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  • aminnovations
    replied
    Hi Marcus,

    The AC impedance of the CSG circuit is dominated by the resistive component as shown by the network analyzer scans in the experiment, and is driven at the UK line frequency of 50Hz. For all intents and purposes the circuit appears resistive at low frequency. I do not think AC impedance effects are having a significant impact in this experiment.

    I don't think it can be argued that the observed phenomena results from a relatively high impedance of the short circuit, as from my perspective the active source of the change in impedance occurs in the CSG and not at the short circuit. The short circuit appears to remain constant impedance in all configurations of the circuit in the experiment. The active change in the circuit impedance results from the transitions through the negative resistance region of the CSG, where clearly the resistive part of the impedance is changing very dramatically according to bias point and non-linear transient drive. If you remove the CSG from the circuit you will not see any interesting phenomena in the circuit at all, especially at the low drive frequency.

    The Tesla hairpin circuit is a very high impedance at DC since it has two blocking capacitors feeding the pins. When spark discharge driven the impedance of the hairpin falls dramatically according to its impulse frequency response, and the loads presented to the the hairpin circuit. The unusual phenomena in the hairpin circuit for me result from the non-linear drive and the boundary conditions presented to the dielectric and magnetic fields of induction. It is a good suggestion, I should start an experimental sequence to look carefully at the phenomenon and measurements associated with the Tesla hairpin circuit.

    Best wishes,
    Adrian

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  • Marcus Neuhof
    replied
    Dear Adrian,
    That is a very interesting perspective. It is perhaps worth clarifying that we are discussing AC impedance, and not DC resistance, yes?

    Since it is AC impedance which is under consideration, could it not be argued that the reduction is due not to any abnormally low impedance of the CSG, but rather due to the (relatively speaking) high impedance of the short circuit?

    The "Tesla hairpin circuit" is, after all, a famous demonstration of the high impedance which a short circuit may be made to present.

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  • aminnovations
    replied
    Hi Marcus,

    Originally posted by Marcus Neuhof View Post

    Dear Adrian,
    Thank you for the fascinating and well described (as usual!) experimental work. I find your results very noteworthy:


    What potential explanations do you see for the phenomena of reducing impedance below that of a short circuit?
    Your question has enabled me to expand the conclusions section of the web page with my considerations as to the possible underlying source of the observed phenomenon. I have added the following:

    "... From this it is clear that to utilise the unsual properties of negative resistance they must be combined with a non-linear impetus, which also suggests a process that may be related to underlying displacement events. It is always in the presence of a non-linear condition that the mechanism of displacement can be engaged or observable within the electrical properties. It appears to surface in non-linear scenarios where the boundaries of the dielectric and magnetic fields of induction would lead to a discontinuous condition in the electrical properties of the circuit. It is conjectured that displacement appears to "act" in order to rebalance this discontinuous condition and restore dynamic equilibrium between the induction fields within the circuit.

    With regard to the phenomenon observed in this experiment, it is conjectured that the apparent reduction in circuit impedance below that of a short-circuit primarily results from a coherent inter-action between the dielectric and magnetic fields of induction. The analogy is drawn to both the superconducting state in metals at low temperature[7,8], and also to ballistic electron transport in a high mobility electron gas[9], also at low temperature. In the case of the superconducting state two electrons became weakly bound together through exchange of a lattice phonon. In so doing they form Cooper pairs where the coherent phonon exchange extends across the entire material on a macroscopic scale. This coherent phonon exchange, and subsequent binding together of Cooper pairs, leads to a band-gap opening in the conduction band of the material, and hence electron-pairs can traverse the dimenion of the material without scattering in this band. In this way conduction of a current via electron movement through the superconducting material has zero resistance, and is considered to be coherent.

    In the second case of ballistic electron transport, the electronic energy band structure of the semiconductor is so arranged to provide a quantum well, narrower than the phonon wave number, at the fermi level within the well. This confines electrons to a 2D sheet in the well, reducing scattering and increasing the mean free path. Further confinement laterally leads to a 1D wire where the scattering with the lattice is further reduced and the mean free path of an electron becomes longer than the injection contacts at either end of material. In this case, and at low temperature, electrons can travel ballistically from one terminal to the other (e.g. in a quantum wire channel). The ballistic conduction reduces the resistance between the contacts below that normally expected for the diffusive condition, since the scattering with the lattice has been reduced to a point where the electron path between the contacts can be considered as coherent.

    In both of these analogies reduction in impedance of the transmission medium is considered the result of a coherent conduction process. In the experiment reported here I conjecture that the reduction in impedance results from the coherent inter-action of the dielectric and magnetic fields of induction, where that coherent configuration is brought about by a displacement event. The displacement event is in itself revealed through the non-linear drive to the experiment, and "mixed" through the negative resistance properties of the CSG. The final product of the displacement event through the negative resistance characteristics, is to re-balance the electrical dynamics of the circuit by coherently aligning the dielectric and magnetic fields of induction yielding a reduced circuit impedance. This conjecture, based on the results so far, requires considerable further work to establish its scope of validity, and would also ideally benefit from a suitable mathematical treatment, when such a form of mathematics is available to describe the properties and processes under exploration."

    All work in progress.

    Best wishes,
    Adrian

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  • Marcus Neuhof
    replied
    t-rex You may find the following video interviews of interest. Catt describes himself as having made the first advancement on Heaviside's work in the 50 years after Heaviside published:

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  • Marcus Neuhof
    replied
    Originally posted by aminnovations View Post
    Hi,

    I have added a new post to my website, this is the first in a series exploring negative resistance and associated phenomena:

    http://www.am-innovations.com/negati...scharge-part-1

    Negative resistance is a feature of the I-V characteristic of a discharge between two electrodes, and if correctly utilised can lead to unusual electrical phenomena within an electrical circuit. In this first part on this topic we explore the I-V properties of the negative resistance (NR) region of a carbon electrode spark gap (CSG), or carbon-arc gap. When the CSG is biased into the correct region, and combined with a switched (non-linear) impetus from the generator, the impedance of the circuit can be seen to reduce from the conventional short-circuit case, increasing the current in the circuit and intensifying the light emitted from an incandescent lamp load.
    Dear Adrian,
    Thank you for the fascinating and well described (as usual!) experimental work. I find your results very noteworthy:
    by operating the CSG around the abnormal glow region of its characteristcs more power is drawn in through the line supply, reflecting a reduction in impedance in the experimental circuit below that of the normal short-circuit impedance at the CSG electrodes or through the vacuum relay.
    What potential explanations do you see for the phenomena of reducing impedance below that of a short circuit?

    Leave a comment:


  • thaelin
    replied
    Just got back from ESTC and found out that all the pics of the music Dollard showed were blurry. Can some one direct me to the name of the sheets he used? I am trying to re-create the sounds he played here on my kb. I know it was a Fuge and in C. Thanks much

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  • aminnovations
    replied
    Hi,

    I have added a new post to my website, this is the first in a series exploring negative resistance and associated phenomena:

    http://www.am-innovations.com/negati...scharge-part-1

    Negative resistance is a feature of the I-V characteristic of a discharge between two electrodes, and if correctly utilised can lead to unusual electrical phenomena within an electrical circuit. In this first part on this topic we explore the I-V properties of the negative resistance (NR) region of a carbon electrode spark gap (CSG), or carbon-arc gap. When the CSG is biased into the correct region, and combined with a switched (non-linear) impetus from the generator, the impedance of the circuit can be seen to reduce from the conventional short-circuit case, increasing the current in the circuit and intensifying the light emitted from an incandescent lamp load.

    The experimental work investigates aspects of the following:

    1. A qualitative observation of the discharge produced in the CSG when biased into different regions of the I-V characteristic, including open-circuit, short-circuit, abnormal glow, and arc discharge regions.

    2. Adjusting and biasing the spark gap into the abnormal glow region to utilise the negative resistance properties within the electrical circuit.

    3. The change in impedance of the circuit when switched between short-circuit conduction and spark gap discharge.

    4. The change in circuit current and dissipated power in the load with switched impedance, and the effect on the input power to the generator from the line supply.

    5. A comparison of adjusting and biasing the circuit when driven from a non-linear transient input, and a linear sinusoidal.

    6. Measurement of the generator output using an oscilloscope both in the non-linear and sinusoidal cases, and showing the switching transients generated when the CSG is biased into the negative resistance region.

    7. An experimental investigation of the I-V characteristics of the CSG using a Tektronix 576 curve tracer.

    Best wishes,
    Adrian

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  • t-rex
    replied
    VI

    In reference to Figure 1d:

    The fundamental quantity of electric induction, ρ, in C.G.S. units of Maxwell-Coulomb, is represented as the product of the magnetic induction, φ, in Maxwell, contained in the bound electric medium, and of the dielectric induction, ψ, in C.G.S. Coulomb, contained in the bound electric medium.

    Alternately, the electromagnetic induction, ρ, in C.G.S. units of Planck, is divisible into a pair of fundamental constituents, the magnetic induction, φ, in Maxwell, and the dielectric induction, ψ, in C.G.S. Coulomb, both united within the bound electric medium.
    figure-1e.jpg


    In reference to Figure 1e:

    The magnetic induction, φ, in the steady, or magneto-static, state is the product of the conduction current, i, in Amperes, and the magnetic inductance, L, in Henrys, presented by the boundary condition and the character of the medium in which it is immersed. Hereby, the magnetic inductance is given in the units of Ampere-Henry.

    The magnetic induction, φ, in a transient, or electro-magnetic, state is represented as the product of its electro-motive force, E, in volts, and the span of time, τ, seconds, in which the magnetism is in a transitional state. Hereby, the units of magnetic induction, φ, are given as Volt-Second.

    The dielectric induction, ψ, in the steady, or electro-static, state is represented as the product of its electro-static potential, e, in volts, and the dielectric capacitance, C, in Farads, presented by the boundary condition and the character of the medium in which it is immersed. Hereby, the units of dielectric induction, ψ, are given as Volt-Farad.

    The dielectric induction, ψ, in the transient, or magneto-electric, state is represented as the product of its displacement current, I, in amperes, and the span of time, τ, seconds, in which the dielectricity is in a transitional state. Hereby, the units of dielectric induction, ψ, are given as Ampere-Second.

    It should be borne in mind that a specific distinction exists here among the terms; Electric, electromagnetic, electro-magnetic, and magneto-electric.

    The term “electric” denotes the general presence of both a field of magnetic induction and a field of dielectric induction, which both may, or may not, be present at, or in, the same time, τ, or space, λ, respectively.

    The term “electromagnetic” denotes the specific union of a field of magnetic induction with a field of dielectric induction, both of which are unified in the same time, τ, and space, λ, presenting a proportionality of velocity, V, in centimeters per second.

    The term “electro-magnetic” denotes the electrification derived from a transitional field of magnetic induction, and as such it is a magnetic phenomenon.

    The term “magneto-electric” denotes the magnetization derived from a transitional field of dielectric induction, and as such it is a dielectric phenomenon.

    In general, a composite of these four specific conditions will represent, for practical consideration, any and all electric phenomena involved in the process of electric transmission. These elements, given in Figure 1f, will serve the basis for the mathematical analysis that follows.
    figure-1f.jpg

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  • t-rex
    replied
    V

    For the purpose of analysis the two primary aspects of the electric field, ρ, that is, the magnetic, φ, and the dielectric, ψ, are sub-divided into their secondary aspects as follows:

    The magnetic field in the steady state is represented by a pair of constituents; the magneto-static potential, i, and the magnetic inductance, L.

    The magnetic field in the transient state is represented by another pair of constituents; the electro-motive force, E, and its duration, the time span, τ.

    The dielectric field in the steady state is represented by a pair of constituents; the electro-static potential, e, and the dielectric capacitance, C.

    The dielectric field in the transient state is represented by another pair of constituents; the displacement current, I, and its duration, the time span, τ.

    The magnetic inductance, L, commonly known as the magnetic energy coefficient, represents the capacity for magnetism exhibited by that boundary condition defined by the geometric placement of the line conductors as well as the magnetic properties, μ, of the medium in which they are immersed.

    The dielectric capacitance, C, commonly known as the dielectric energy coefficient, represents the capacity for dielectricity exhibited by that boundary condition defined by the geometric placement of the line conductors as well as the dielectric properties, η, of the medium in which they are immersed.

    It is a common misunderstanding that the magnetic inductance and the dielectric capacitance represent distinct and separate entities. However, just as with the magnetic induction, φ, and the dielectric induction, ψ, it is, L and C together represent conjugate aspects of an indivisible line geometry and an indivisible electric medium in which it is immersed.

    The magneto-static potential, i, presents itself as the pondermotice force, fm, of the magnetism contained by the boundary condition of the line conductors, this force acting upon these conductors. This potential is commonly portrayed as a conduction current within the line conductors and its magnitude exists in proportion to the quantity of bound magnetism.

    It must be borne in mind however, that this current, as well as its force, are inseparable from the magnetism itself, all being aspects of a unified magnetic phenomenon.

    The electro-static potential, e, also presents itself as the pondermotive force, fd, of the dielectricity contained by the boundary condition of the line conductors, this force also acting upon these conductors. This potential is considered to be associated with the so-called “charge” upon the conductors and its magnitude exists in proportion to the quantity of bound dielectricity.

    As with the potential, i, this potential, e, is inseparable from the electrification as well as the force, all being interrelated aspects of a unified dielectric phenomenon.

    The electro-motive force, E, represents an energetic reaction to a variation of the magnetism bounded by the line conductors. This so-called force acts upon the elements of conduction within the substance of the line conductors, and it behaves in the manner of inertia. It thus can be considered the “inertia of magnetism”.

    The displacement current, I, represents an energetic reaction to a variation of the electrification bounded by the line conductors. This so-called current acts in the space bounded by the line conductors, and it behaves in the manner of an elastance. It thus can be considered the “elastance of electrification”.

    The electro-motive force, E, is proportional to the time rate, τ, at which energy, Wm, is taken from, or given to, the magnetic field bound by the line conductors. Likewise, the displacement current, I, is proportional to the time rate, τ, at which energy, Wd, is given to, or taken from, the dielectric field bound by the line conductors.

    While it is that the conduction current, i, and the displacement current, I, are both given in the units of the ampere, it is incorrect to consider them one in the same, although this misunderstanding is commonplace. The conduction current resides within the line conductors, and the displacement current resides external to the line conductors. It is only at the boundary set by the surface of the conductors that the two currents unite.

    Likewise, while it is that the electro-static potential, e, and the electro-motive force, E, are both given in the units of the volt, it is incorrect to consider them one in the same, although this misunderstanding is commonplace. The electro-static potential resides external to the line conductors, and the electro-motive force resides within the line conductors [12].

    With these established set of parameters, constants, and coefficients it is hereby possible to perform the mathematical analysis of electric transmission. It must be remarked however, of all these factors which take part in the transmission process, it is only the potentials, the magnetic, i, and the dielectric, e, which yield to actual physical measurement as a consequence of the pondermotive forces they exert upon gross physical matter. It is through their actions that the general understanding of the phenomena of electricity has been arrived at. The precise definition of electricity still is an unknown.




    References

    [12] A History Of The Theories Of Aether & Electricity, From The Age Of Descartes To The Close Of The 19th Century, 1910, E. T. Whittaker, page 366.

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  • t-rex
    replied
    IV

    Figure 1c portrays the general character of the transient electromagnetic impulse, ρ. In this idealized representation this impulse is a slab of electric fluid which freely glides over the surface of the line conductors. This slab is affixed by the so-called conductors to the boundary condition established by the conductor geometry. Its differential length, λ, on the line is established by the properties of the electric medium, μη, in which the line is immersed, this in relation to the duration time, τ, established by the subset network. The proportionality existing between this differential length and its corresponding duration time established a fictitious velocity of propagation, V, at which this transient impulse travels toward the C.O. end of the line. This propagation is actually a continuous step by step process in time, and it bears a certain analogy to a procession of falling dominoes, one element striking the next and so forth in a sequential manner.

    The element of time involved in the initiation of this transient impulse is affixed to it in the course of its travel. The start time, t, rides along this travel and accordingly time is at a standstill within the span of this impulse. Behind the impulse, time is advancing toward the point of initiation at the subset, this origination point existing in “present time”. Present time advanced as the travelling impulse gains in distance from its positional origin.

    In the centre of Figure 1a will be noticed an elemental square area inset into the special distribution of electric conduction. This is shown greatly enlarged by Figure 1d. Due to the infinitesimal size of this elemental area, all magnetic lines, φ, in red, are straight vertical lines, and all dielectric lines, ψ, in green, are straight horizontal lines. Everywhere in the space surrounding the line conductors the magnetic and dielectric lines are crosswise with respect to each other, this being a fundamental law of electromagnetism. The electromagnetic composite, ρ, is directed perpendicular to the plane occupied by the crosswise magnetic and dielectric lines, and this direction is co-linear with the path of propagation. It is commonly stated that all three of these directed quantities, φ, ψ and ρ, exist in a mutually orthogonal relation in space [11].
    figure-1d.jpg




    At the juncture of these three directed quantities the fundamental corpuscle of electromagnetism resides. It is within this corpuscle that the energy of magnetism is interchanged with the energy of dielectricity, that is, magnetism, φ, is consumed to produce dielectricity, ψ, or conversely, dielectricity, ψ, is consumed to produce magnetism, φ. It is only when this interchange is in its process that the phenomenon of electromagnetism manifests. This corpuscle will hence be called the “Planck”, a quantum quantity of electromagnetic induction.

    The lifespan of the Planck is that time interval, τ, in which the energy contained by one field is converted into the energy contained by the other field. Thereafter, at an elemental distance, λ, the interchange process again takes place within a subsequent corpuscle with has another equal time span, τ. This sequential process is directed along the path of propagation established by the bounding line conductors.

    The incremental proportionality between the sequential distance, λ, and the lifespan time, τ, gives an apparent velocity, V, of the electromagnetic propagation along the length of the line conductors. It must be emphasized that this so-called velocity is fictional, and in reality it only represents a certain process existing the units of magnetism and the units of dielectricity.



    References

    [11] A History Of The Theories Of Aether & Electricity, From The Age Of Descartes To The Close Of The 19th Century, 1910, E. T. Whittaker, page 349.

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  • Aaron
    replied
    LIVE CALL WITH ERIC DOLLARD TOMORROW

    NEW CALL SCHEDULED FOR SATURDAY, JUNE 27, NOON PACIFIC TIME: Just call this number in the United States: +1 (857) 232-0155 and enter this code: 582590

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  • Marcus Neuhof
    replied
    I will not be able to join the call, but I would be interested in hearing Eric's thoughts on the Goliath system, because it is said to be a more advanced form of the Alexanderson design, and because it is still currently in use as a proper radio station (not a museum):

    Originally posted by https://www.nonstopsystems.com/radio/hellschreiber-mil-tx-rx.htm#goliath
    The Kriegsmarine used the Hell-system with an LF/VLF transmitter that was absolutely gigantic, both in terms of size of the antenna system and output power. It was appropriately named Goliath, and was used for world-wide broadcast to (submerged) submarines. In its time, it was by far (!) the world's most powerful vacuum tube transmitter with tunable frequency: up to 1 Megawatt at 15-60 kHz. Ref. 24A-1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8/9/10. There were 12 crystal-controlled frequencies ( = very stable), in addition to the freely tunable frequency range. Below 19 kHz, the output power had to be reduced, as the narrow bandwidth of the antenna system ( = high Q-factor) caused excessive voltages.

    [..]

    The Goliath antenna and transmitter installations were located just outside the town of Calbe-an-der-Milde (Calbe on the river Milde), about 135 km (≈85 mi) west-northwest of Berlin, and ca. 65 km (≈40 mi) north of Magdeburg. In 1952, Calbe was renamed to "Kalbe", to avoid confusion with the town of Calbe-an-der-Saale (Calbe on the river Saale), ca. 30 km south of Magdeburg. The location was primarily selected because of the properties of the local soil being unusually conducive to VLF propagation. Construction of Goliath took 27 months, and was completed during the spring of 1943. Allegedly, construction of the installation (terrain, buildings, antennas, etc.) may have cost as much as 15 million Reichsmark. The transmitter was developed and constructed by C. Lorenz A.G. of Berlin-Tempelhof. Lorenz became part of the American company International Telephone and Telegraph (I.T.T.) in 1930. In 1948, the name was changed to Standard Elektrik Lorenz (SEL). Goliath was never the target of Allied bombing raids - very likely because the Allies enjoyed eavesdropping on the (encrypted) messages of the Kriegsmarine.

    [..]

    The 15-60 kHz operating frequency range of Goliath is equivalent to a wavelength range of 5-20 km (≈3-12 mi). This implies very large antennas. The Goliath "antenna farm" comprised three top-loaded monopole antennas (TLMAs), spaced 800 m (½ mi). They are sometimes referred to as a new variation on the 1920s Alexanderson-antenna (ref. 24D-2). The standard Alexanderson configuration with a straight line of T-antennas (as installed at, e.g., Nauen and Grimeton) had been found to be much too inefficient (only 10%) at the desired operating frequencies.

    The monopole antennas of Goliath were 204 m tall (≈670 ft), about 2/3 the height of the Eiffel tower. Each of these antennas was a zinc-plated steel tube-mast ("Stahlrohrmast") with a diameter of 1.7 m (≈6 ft). The base of each tube-mast was insulated from ground with two large porcelain insulators, each with a large metal collar. This provided 300 kV isolation even during rain. This approach was patented (ref. 24D-7) by Hein, Lehman & Co., Eisenkonstruktionen, Brücken- und Signalbau of Berlin-Reinickendorf, incorporated in 1888 (sheet metal, steel constructions, bridges, railway signals, hangars for "Zeppelin" dirigibles). Ref. 24D-4. This company had a department ("Abt. Funkbau") that constructed and installed (very) large antenna masts and towers ("Funkmaste", "Funktürme"), primarily for Telefunken. E.g., the Funkturm (radio tower) in Berlin-Charlottenburg (1926), the antennas for the Langwellensender at Lahti/Finland (1928), at Nauen/Germany, Kootwijk/The Netherlands, and Sidney/Australia.

    [..]

    The Goliath antenna radiator of 204 m is quite large compared to human scale, but extremely small (≈1%) with respect to the wavelength of Goliath transmissions (5-20 km!). This gives the antenna a large capacitive reactance at the feed point. To counteract this, and increase antenna efficiency, the antennas were equipped with an enormous top-loading "hat" ("Dachkapazität") at the top, and a very extensive ground system. Each radiator had a hexagonal "hat" comprising six sets of six radial wires. The radial wires of the Goliath "hats" were aluminium cables (2.5 cm (1 inch) diameter), strengthened with a steel cable at the core. Combined length of the radials was about 50 km (≈31 mi). These wires look like the ribs of an umbrella. Hence this type of antenna is also called an umbrella-antenna ("Schirmantenne").

    Each of the the antenna radiators had a variable tuning coil. These vertically installed coils were enormous variometers. They comprised a fixed coil with a diameter of 3.5 m (≈11½ft). A slightly smaller coil (3.2 m diameter) could be inserted hydraulically into this stationary, with a precision of 0.1 mm! The coils were 5 m tall (16 ft) and weighed about 5000 kg (11k lbs). The winding of the fixed coil was made of 7x50 mm2 Litz wire, whereas the movable coil had 42 turns of of 7x50 mm2 Litz wire. The main tuning coil, similarly massive, was housed in the transmitter building. A frequency change was a two-man job, and took about 5 minutes. The building with the tuning coils was fully screened with aluminium sheet metal. The losses induced by Eddy currents amounted to 50 kW (much more than coil lossses!). An automatic ventilation system was used to remove the heat.

    To support the radials of the top-loading "hat", there were six truss-masts (lattice masts, "Gittermast") for each of the three radiator masts. By sharing support masts, their total number was reduced from 18 to 15. The truss-masts were 170 m (558 ft) tall, and had a triangular cross-section with sides of 3 m (≈10 ft). These masts were grounded and had no RF function. The radials were also insulated from these masts. All tube- and truss-masts were stayed with guy wires at three heights and in three directions. This type of antenna was later also used for VLF long-distance radio navigation systems such as OMEGA and LORAN-C.

    The antenna system included an extensive of system of buried ground radials. There were four sections of 204 radials each. According to the Lorenz company, the total length of the radials was at least 350 km (≈220 mi; ref. 45). Other sources mention as much as 465 km (according to the construction supervisor, architect R. Breither, the latter may have included the feed lines; ref. 24A-1). The radials were made of zinc-plated steel bands (20 cm x 2 mm and 30 cm x 2 mm), at a depth of 30-40 cm. At this point in the war, copper had become scarce. Solder joints were zinc-plated with a mobile galvanizing unit. To increase the effectiveness of the ground radials, the soil was kept moist. There were ditches and a dozen ponds that served as water reservoirs for irrigation. Ref. 45.

    The complete antenna system had a very (!) impressive efficiency: 47% on15 kHz, and as much as 90% on 60 kHz.

    [..]

    The US army reached the Goliath site on 11 April 1945. They used it as a prisoner-of-war (POW) camp (ref. 24A-8, 24A-10). Towards the end of May 1945, it was handed off to the British. Based on the Yalta Treaty, the area was in the Soviet-controlled zone, and the Soviets took over at the beginning of July 1945. The POW-camp was dissolved at the end of that same month. The Soviets had the Goliath installation repaired and tested. It was fully dismantled by April 1947 and shipped to Russia in over 3000 (!) rail wagons. The equipment sat in storage depots near Leningrad (renamed back to its original name St. Petersburg in1991) for several years (ref. 24A-16). By 1952, it was rebuilt near Druzhnyy, about 18 km south of Gorky (some 150 km east of Moscow, and renamed Nizhny Novgorod (= "Nizhny Newtown") in 1990). The Druzhnyy area presumably has similar soil conditions as at Calbe. It is still operated to this day (2016) by the Russian navy, who use it for communication with submarines (surprise!) and to transmit time signals (station RJH99).


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  • Aaron
    replied
    If you have questions for Eric, please ask on the live call tomorrow:


    ​​​​​
    NEW CALL SCHEDULED FOR SATURDAY, MAY 30, NOON PACIFIC TIME: Just call this number in the United States: +1 (857) 232-0155 and enter this code: 582590



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  • Spells Of Truth
    replied
    3 quick questions
    1) Has Eric ever considered completely eliminating fractions and decimals from all of his math? It would greatly simplify the mathematics. The golden ratio is 1 without fractions and decimals. Two quantities are in the golden ratio if their ratio is the same as the ratio of their sum to the larger of the two quantities. This is not the case when using fractional/decimal math. Modern math claims the golden ratio is 1.618. The golden ratio is when a (largenumber+smallnumber) / largenumber = largenumber / smallnumber and with fractions and decimals it is never once equal to 1.61803398875, you can test this with a simple computer program script and the only time it happens is when the significant figures (precision) are very low, without low precision it never happens. I wrote a post about it. This means 7 and 4 are in golden ratio, 7 and 5, 7 and 6. 11/7=1 7/4=1 11/7=7/4, 12/7=1 7/5=1 12/7=7/5, 13/7=1 7/6=1 13/7=7/6 This is where the variation in nature comes from, not from fractions but from the golden ratio 1, because we are all 1 universal being, everything is rooted in 1. I am still working my way thru fleshing this concept out. Many old computers like the apple 2 and old calculators would do all of its math without fractions and decimals (without floating point). The algorithms were faster than when using fractions and decimals. Its how alot of calculators handle high precision calculations. They seem to be using log 2 not ln to do the calculations. Natural logarithm is 2.718, but logarithm related to nature wouldn't need to specifically point out the word 'natural' in its name. Logarithm is 2 and its implied that its natural because the Greeks related their math to reality. I am in the process of trying to prove log2 is the actual natural logarithm, and that pi is 4 without fractions and decimals. Its not the ratio of the circumference to the diameter but the ratio of the perimeter of the enclosing square around the circle to the diameter. Perhaps this could help simplify Erics versor algebra. Instead of using E= (1+1/n)^n instead use E=(1+n)^n and then its a series of factorials not inverse factorials, instead of E=1/0!+1/1!+1/2!+1/3!...infinity it becomes E=1!+2!+3!...infinity. Both methods do the same thing, except the method without fractions and decimals greatly reduces the complexity and is lightning fast to calculate on computers, its related to how calculators can perform high precision math(they convert it back to decimals after doing the calculation in nondecimals).

    2) Has Eric ever considered flipping the name of his counterspace idea to 'spacecounter'? Applying mathematics without fractions and decimals, Erics 'counterspace' simply becomes 'spacecounter'. Space is the number of spacecounters, space counters are the smallest unit of measurement(aka what your counting with, your space counter). Space counters are the smallest unit of measurement. In counterspace there is span, density, and concentration iirc. Those three concepts are essentially the smallest unit of measurement for calculating their respective spaces(distance,area,volume). Space counters makes counterspace less complex and very intuitive, This would simplify Erics equations greatly. Everything hinges on the mind parasite of fractions and decimals, they are completely unnecessary, so much math, engineering, and science is unnecessarily complex because of fractions and decimals(also 0, 0 is only useful as a placeholder, there are no numbers in between 0 and 1).

    3) Has Eric ever heard of the engineer John Worrell Keely from the late 1800s? He too based his machines on music, but his machines were based on the principal of vibrations within the ether not electricity. I suspect electricity is created from vibrations in the ether, just like everything in existence, with everything being rooted in the one universal being. Keely was like Walter Russel if walter russel actually built stuff. Russels drawings are interesting and fun to look at and most of his theories are correct but that dude rambles on and on endlessly repeating himself in different ways. Keely actually made stuff using something akin to russels ideas, russel didnt make much. Keely is the only person in recent history that seemed to use a system of math without fractions and decimals (unconfirmed but I heavily suspect it from what I read so far). The ancient greeks did as well but most of that info is heavily suppressed.

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  • HaroldNesland
    replied
    In the recent live call with you and Eric, I discussed sharing some circuital schematics for an instrument to measure "sidereal radiation" and extraterrestrial electrical phenomena as they related to our electrical environment. It has occured to me before writing this even that you have a lot more time and experience accumulated into investigating electrical phenomena and the like, so if this is once again a repeat of information here or that you've already read, I am sorry. I had read about the electrometer originally in the book "Defying Gravity: The Parallel Universe of T. Townsend Brown", referring to scholastic, naval and federal funding for experiments such as to retry the Trouton-Noble experiment supervised by Dr William Francis Gray Swann through the Franklin Institute Laboratories for Research and Development, and it was described as one of the first stations to measure, from my understanding, dielectric constant and resistance variations (of copper for instance) within our environment. The book is quite lengthy roughly 500 pages and speculates quite a bit from a similarly uneducated view of what potentially he could have been working towards.

    Upon further research, the building in which the aforementioned electrometer was located was the Banks-Huntley located is currently occupied by the "mexican american legal defense and educational fund". From my investigations as to why, the second basement where it was reportedly located had 20 foot thick concrete walls acting as an insulation towards electrical activity, making it an ideal environment to study the phenomena. In 1996 the Southern California Edison company donated $250,000 towards the renovation of the building for MALDEF.
    https://www.latimes.com/archives/la-...496-story.html

    I unfortunately am still not educated nor experienced enough to understand the totality of what's available online for the diagrams, but rather than waste Eric's time mailing him a large packet of information to pilfer through, I figured I'd post what materials were available here and directly link the page information. Unfortunately, most of the content is pertaining to electrogravitic propulsion instead of detection of cosmic rays and electrical environments. That being said, there are tidbits.

    Electrometer Studies:
    http://www.rexresearch.com/brown1/brown1.htm starting at Page 15, (5). "Shift of Capacitance Mid-Point" describes a primitive measurement device with circuit diagram. The discussion continues at Page 90, (51.) Shift of Capacitance Mid-Point in relation to measuring said phenomena with a circuit diagram.
    http://www.rexresearch.com/brown2/brown2.htm starting at page 46 (Entry 97) he begins discussion of both the rotary and a linear electrometer in regards to detecting the 'radiation' and begins discussion relating the Miller ether drift experiments to the data he has collected, denouncing the narrative of standard relativitists in regards to the experiment.

    http://www.thomastownsendbrown.com/stress/egdonr.htm Here starting from 2.4) is discussion relating to a proposed communications device with schematic. The information here pertaining to the electrometer starts at 5)

    Communications device:
    https://starburstfound.org/aerospace...interhaven.pdf On Page 10 (pdf page 18/66) A reference is made "induction between systems of capacitors involving propagation and reception of gravitational waves" describing what my naive/untrained mind is what Eric refers to as longitudinal magneto-dielectric waves.
    --- "Radiation is more penetrating than radio (has been observed to pass readily through steel shielding and more than 15 feet of concrete), In 1952 a short-range transmitting and receiving system was completed and demonstrated in Los Angeles. Transmission of an actual message was obtained between two rooms - a distance of approximately 35 feet. Transmission was easily obtained through what was believed to be adequate electromagnetic shielding, but this test must bear repeating under more rigorous control."
    The discussion as to communications continues through page 15.
    Pages marked 23-25 further discuss possible implementation of the communications. I am unsure of what Thomas Townsend Brown's idea of gravitational waves were, I'm only confident that he expressed their reality through networks of dielectrics and or capacitors.
    http://www.thomastownsendbrown.com/ecomm/ecomm.htm I do not believe that there was a patent granted, if there was I can not find it, nor the patent art.
    http://www.thomastownsendbrown.com/t...rown_11-55.pdf Page 3 starts to further discuss the ideology behind the creation and implementation/experimentation with the electrometer.

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