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  • Marcus Neuhof
    replied
    Originally posted by Aaron View Post

    They're all rip offs of Eric's original design. Most if not all are not using the correct proportions but that doesn't automatically invalidate if they work or not but there is something to the golden ratio proportions.
    A colleague was able to perform some rudimentary measurements of a Dollard-style golden ratio antenna using a vector network analyser, similar to but no doubt of lower quality than Adrian's instruments. It was observed that the antenna produced two sets of golden ratio harmonics such that
    f_a1, f_a2, ... f_an = N * phi
    while
    f_b1, f_b2, ... f_bn = M * phi

    If there is interest I will try to obtain the full results.

    Leave a comment:


  • Marcus Neuhof
    replied
    Originally posted by aminnovations View Post
    In reality a low inductance ground system has an impedance transformation between the coil, the inter-connecting transmission line, and within the ground system itself. These should be arranged to minimise power reflections and losses, as should the impedance transformation between the generator and primary, primary to secondary, secondary to extra coil, secondary to single-wire etc.
    How is this done in coils? I am generally familiar with the use of graduation in e.g microwave antenna theory to provide smooth impedance transition from the 50-ohm line to 377-ohm free space impedance, but the coil-wire-ground-wire-coil system does not seem to admit of much opportunity to provide gradual impedance transitions between the components.

    As the designed harmonic goes up the inter-action between the two reduces dramatically, however also the energy that can be coupled to that harmonic also goes down rapidly. The third harmonic appears to be the best balance between minimising the frequency shift of the secondary, whilst maximising the energy coupled from the secondary coil to the extra.
    That is very interesting. I do not recall seeing any discussion of the third harmonic in relation to the extra coil in the literature, so it is possible you are the first to publish on this point.

    You mean -10dBm, yes? That is quite a good result.
    No, I mean 10dBm, although this is only from a single experimental test. I have still have a lot of measurements, experiments, and tests to do before drawing conclusions, and writing-up and reporting on Telluric transference of electric power.
    I am looking forward to your further publications on this topic. In particular since our earlier discussions concerned the necessity of disruptive excitation in producing this class of phenomena, but you appear to have observed it with what I assume is continuous wave excitation.

    The longitudinal in this case is spatially coherent because both induction fields act in the same direction as propagation. The undifferentiated dielectric and magnetic fields of induction act and are as one together in displacement, which is a fully coherent state both temporally and spatially.
    Temporal and spatial coherence being a property associated with sine waves, you are saying this phenomena disappears when the coil is excited with a disruptive discharge? Or is it that the coil's transformation of the disruptive discharge into a sine-shaped waveform which is a precondition to the observed phenomena?

    Additionally, I am somewhat confused by your characterisation of the dielectric and magnetic fields "acting ... in displacement" since it was my understanding that displacement is a dielectric phenomena.

    The lower resonant frequency fL and upper resonant frequency fu do not originate from the same resonant circuit, so they are not harmonics of the same resonator. In this case fL (the lower parallel mode) results from the secondary coil, whereas fu (the upper parallel mode) results from the primary.
    Ah, I see. Thank you for taking the time to reply!

    Leave a comment:


  • aminnovations
    replied
    Hi,

    I have added a new post to my website on:

    Cylindrical Coil Input Impedance – TC and TMT Z11

    http://www.am-innovations.com/cylind...tc-and-tmt-z11

    In the first part of this post I take a detailed look at the small signal ac input impedance Z11 for a cylindrical Tesla coil and TMT system, looking at the series and parallel resonance modes that are characteristic to this type of system. In the second part I go on to use the measured Z11 to take a detailed look at the matching requirements for different types of generators to the cylindrical coil system, and the advantages and limitations of these generators when applied to the exploration of the properties and phenomena of electricity.

    The post includes two video experiments covering:

    1. The small signal ac input impedance Z11 of a series-fed cylindrical secondary coil with no coupled primary coil.

    2. Z11 for a parallel-fed cylindrical primary coil with a parallel vacuum variable tuning capacitor, and no coupled secondary coil.

    3. Z11 for a cylindrical Tesla coil primary fed with a bottom-end connected single wire extension on the secondary coil.

    4. Z11 when changing the distance between the primary and secondary coils, and hence the coupling between the two coils.

    5. Balanced impedance tuning for the upper and lower parallel point frequencies of a cylindrical Tesla coil.

    6. Z11 for a Complete TMT system in the near-field to close mid-field region, with a cylindrical transmitter coil and receiver coil, and bottom-end connected with a low impedance single wire transmission medium.

    7. Optimum balanced tuning for the cavity of a TMT through adjustment of transmitter and receiver primary capacitor, and transmitter and receiver coupling.

    8. Optimum tuning of the TMT system with an incandescent lamp load on the output of the cylindrical receiver coil primary.

    Best wishes,
    Adrian

    Leave a comment:


  • Aaron
    replied
    Pics are posted at the previous post thru the link above.

    Leave a comment:


  • Aaron
    replied
    SPECIAL COSMIC INDUCTION GENERATOR PROJECT ENGINEERED BY ERIC DOLLARD - NEW VIDEO

    Check out this project that I've been working on with Eric Dollard non-stop for the last few weeks. https://emediapress.com/2020/09/09/cosmic-induction-generator-2020/

    Leave a comment:


  • Aaron
    replied
    Originally posted by Sputins View Post
    This looks like a direct rip-off of Dollard’s Golden Ratio Log Antenna he designed. Looks like a direct copy of the Eric’s pattern found in the Lakhovsky Multiple Wave Oscillator Handbook?
    https://polaraidhealth.com/
    They're all rip offs of Eric's original design. Most if not all are not using the correct proportions but that doesn't automatically invalidate if they work or not but there is something to the golden ratio proportions.

    Leave a comment:


  • aminnovations
    replied
    Hi Marcus,

    That's quite a lot to answer , so I may need to split my response into two, I will see what the forum allows me to submit.

    Originally posted by Marcus Neuhof View Post
    It appears that you are saying that the equal volumes of conductor requirement ensures a smooth impedance transition (impedance being the ratio of dielectric to magnetic field) between primary and secondary, yes?
    Equal volumes of conductor place boundary conditions on the dielectric and magnetic fields of induction, which helps to maintain the optimum balance between these two differentiated induction fields. For example, the dielectric induction field will become unbalanced between the primary and secondary if the charge distribution and storage is very different in each coil. Ensuring equal volumes of conductor helps rectify this by producing a more uniform charge distribution, balancing the boundary conditions to the surrounding medium. This is in turn helps to generate a matched impedance transformation between the primary and secondary.

    Given that the impedance of a transmission line is characterised by inductance and capacitance per unit length, plus losses, how is this situation any different from any other transmission line?
    The characteristics of a Tesla coil are considerably more complex than a standard transmission line. Both the transverse and longitudinal modes are present, the first from as you say the inductance and capacitance per unit length, plus losses, the second from the inter-turn mutual inductance and mutual capacitance. These two modes could both be treated as independent transmission lines within the coil, whilst also taking into account their inter-dependence, that is, the coupling between these transmission lines/modes along the length of the cavity in the coil. We must also take into account the series and parallel modes of resonance in the coil as well. I am about to release a new page that looks in detail at the measured series and parallel modes of resonance for a cylindrical TC, and is quite fascinating to see how these modes constitute the overall electrical qualities of a TC.

    How is it possible to maintain a constant impedance (dielectric-magnetic field ratio) in the transition between secondary coil (cavity) and transmission medium? Even a very low inductance ground system would appear to present a very different set of propagation conditions than the secondary of a TMT.
    Overall the system needs to be in the best or optimum balance that can be practically achieved. So when the whole system is taken into account and optimised, including the resonant transformers, the feeds, ground system, the transmission medium, matching of the generator and load, then the maximum power can be coupled into the system and out of the system, with minimum losses. Accomplishing this appears to require balancing the dielectric and magnetic fields of induction across the system, avoiding large and rapid changes to boundary conditions. It is not about maintaining a constant impedance, but rather ensuring the optimum impedance transformation from source to load. In reality a low inductance ground system has an impedance transformation between the coil, the inter-connecting transmission line, and within the ground system itself. These should be arranged to minimise power reflections and losses, as should the impedance transformation between the generator and primary, primary to secondary, secondary to extra coil, secondary to single-wire etc.

    Why must the extra coil be designed to resonate at the third harmonic, instead of e.g the second or fundamental?
    The secondary coil and extra coils are independent quarter-wave resonators which when coupled together by an inter-connecting wire, will become coupled resonators. When resonant circuits are coupled together they inter-act, which causes frequency shifts and impedance changes in the characteristics of each of the coils. To say it another way, adding a designed extra coil (say 2fo) to a secondary coil (fo) will cause each to place pressure or tension on each other, and the fundamental series resonant frequency of the secondary f will be shifted down where f < fo. This is well illustrated in the impedance characteristics I measured for Eric Dollard’s Colorado Springs Experiment at ESTC 2019, http://www.am-innovations.com/estc-2...ngs-experiment. Figures 3.1 and 3.2 show exactly this effect of frequency shift when a designed extra coil is added to a designed secondary coil, f shifts from 1570kc down to 904kc. As the designed harmonic goes up the inter-action between the two reduces dramatically, however also the energy that can be coupled to that harmonic also goes down rapidly. The third harmonic appears to be the best balance between minimising the frequency shift of the secondary, whilst maximising the energy coupled from the secondary coil to the extra.

    You mean -10dBm, yes? That is quite a good result.
    No, I mean 10dBm, although this is only from a single experimental test. I have still have a lot of measurements, experiments, and tests to do before drawing conclusions, and writing-up and reporting on Telluric transference of electric power.

    Indeed, it would be very interesting to understand what produces the relative proportion between dielectric and magnetic induction.
    Yes agreed, this is very much work in progress in my research at the moment, more to follow later.

    If I understand you correctly, you are suggesting that the balance between dielectric and magnetic fields is a product of coil geometry, but the presence of the "differentiated" (transverse) versus "coherent" (longitudinal) modes and/or the ratio between the two is separate and independent of geometry?
    The balance between the differentiated dielectric and magnetic fields of induction is the product of the experimental configuration, which primarily comes from geometry, boundary conditions, and materials. The transverse and longitudinal modes are also the product of the differentiated dielectric and magnetic fields of induction. The longitudinal in this case is spatially coherent because both induction fields act in the same direction as propagation. The undifferentiated dielectric and magnetic fields of induction act and are as one together in displacement, which is a fully coherent state both temporally and spatially. I conjecture that Radiant energy is the emission from a displacement event. More on this in my answer below.

    Things do appear to have gotten a bit more complex than I anticipated. We now appear to be contending with a number of separate quantities:
    I am conjecturing, and working towards demonstrating, that:

    1. The undifferentiated magnetic and dielectric fields of induction is an underlying coherent state in the inner workings of electricity, which is governed by the inclusive principle and mechanism of Displacement. Displacement acts to maintain dynamic balance and equilibrium and as such is a fundamental process within the wheel-work of nature. A displacement process or event is coherent both temporally and spatially, and can result in phenomena such as energy injection into a system, stimulated emission like radiant energy, and power transmission without loss or even with gain. Displacement is always triggered by the “need” of the system, and can be experimented with and observed by introducing non-linear transient and impulse events into a system held in dynamic equilibrium e.g. a designed TC or TMT system. Displacement is inclusive, inner, undifferentiated, temporally and spatially coherent.

    2. The differentiated or separated fields of induction result in principle and mechanism of Transference. Transference results in all the electrical properties currently understood and utilised in the fields of electromagnetism and the outer workings of electricity, and ultimately result from the differentiated inter-action of the induction fields within a system. Transference can be coherent either temporally or spatially, but never coherent in both at the same time e.g. a TEM wave is coherent temporally but not spatially. When considering the differentiated fields and there effects in forms, that is in terms of voltages and currents, then coherent translates to in-phase. Transference is separated, outer, differentiated, temporally or spatially coherent.

    3. The longitudinal mode or LMD mode belongs to transference, and results from the differentiated fields of induction acting in the same direction together as the direction of propagation. The LMD mode forms in the cavity of a TC, which can include the single wire extension, or can extend across a TMT system. The LMD mode results in single-wire phenomena, high-efficiency transference of electric power in a tuned TMT cavity, and certain dielectric and plasma effects. The LMD mode can be measured by looking for the standing wave null in a TMT system cavity, or better by measuring the changing phase relationship between voltage and current along the length of the single wire transmission medium. The longitudinal mode is spatially coherent, but not temporally.

    4. The transverse mode or TEM mode belongs to transference, and results from the differentiated fields of induction acting in an orthogonal direction to the direction of propagation. The TEM mode can radiate in space and results in all the transverse electromagnetic wave characteristics currently known and utilised, including communications, power generation and distribution, electronic and electrical circuits etc. The TEM mode is temporally coherent, but not spatially.

    It seems strange that you would describe the fundamenal (lower resonant) frequency as shifting downwards at the same time as the second harmonic (upper resonant) frequency is being shifted upwards. Since the 2nd harmonic varies according to 2*f one would also expect it to have a range twice that of the fundamental (1000kc) but you give a range three times as large (1500kc)
    The lower resonant frequency fL and upper resonant frequency fu do not originate from the same resonant circuit, so they are not harmonics of the same resonator. In this case fL (the lower parallel mode) results from the secondary coil, whereas fu (the upper parallel mode) results from the primary. Therefore when coupled more tightly fL and fu will move apart. As the coupling is reduced or loosened fL and fu will move towards each other. This is covered in a lot of detail in my new page. I am hoping to launch this within the next week if I can .

    Managed to get it all in the same post.

    Best wishes,
    Adrian
    Last edited by aminnovations; 09-08-2020, 02:03 PM.

    Leave a comment:


  • Marcus Neuhof
    replied
    Originally posted by aminnovations View Post
    Hi,

    I have added a new post to my website:

    http://www.am-innovations.com/tesla-...al-coil-design

    In the first part of the post I review some of the most important experimental considerations for coil geometry that I have observed and encountered throughout my research so far. In the second part I take a look at a cylindrical coil design suitable for plasma effects and other discharge phenomena when combined with an extra coil, and similar to a design by Eric Dollard for his cosmic induction generator.

    Best wishes,
    Adrian
    Thank you for that.

    Tesla[9] suggested and established this requirement clearly, in that the conducting boundary conditions for Ψ and Φ must ensure the maximum balance, continuity, and coherence for these two inter-dependent fields when moving from one section of an electrical system to another. In this way he established that the requirement between the primary and secondary of a magnifying transformer should be made from equal volumes of conductor.
    It appears that you are saying that the equal volumes of conductor requirement ensures a smooth impedance transition (impedance being the ratio of dielectric to magnetic field) between primary and secondary, yes?
    It is conjectured that the ratio and balance of this distributed inductance and capacitance determines the cavity properties, and hence the formation of a pressure wavefront, where Ψ and Φ establish and maintain a phase alignment to each other. The outer boundary conditions of the longitudinal cavity are dynamically defined, where significant electrical reflections from impedance mismatch will collapse the phase alignment between Ψ and Φ, and lead to dissipation of the LMD mode.
    Given that the impedance of a transmission line is characterised by inductance and capacitance per unit length, plus losses, how is this situation any different from any other transmission line?
    In a matched TMT system, as in my transference of electric power experiments, the longitudinal cavity can be extended all the way from the “transmitter” cavity through the transmission medium to the “receiver” cavity. In principle when the longitudinal mode is established stably in this cavity, electric power can be passed between the source and load over very great distances, (in the far field condition), and is considered to be a key principle in Tesla’s telluric transmission of wireless power.
    How is it possible to maintain a constant impedance (dielectric-magnetic field ratio) in the transition between secondary coil (cavity) and transmission medium? Even a very low inductance ground system would appear to present a very different set of propagation conditions than the secondary of a TMT.

    Thank you for clarifying the effects of coil geometry on transference of electric power!
    Maximum power transfer in a TMT system appears to occur when Ψ and Φ are maintained in dynamic balance, through optimal geometry of the TMT coils, transverse tuning to match the resonant frequencies of transmitter and receiver, and longitudinal mode tuning through obtaining a clearly defined standing wave within the cavity, (accomplished primarily through adjusting the electrical path length of the transmission medium to obtain a strong simultaneous null point for Ψ and Φ at the cavity centre).
    Given Tesla originally intended the Colorado Springs (TMT) for use in transmission of power, it seems difficult to imagine that careful adjustment of the electrical path length between transmitter and receiver are necessary for proper operation. What are you referring to with this? Is tuning via transmitter-receiver distance only required when no extra coil is present?
    When the extra coil is arranged to resonate at the third harmonic of the secondary induction system, and where the quality factor (Q) of the extra coil is very high, the output from the top-end of the extra coil will be a very powerful, low distortion, sinusoidal oscillation at a single frequency.
    Why must the extra coil be designed to resonate at the third harmonic, instead of e.g the second or fundamental?
    When combined with an extra coil into the Colorado Springs experimental arrangement, and with suitable Telluric tuning and matching, then far-field longitudinal transference of electric power may also be possible, and appears to remain one of the ultimate goals of this field of energy research. In my research so far I have measured far-field Telluric power transfer, (at ~ 3 miles between transmitter and receiver), of around 10dBm in the 80m amateur band from the upper resonant frequency of a carefully tuned TMT system.
    You mean -10dBm, yes? That is quite a good result.
    It is conjectured that perhaps the most interesting GR relationship would exist directly between Ψ and Φ, which could be arranged through geometry, tuning, and generator and load characteristics. This area of research and investigation requires considerable further work, and remains work in progress at this time, and to be reported at a future point.
    Indeed, it would be very interesting to understand what produces the relative proportion between dielectric and magnetic induction.
    Therefore I am discriminating between displacement events and their associated phenomena, and the different properties of Tesla coils and TMT systems that result from the difference in balance between the differentiated dielectric and magnetic fields of induction, that are brought about by varying coil geometries. Said in yet another way, Tesla’s Radiant Energy and Matter, and other coherent electrical phenomena are not the product of coil geometry, but rather underlying coherent processes that constitute the inner, and as yet unexplored, workings of electricity.
    If I understand you correctly, you are suggesting that the balance between dielectric and magnetic fields is a product of coil geometry, but the presence of the "differentiated" (transverse) versus "coherent" (longitudinal) modes and/or the ratio between the two is separate and independent of geometry?
    The non-linear transient impetus will reveal displacement based phenomena related to the undifferentiated coherent induction field. The linear sinusoidal drive will reveal phenomena related to the balance of the differentiated induction fields Ψ and Φ, through the balance between the transverse and longitudinal modes, and the tuning and boundary conditions of the longitudinal cavity established in the system. Transverse tuning is about selectively coupling as much energy as possible from the generator to the transmitter, and from the receiver to the load, whereas tuning of the longitudinal cavity and its properties, is about transferring as much energy as possible between the transmitter and receiver.

    In summary, this is a vast, and probably one of the most fascinating areas of electrical phenomena, that arise from Tesla coil based systems, and warrants considerable further research, observation, and measurement. Suffice to say for now, I would conjecture that the distinction between the undifferentiated and differentiated induction fields, is in my view key to discriminating between phenomena that relate to displacement (coherent and inner), and those that relate to transference (incoherent and outer).
    Things do appear to have gotten a bit more complex than I anticipated. We now appear to be contending with a number of separate quantities:
    • Differentiated versus coherent fields of induction
    • Longitudinal versus transverse propagation modes
    • Longitudinal versus transverse cavities
    • Magnetic versus dielectric fields
    Contrary to my expectations earlier, you are indicating that it is therefore possible to have a "differentiated, longitudinal" or "coherent, transverse" propagation?
    When driven by a primary with coupling coefficient to the secondary of ~ 0.1-0.3 the lower resonant frequency can become shifted down from the resonant phase change, set by the wire length, by as much as 500kc, and the upper resonant frequency shifted up by as much as 1500kc.
    It seems strange that you would describe the fundamenal (lower resonant) frequency as shifting downwards at the same time as the second harmonic (upper resonant) frequency is being shifted upwards. Since the 2nd harmonic varies according to 2*f one would also expect it to have a range twice that of the fundamental (1000kc) but you give a range three times as large (1500kc).

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  • Sputins
    replied
    This looks like a direct rip-off of Dollard’s Golden Ratio Log Antenna he designed. Looks like a direct copy of the Eric’s pattern found in the Lakhovsky Multiple Wave Oscillator Handbook?
    https://polaraidhealth.com/

    Leave a comment:


  • Aaron
    replied
    ERIC DOLLARD'S 2020 ESTC PRESENTATIONS NOW AVAILABLE



    Eric Dollard had two presentations that offer material that he has been wanting to put together for decades.

    First of all, write down this coupon code and make sure you leave it all lower case: epd2020 - this code will give you 25% off in the shopping cart for each individual presentation or the combo, which is at a huge discount already. This coupon expires in 2 days!

    Also, for the first time, you can purchase multiple presentations at the same time in one transaction. The above coupon code is only for Eric Dollard's presentations but the multiple purchase option like a normal shopping cart is a huge time saver.

    The two presentations are:

    Eric Dollard - Electromagnetic Induction and its Propagation, A Sequel to the Work of Oliver Heaviside of the Same Title - https://emediapress.com/shop/electro...aviside-title/

    Eric Dollard - Method of Symmetrical Co-Ordinates Applied to the Solution of Polyphase Networks, A Sequel to the Work of Charles Fortescue of the Same Title - https://emediapress.com/shop/method-...rtescue-title/

    Or get the COMBO with both of Dollard's presentations here: https://emediapress.com/shop/combo-e...hase-networks/

    Eric Dollard’s organization is a 501(c)3 charitable non-profit in Nevada so all donations are tax deductible. Donations are badly needed right now to cover some expenses - if you are able to send a check/money order or even give by PayPal, details are here: https://ericpdollard.com/donate-to-eric-dollard/ and of course a portion of the proceeds from all video sales goes to EPD Laboratories, Inc. That is what pays most of the bills besides donations.

    Dr. James DeMeo's two presentations from the 2020 ESTC will be released in a couple days.

    Leave a comment:


  • aminnovations
    replied
    Hi,

    I have added a new post to my website:

    http://www.am-innovations.com/tesla-...al-coil-design

    In the first part of the post I review some of the most important experimental considerations for coil geometry that I have observed and encountered throughout my research so far. In the second part I take a look at a cylindrical coil design suitable for plasma effects and other discharge phenomena when combined with an extra coil, and similar to a design by Eric Dollard for his cosmic induction generator.

    Best wishes,
    Adrian

    Leave a comment:


  • aminnovations
    replied
    Hi Marcus,

    Originally posted by Marcus Neuhof View Post
    Therefore, if it is true that the proportional increase in current was greater than the CSG-relay circuit sub-system's proportional contribution to system impedance, then that would imply the "abnormal glow" region of operation reduced either or both of the reactive and resistive compoents of the impedance of the CSG below zero, while increasing the absolute value of said impedance to a value much larger in magnitude than the resting state impedance.

    The immediately obvious explanation is negative reactance (capacitance) storing energy in the dielectric field around the CSG and releasing it at a judicious point in time to produce the momentary increase in current. This would neatly explain the increase in circuit current and increased power consumption, the latter being the product of additional energy being stored prior to its release. Our discussion so far, however, has led to the conclusion that reactance effects are unlikely to predominate. Additionally, the low dielectric constant of air makes it difficult to imagine enough energy finding a home in the CSG's dielectric field to produce this effect.
    These are important conclusions in the exploration so far, and ones that I have also reached in the consideration of possible explanations for the observed phenomenon. The up to 40% increase in dissipated power in the load, drawn from the generator, over that of the shorted circuit, does not appear to be accounted for either by changes in the ac impedance in the circuit, or through dielectric induction field storage and release. As you say, the phenomenon does appear literally like a true "negative resistance" in the circuit.

    An important factor to consider here is that a non-linear impetus from the generator is required to observe this phenomenon, and if you drive this circuit linearly you will not see any of these effects, as demonstrated in the video. This serves for me as crucial key in understanding what may be the source of this phenomenon. So many, if not all, of the unusual phenomena I have observed throughout my research so far, appear to emerge, or become observable, in the presence of a non-linear transient generator drive, and often combined in circuits that also have inherently non-linear properties, (as in the case of the CSG biased to the abnormal glow region, or from radiant energy emitted from a non-linear driven TC or TMT system, or from other as yet unexplained impulse over-unity devices).

    This non-linear impetus and its unusual phenomena, for me suggests underlying principles and mechanisms within electricity that as yet we know almost nothing about, that are only observable under transient conditions, and yet lead to powerful and unexplained phenomena, and that as of yet we could only dream about how to utilize. This hidden or inner-world of electricity and its associated principles and mechanisms I have coined in my research as Displacement, and which I suspect has a completely different set of characteristics to those we currently know in the field of electricity. On this basis I would assert that this "negative resistance" phenomenon observed in my reported experiment cannot be explained or accounted for using our current knowledge of the magnetic and dielectric fields of induction, or to say it another way, from our current understanding of this outer-form of electricity. All my current research is orientated towards uncovering and understanding more about Displacement, and I believe Tesla spent much of the latter part of his work studying the same underlying principles and mechanisms, most of which it seems he never shared.

    Since negative reactance, while well accepted, appears insufficient to explain the results, this in turn indicates the experiment potentially achieved "negative resistance" in the most literal sense of the word. If this is so, then one wonders what your PhD thesis advisors would think if they could see where your work had led you...
    This is indeed another interesting point, my experience of modern science is that it considers most of the field of macroscopic (classical) electromagnetism to be fully explained and accounted for, whereas I believe we are only at the very beginning of uncovering the inner-principles of electricity, and its associated phenomena. Principles that will be radically different from what we currently understand from the outer magnetic and dielectric fields of induction, and that in time will lead to a far more inclusive, coherent, inter-dependent, and encompassing experience of some of life's most fundamental principles. For me Marcus science cannot, and should not, be separated from the deeper philosophy, as so many of the researchers and experimenters from antiquity understood so very clearly. As you say, quite a journey so far from where I began in scientific research all those years ago.

    Best wishes,
    Adrian

    Leave a comment:


  • Marcus Neuhof
    replied
    Originally posted by aminnovations View Post
    Therefore, I would not expect the phenomena demonstrated to be the product of the ac impedance characteristics of the short-circuit, but rather interestingly, it would appear to support my conjectures on displacement, that non-linear transient dynamics are necessary to reveal/trigger displacement, where the action of re-balancing the circuit leads to substantial changes, in this case, to the voltages and currents in the circuit, (reflected in the area under the main output cycle of the generator).

    It occurs to me that perhaps the following statement in your text leads to the most remarkable conclusion of all:
    the circuit appears as a constant resistive load that results almost entirely from the cold resistance of the incandescent lamp filaments, 2 x 25W in series, (in the range 175 200Ω each).
    This statement tells us that even at its highest value of 503 ohms at 10Mc, the reactive component of the system impedance is never more than about 24% of the overall impedance. Therefore reactive impedance changes are unlikely to explain the circa 40% increase in current.

    However, the implications may be even further-reaching:

    We might conjecture that at least 76% of the overall impedance value (including reactive components) derives from the light bulbs, wire leads, and other components outside the "CSG and vacuum relay" system.

    This consideration is important as the production of the 40% increase in current would in turn mean a proportional reduction of the overall circuit impedance. Nevertheless, if the CSG-relay circuit sub-system only represents 24% of the total system impedance, even a reduction to 0 ohms impedance (superconduction as in your thesis) in the CSG would not be sufficient to produce a sufficient decrease in the overall system impedance.

    Therefore, if it is true that the proportional increase in current was greater than the CSG-relay circuit sub-system's proportional contribution to system impedance, then that would imply the "abnormal glow" region of operation reduced either or both of the reactive and resistive compoents of the impedance of the CSG below zero, while increasing the absolute value of said impedance to a value much larger in magnitude than the resting state impedance.

    The immediately obvious explanation is negative reactance (capacitance) storing energy in the dielectric field around the CSG and releasing it at a judicious point in time to produce the momentary increase in current. This would neatly explain the increase in circuit current and increased power consumption, the latter being the product of additional energy being stored prior to its release. Our discussion so far, however, has led to the conclusion that reactance effects are unlikely to predominate. Additionally, the low dielectric constant of air makes it difficult to imagine enough energy finding a home in the CSG's dielectric field to produce this effect.

    Since negative reactance, while well accepted, appears insufficient to explain the results, this in turn indicates the experiment potentially achieved "negative resistance" in the most literal sense of the word. If this is so, then one wonders what your PhD thesis advisors would think if they could see where your work had led you...

    Leave a comment:


  • aminnovations
    replied
    Hi Marcus,

    "What is the frequency content of those portions of the waveform which are active during the negative resistance portion of the experiment?"

    That would need to be measured to know for sure, but as an approximation up to the limit of the impedance scan of 10Mc, (where the minimum feature period would be ~ 100ns). From the oscilloscope trace the only portion of the curve that has measured transients that may approach anywhere near this is at 15ms and 35ms (from trace start). The available output power in this region from the generator appears very low, and is most unlikely to contribute to almost 40% increase in dissipated power in the circuit, as compared to the main output cycle whose area under the curve does increase substantially from the short circuit case. Hence it would appear most likely that the negative resistance region in the CSG is active during a portion of the main generator output, but initiated or triggered in the non-linear region prior to the main output. Therefore, I would not expect the phenomena demonstrated to be the product of the ac impedance characteristics of the short-circuit, but rather interestingly, it would appear to support my conjectures on displacement, that non-linear transient dynamics are necessary to reveal/trigger displacement, where the action of re-balancing the circuit leads to substantial changes, in this case, to the voltages and currents in the circuit, (reflected in the area under the main output cycle of the generator).

    "With respect to the phenomena you have demonstrated with this experiment, what effect do you expect to see from multiple CSGs in series?"

    This would need to experimented and measured to answer this. It would however be much more difficult to bias the CSGs into the correct regions for negative resistance effects, as I would expect any cumulative effect to require synchronisation of the gaps to the same region of their I-V characteristics.

    Best wishes,
    Adrian

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  • Marcus Neuhof
    replied
    Originally posted by aminnovations View Post
    Hi Marcus,

    The AC impedance of the CSG circuit is dominated by the resistive component as shown by the network analyzer scans in the experiment, and is driven at the UK line frequency of 50Hz. For all intents and purposes the circuit appears resistive at low frequency. I do not think AC impedance effects are having a significant impact in this experiment.

    I don't think it can be argued that the observed phenomena results from a relatively high impedance of the short circuit, as from my perspective the active source of the change in impedance occurs in the CSG and not at the short circuit. The short circuit appears to remain constant impedance in all configurations of the circuit in the experiment. The active change in the circuit impedance results from the transitions through the negative resistance region of the CSG, where clearly the resistive part of the impedance is changing very dramatically according to bias point and non-linear transient drive. If you remove the CSG from the circuit you will not see any interesting phenomena in the circuit at all, especially at the low drive frequency.
    What is the frequency content of those portions of the waveform which are active during the negative resistance portion of the experiment? If I consider the following oscilloscope trace of the demonstration, I see a slew rate of something approaching 1.5kV/ms:
    negative-resistance-and-sgd-1-3-3-full.jpg

    Since the effects seem to happen when the voltage is changing rapidly with respect to time, I'm not sure I would discount AC impedance effects entirely. Comparing the above oscilloscope trace to the short-circuit case, it could even be that the main increases in area under the curve occur precisely at those points where the voltage is changing most rapidly:
    negative-resistance-and-sgd-1-3-2-full.jpg

    Unfortunately the given data do not permit me to evaluate whether the crucial parts of the curve occur above the 10MHz upper bound you used for your impedance measurements.

    Much has been discussed about the novelties of many spark gaps in series, as in the Steinmetz chapter on lightning arrestors which Eric Dollard has posted here repeatedly and which seems to have been an inspiration for Eric's longitudinal research.

    With respect to the phenomena you have demonstrated with this experiment, what effect do you expect to see from multiple CSGs in series?

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