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Old 07-31-2012, 11:20 PM
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The Law of Electro Magnetic Induction, Eleven.

(1) Magnetic materials such as Iron exhibit internal parameter variations during a Magnetic cycle of Induction. These can be divided into two distinct phenomena, Saturation and Hysteresis. It has become commonplace to consider the two as a single phenomena, but this leads to misleading concepts. Saturation and Hysteresis must be analyzed separately.



Saturation gives rise to a Non-Linear loadline. The path taken by a point on this curve thru the A.C. cycle follows the same path up the curve as down the curve. This curve defines a single path. Also, here in the Iron, the Saturation curve is Symmetrical, both positive and negative values give the same curvature. The Non-Linearity of the Saturation curve gives rise to Dis-Proportion between cause and effect. This in turn distorts the wave into a non-sinusoidal form. A series of odd ordered harmonics is produced by this non-linear distortion. This is an Amplitude Distortion of the A.C. wave.

Hysteresis gives rise to an Elliptical loadline. A point on this curve does not follow the same path up the curve, as that path down the curve. Each path is on one or the other side of the elliptical curve. This path is now a loop. The elliptical load line is ultimately derived from a linear curve as a side view of a rotating circle. Hence the distortion produced is not an amplitude distortion as normally considered. In the elliptical curve the distortion is not the result of a dis-proportionate relation between cause and effect as with the Saturation, rather it is that cause and effect have become separated in a time loop. Thereby Hysteresis gives rise to a Phase Distortion in the A.C. wave.

Parameter variation of Inductance by external means, thru rotation or controlled saturation, can be utilized to develop synthesized Saturation and Hysteresis curves unique from those of the Iron itself. The practical knowledge in this realm is very limited. Experimentation is required here.

The principle apparatus utilizing parameter variation are the developments of Ernst Alexanderson, the Variable Induction Alternator


and the Magnetic Amplifier.


The alternator is a complex machine but the Mag-Amp is a quite simple device. The Mag-Amp is where to begin the study of parameter variation.

The utilization of the Mag-Amp as a parameter variation device is somewhat different than its use as an amplifier. As an amplifier it serves as a variable Impedance, consuming E.M.F. as a Reactance Coil. In the situation of parameter variation this device is called upon to produce an E.M.F. and thereby function as an A.C. generator. One important feature of the Mag-Amp is that the control windings are Electro-Magnetically isolated from the power windings. The Magnetic circuit of the Mag-Amp acts as a balanced bridge, giving a cancellation of power flux in the control winding. Hereby no energy can be exchanged between control circuits and power circuits. This is a consideration in the Law of Energy Continuity.

(3) C.P. Steinmetz, in his editions of “Theory and Calculation of A.C. Phenomena”, does not development Saturation and Hysteresis as separate and distinct phenomena. Saturation and Hysteresis are combined in the Magnetic material giving rise to a Distortion Complex of phase shifted harmonics. This is a composite of the separate amplitude and phase distortions. Little is given in the A.C. book that relates to the utilization of parameter variation for the generation of Electro-Motive Force and the transfer of Electric Energy thereby. Steinmetz only considers situations where Saturation and Hysteresis are considered as parasitic phenomena, these to be minimized. In later chapters, “Reaction Machines” and “Distortion of Waveshape and Its Causes”, Steinmetz develops an analysis of parameter variation and the E.M.F.s developed thereby.

A considerable portion of the Steinmetz A.C. book is devoted to the Synchronous Machine,

such as the common polyphase Alternator and the Synchronous Motor. The Synchronous Machine, a development of Nikola Tesla, is the principle apparatus of Electric Power Engineering. Nearly all Electric Energy is generated by Synchronous Alternators, their first major application at the Niagara Power Plant.



(4) The Synchronous Machine has applications other than converting mechanical to electrical Energy as a generator, or converting electrical energy to mechanical Energy as a motor. The Synchronous Machine can synthesized Electric Power. Here the machine operates with no mechanical connection to the shaft whatsoever, it is spinning freely in synchronism with the applied A.C. wave.

When the Synchronous Machine is operating in perfect synchronism with an A.C. power line, no power flows into, or out of, the A.C. power line. Here the rotor is in exact step with the rotation of the A.C. wave developed by the machine stator. Both rotations are in phase unison, top dead center on the rotor is top dead center on the stator, the two rotations in synchronism. In order to maintain this condition the machine must be excited by a specific quantity of Magnetism, this produced by the Field Current. This specific value is determined by the condition of no power flow between the machine and the power line. Here the E.M.F. of the machine just matches the E.M.F. of the line, not cross current exists. This is a neutral condition.

If the Field Current (and excitation) is increased beyond the value required for a neutral condition, the rotor pushes ahead of the rotating A.C. wave to a position advanced in phase, but still rotating in synchronism with the wave. With increasing excitation the machine begins to draw a leading Current from the power line, the greater the excitation, the greater the current taken by the machine from the line. Since these Currents are reactive no Energy is expended in maintaining them. Here the Synchronous Machine is exhibiting the characteristics of and Electro-Static Condenser and in this manner of operation it is called a Synchronous Condenser.

Inversely, reducing the Field Current below that required to maintain a neutral condition, the rotor falls behind the A.C. wave of the stator, this to a position retarded in phase while rotating with the A.C. wave. The less the excitation, the more the rotor lags behind the stator. With decreasing excitation the Machine draws a lagging Current from the power line, the less the excitation, the more Current is drawn. Here the machine is exhibiting the characteristics of a Reactance Coil. This can be called a Synchronous Reactor.

In this manner the Synchronous Machine is operating as a two terminal Reactance Arm. There is no connection to the rotating shaft. The Machine can synthesize an actual Inductor or Condenser. Operating in this manner the machine can create a substantial reactive power flow, this flow controlled by the D.C. excitation of the machine. This Controlled Reactance is used at the end of long distant power lines in order to regulate the voltage and phase at lines end.

As a reactance arm the two terminals (per phase) serve as input and serve as output. There is only one power line. The Energy flows into the machine during one part of the Cycle, and Energy flows out of the machine during another part of the Cycle. Here input and output are separated in Time rather than space. The Energy is caught in a Hysteresis Loop.

It is important to note here that this machine is operating as a Synthesizer. The power flow of Condensers and Reactors are developed by synthesis, without the intense Dielectric and Magnetic Fields that normally are required to create this flow, or surging, of Electric Energy. Here a “Synthetic Power” is derived from a dynamic of parameter variational form.

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