circuit impedance results from the transitions through the negative resistance region of the CSG, where clearly the resistive part of the impedance is changing very dramatically according to bias point and non-linear transient drive. If you remove the CSG from the circuit you will not see any interesting phenomena in the circuit at all, especially at the low drive frequency.

              The Tesla hairpin circuit is a very high impedance at DC since it has two blocking capacitors feeding the pins. When spark discharge driven the impedance of the hairpin falls dramatically according to its impulse frequency response, and the loads presented to the the hairpin circuit. The unusual phenomena in the hairpin circuit for me result from the non-linear drive and the boundary conditions presented to the dielectric and magnetic fields of induction. It is a good suggestion, I should start an experimental sequence to look carefully at the phenomenon and measurements associated with the Tesla hairpin circuit.

              Best wishes,
              Adrian

              Comment


              • Originally posted by aminnovations View Post
                Hi Marcus,

                The AC impedance of the CSG circuit is dominated by the resistive component as shown by the network analyzer scans in the experiment, and is driven at the UK line frequency of 50Hz. For all intents and purposes the circuit appears resistive at low frequency. I do not think AC impedance effects are having a significant impact in this experiment.

                I don't think it can be argued that the observed phenomena results from a relatively high impedance of the short circuit, as from my perspective the active source of the change in impedance occurs in the CSG and not at the short circuit. The short circuit appears to remain constant impedance in all configurations of the circuit in the experiment. The active change in the circuit impedance results from the transitions through the negative resistance region of the CSG, where clearly the resistive part of the impedance is changing very dramatically according to bias point and non-linear transient drive. If you remove the CSG from the circuit you will not see any interesting phenomena in the circuit at all, especially at the low drive frequency.
                What is the frequency content of those portions of the waveform which are active during the negative resistance portion of the experiment? If I consider the following oscilloscope trace of the demonstration, I see a slew rate of something approaching 1.5kV/ms:
                negative-resistance-and-sgd-1-3-3-full.jpg

                Since the effects seem to happen when the voltage is changing rapidly with respect to time, I'm not sure I would discount AC impedance effects entirely. Comparing the above oscilloscope trace to the short-circuit case, it could even be that the main increases in area under the curve occur precisely at those points where the voltage is changing most rapidly:
                negative-resistance-and-sgd-1-3-2-full.jpg

                Unfortunately the given data do not permit me to evaluate whether the crucial parts of the curve occur above the 10MHz upper bound you used for your impedance measurements.

                Much has been discussed about the novelties of many spark gaps in series, as in the Steinmetz chapter on lightning arrestors which Eric Dollard has posted here repeatedly and which seems to have been an inspiration for Eric's longitudinal research.

                With respect to the phenomena you have demonstrated with this experiment, what effect do you expect to see from multiple CSGs in series?

                Comment


                • Hi Marcus,

                  "What is the frequency content of those portions of the waveform which are active during the negative resistance portion of the experiment?"

                  That would need to be measured to know for sure, but as an approximation up to the limit of the impedance scan of 10Mc, (where the minimum feature period would be ~ 100ns). From the oscilloscope trace the only portion of the curve that has measured transients that may approach anywhere near this is at 15ms and 35ms (from trace start). The available output power in this region from the generator appears very low, and is most unlikely to contribute to almost 40% increase in dissipated power in the circuit, as compared to the main output cycle whose area under the curve does increase substantially from the short circuit case. Hence it would appear most likely that the negative resistance region in the CSG is active during a portion of the main generator output, but initiated or triggered in the non-linear region prior to the main output. Therefore, I would not expect the phenomena demonstrated to be the product of the ac impedance characteristics of the short-circuit, but rather interestingly, it would appear to support my conjectures on displacement, that non-linear transient dynamics are necessary to reveal/trigger displacement, where the action of re-balancing the circuit leads to substantial changes, in this case, to the voltages and currents in the circuit, (reflected in the area under the main output cycle of the generator).

                  "With respect to the phenomena you have demonstrated with this experiment, what effect do you expect to see from multiple CSGs in series?"

                  This would need to experimented and measured to answer this. It would however be much more difficult to bias the CSGs into the correct regions for negative resistance effects, as I would expect any cumulative effect to require synchronisation of the gaps to the same region of their I-V characteristics.

                  Best wishes,
                  Adrian

                  Comment


                  • Originally posted by aminnovations View Post
                    Therefore, I would not expect the phenomena demonstrated to be the product of the ac impedance characteristics of the short-circuit, but rather interestingly, it would appear to support my conjectures on displacement, that non-linear transient dynamics are necessary to reveal/trigger displacement, where the action of re-balancing the circuit leads to substantial changes, in this case, to the voltages and currents in the circuit, (reflected in the area under the main output cycle of the generator).

                    It occurs to me that perhaps the following statement in your text leads to the most remarkable conclusion of all:
                    the circuit appears as a constant resistive load that results almost entirely from the cold resistance of the incandescent lamp filaments, 2 x 25W in series, (in the range 175 200Ω each).
                    This statement tells us that even at its highest value of 503 ohms at 10Mc, the reactive component of the system impedance is never more than about 24% of the overall impedance. Therefore reactive impedance changes are unlikely to explain the circa 40% increase in current.

                    However, the implications may be even further-reaching:

                    We might conjecture that at least 76% of the overall impedance value (including reactive components) derives from the light bulbs, wire leads, and other components outside the "CSG and vacuum relay" system.

                    This consideration is important as the production of the 40% increase in current would in turn mean a proportional reduction of the overall circuit impedance. Nevertheless, if the CSG-relay circuit sub-system only represents 24% of the total system impedance, even a reduction to 0 ohms impedance (superconduction as in your thesis) in the CSG would not be sufficient to produce a sufficient decrease in the overall system impedance.

                    Therefore, if it is true that the proportional increase in current was greater than the CSG-relay circuit sub-system's proportional contribution to system impedance, then that would imply the "abnormal glow" region of operation reduced either or both of the reactive and resistive compoents of the impedance of the CSG below zero, while increasing the absolute value of said impedance to a value much larger in magnitude than the resting state impedance.

                    The immediately obvious explanation is negative reactance (capacitance) storing energy in the dielectric field around the CSG and releasing it at a judicious point in time to produce the momentary increase in current. This would neatly explain the increase in circuit current and increased power consumption, the latter being the product of additional energy being stored prior to its release. Our discussion so far, however, has led to the conclusion that reactance effects are unlikely to predominate. Additionally, the low dielectric constant of air makes it difficult to imagine enough energy finding a home in the CSG's dielectric field to produce this effect.

                    Since negative reactance, while well accepted, appears insufficient to explain the results, this in turn indicates the experiment potentially achieved "negative resistance" in the most literal sense of the word. If this is so, then one wonders what your PhD thesis advisors would think if they could see where your work had led you...

                    Comment


                    • Hi Marcus,

                      Originally posted by Marcus Neuhof View Post
                      Therefore, if it is true that the proportional increase in current was greater than the CSG-relay circuit sub-system's proportional contribution to system impedance, then that would imply the "abnormal glow" region of operation reduced either or both of the reactive and resistive compoents of the impedance of the CSG below zero, while increasing the absolute value of said impedance to a value much larger in magnitude than the resting state impedance.

                      The immediately obvious explanation is negative reactance (capacitance) storing energy in the dielectric field around the CSG and releasing it at a judicious point in time to produce the momentary increase in current. This would neatly explain the increase in circuit current and increased power consumption, the latter being the product of additional energy being stored prior to its release. Our discussion so far, however, has led to the conclusion that reactance effects are unlikely to predominate. Additionally, the low dielectric constant of air makes it difficult to imagine enough energy finding a home in the CSG's dielectric field to produce this effect.
                      These are important conclusions in the exploration so far, and ones that I have also reached in the consideration of possible explanations for the observed phenomenon. The up to 40% increase in dissipated power in the load, drawn from the generator, over that of the shorted circuit, does not appear to be accounted for either by changes in the ac impedance in the circuit, or through dielectric induction field storage and release. As you say, the phenomenon does appear literally like a true "negative resistance" in the circuit.

                      An important factor to consider here is that a non-linear impetus from the generator is required to observe this phenomenon, and if you drive this circuit linearly you will not see any of these effects, as demonstrated in the video. This serves for me as crucial key in understanding what may be the source of this phenomenon. So many, if not all, of the unusual phenomena I have observed throughout my research so far, appear to emerge, or become observable, in the presence of a non-linear transient generator drive, and often combined in circuits that also have inherently non-linear properties, (as in the case of the CSG biased to the abnormal glow region, or from radiant energy emitted from a non-linear driven TC or TMT system, or from other as yet unexplained impulse over-unity devices).

                      This non-linear impetus and its unusual phenomena, for me suggests underlying principles and mechanisms within electricity that as yet we know almost nothing about, that are only observable under transient conditions, and yet lead to powerful and unexplained phenomena, and that as of yet we could only dream about how to utilize. This hidden or inner-world of electricity and its associated principles and mechanisms I have coined in my research as Displacement, and which I suspect has a completely different set of characteristics to those we currently know in the field of electricity. On this basis I would assert that this "negative resistance" phenomenon observed in my reported experiment cannot be explained or accounted for using our current knowledge of the magnetic and dielectric fields of induction, or to say it another way, from our current understanding of this outer-form of electricity. All my current research is orientated towards uncovering and understanding more about Displacement, and I believe Tesla spent much of the latter part of his work studying the same underlying principles and mechanisms, most of which it seems he never shared.

                      Since negative reactance, while well accepted, appears insufficient to explain the results, this in turn indicates the experiment potentially achieved "negative resistance" in the most literal sense of the word. If this is so, then one wonders what your PhD thesis advisors would think if they could see where your work had led you...
                      This is indeed another interesting point, my experience of modern science is that it considers most of the field of macroscopic (classical) electromagnetism to be fully explained and accounted for, whereas I believe we are only at the very beginning of uncovering the inner-principles of electricity, and its associated phenomena. Principles that will be radically different from what we currently understand from the outer magnetic and dielectric fields of induction, and that in time will lead to a far more inclusive, coherent, inter-dependent, and encompassing experience of some of life's most fundamental principles. For me Marcus science cannot, and should not, be separated from the deeper philosophy, as so many of the researchers and experimenters from antiquity understood so very clearly. As you say, quite a journey so far from where I began in scientific research all those years ago.

                      Best wishes,
                      Adrian

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