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  #31  
Old 06-01-2018, 11:24 AM
HuntingRoss HuntingRoss is offline
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Why does the barrel jump

Fascinating experiment, but I'm trying to grapple with why the barrel jumps in the air. The propulsion of water out the top should press the barrel down, not up.

You can't pick yourself up with the bucket handle when standing in the bucket.

A rocket goes in the opposite direction to the ejected mass.

Curiously.

m
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  #32  
Old 06-01-2018, 03:09 PM
baywatch80 baywatch80 is offline
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When the liquid nitrogen in the bottle reaches its critical phase change temperature, it suddenly expands to 698 times its volume when it was a liquid!

This drives the water in the barrel and the air above the barrel away with such a sudden force that a "low pressure area" around the barrel is created just like what happens in a cyclone or tornado and this creates a lifting force on whatever is within the low pressure area i.e the barrel.

Well the barrel rose probably about 2.5 feet into the air but instead of putting LN2 in a bottle and dipping it in the barrel of water, if the same experiment was done by seating the barrel on another smaller barrel in which the LN2 was introduced, then the original heavy water filled barrel would have risen like a projectile or rocket.

The thing to understand here is the massive expanding power of liquid nitrogen upon phase change from liquid to gaseous state can wonderfully be used to drive a piston of any ICE or piston based engine.


Compare the piston driving capability of superhot steam, gasoline, diesel and liquid air. All are performing the same thing except that there's no combustion in liquid air/nitrogen and steam but liquid air has 100 times the driving capability than superhot steam. That's what Charles E Tripler says in "Liquid Air: Perpetual Motion at Last."
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  #33  
Old 06-09-2018, 02:46 PM
baywatch80 baywatch80 is offline
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Liquid Air suddenly expands to 800 times its volume upon reverting to a gaseous state by contacting as little a temp rise as 20 to 30°C or whatever the ambient temp it exposed to. the fact the liquid air is nothing but liquid nitrogen(of course along with liquid oxygen)

This peculiar property of nitrogen gas which gives "enormous compressive power to push a piston" of a SI(spark ignited, of course we don't need a spark anymore) or CI(compression ignited) engine is what they used in principle even though it was not actually applied to a diesel or gasoline engine.

I definitely think a diesel engine can be run of LN2 or simply liquid air. The cost of production of liquid air is 1/5th that of producing LN2. Already in the UK there is a big Liquid Air Energy Network and talk of adopting it into hybrid vehicles. Probably they have done to some extent by now!

Think just what is needed to run a diesel engine on Liquid Air/LN2:

In a Diesel engine during the suction stroke, air is drawn in and next is the compression stroke which causes the air in the cylinder to be heated to anywhere between 500 to 1200°F. Next at TDC the diesel fuel is high pressure injected as fine mist by the retraction of the injector nozzle pin and the diesel fuel auto ignites and drives piston down as it burns and provides driving force and then as usual the exhaust port opens and releases the burnt + unburnt gases and a fresh cycle occurs.

Now imagine if instead of diesel fuel we have a highly insulated tank of liquid nitrogen connected just where the diesel fuel tank was. It also will be pressure injected by the fuel pump and injector just after the compression stroke at the TDC. The liquid nitrogen or liquid air which is at -196°C will be suddenly slapped with a high temp compressed air between 500 to 1200°F and surely it will revert to its gaseous state and rapidly expanding to 700 times its volume and push the piston with a great force!....and thereby providing the driving force just like burning diesel fuel does.
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  #34  
Old 06-09-2018, 02:48 PM
baywatch80 baywatch80 is offline
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I have been thinking about this for a long time and i feel there might be small modifications needed in the fuel injection process. In diesel fuel after injection, some excess fuel returns back to the fuel tank from the injector enclosed body. Probably this may not be needed with LN2(or needed to economize fuel usage). Also the construction material of the fuel injector should be able to operate at low temps of LN2 and probably a heat insulating material be used in the fuel injector making. If the compressed air gets as hot as 1200°F then it may flow towards the fuel injector mounting and could cause an undesired premature re-gasification of LN2 or liquid air while in the injector itself which is an unwanted nuisance.

(The Peter Dearman Liquid Nitrogen Engine uses a warmant liquid injected at a separate stage to trigger the re-gasification of LN2 and achieve the same effect and this warmant liquid is then captured in the exhaust and re-used)

In the Diesel Engine we already have the compressed air doing this and all we might need to do is make a high pressure fuel pump which can work at cryogenic temp of -196°C and a fuel injector made of heat insulated material so that the heat of air during compression stroke doesn't cause premature re-gasification problems in the injector itself. I am also thinking that may be the cyclical process happens so fast that heat of compressed air may not even reach the unintended place and cause problem and so we may straightaway use LN2 in diesel engine without major modifications.

If someone had access to a small diesel engine and liquid nitrogen, they could try this out....even without making a new fuel injector and then keep improvising to achieve the desired result.
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  #35  
Old 06-09-2018, 02:59 PM
baywatch80 baywatch80 is offline
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Certainly there are millions of diesel engines operating all around our Planet. As simple ambient heat is all that is required to trigger the phase change of LN2 to gaseous state, the compression ignition engine such as the diesel engine should surely work on it. Once we practically verify this uniform working on diesel engines of various bore/stroke/air volume/horsepower capacities, we have already crossed a big hurdle.

The new kind of fuel is already having engines designed for it which are widely being used since a very long time but unfortunately on fossil fuels.

Liquid air can also be used in gasoline/petrol spark ignition engines but needs elimination of the standard air/fuel mixing carburetor.

With correct application of mind i am sure the existing topologies of fuel injection of the diesel engine can be made hybrid i.e to run on liquid air or diesel fuel once again. The day the production of liquid air can be done in an extremely economical way and right in your own garage which Charles E Tripler said is definitely possible, we then may not need to worry about running out of liquid air anymore.

The making of "10 gallons for every 3 gallons used" definitely encourages us to believe the conception of an onboard re-liquefier so that we always have a significant supply on-the-move in the case of automotive application and dont need to depend on a refilling station.
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  #36  
Old 06-09-2018, 03:07 PM
baywatch80 baywatch80 is offline
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The making of Liquid Air at low cost

Now the final hurdle is to make liquid air in a very economical way. This link Publication - The Unz Review has just a few pages excerpt but it blew my mind as i read it at 1AM in the morning. It had all the information we probably need in just those few pages.

The original book “Liquid Air: Perpetual Motion At Last” by Gaylord H Wilshire is a 470 or so pages book which doesn't seem to be available anywhere. Probably it was in the "retrieve and erase from public domain list" of the three lettered agencies of the elitist cabal.

The things which Charles .E. Tripler did and achieved as told by the author of this article:

1. “Tripler admits a quart or more of the liquid air into a small engine and seconds later the engine flywheel starts rotating vigorously as if it were being operated by a heavy head of steam but by no means was the liquid air forced into the engine under pressure.”

(COMMENT: So obviously this shows the sudden expanding effect of the liquid air upon reaching its critical phase change temperature is what’s happening out there. Needless to say, the mechanism and operating principle is simple)

2. “Tripler says we know a little about compressed air but almost nothing about how to utilize the heat of air (a.k.a ambient heat???.....Tesla’s ambient heat engine idea similar to this, if not exactly the same???) He says that for centuries men have been digging their source of heat from the earth at enormous expense and then wasting ninety percent of the same in burning. Coal is only the Sun’s energy stored. What I do is use the Sun’s energy direct”

(COMMENT: Direct energy conversion to usable format where ever possible or the least number of steps in energy conversion gives rise to the highest efficiency of the energy harnessing system whatever the application may be)

3. “If I can produce power by using liquid air in my engine, why not use that power for producing more liquid air? A liquid-air engine, if powerful enough, will compress the air and produce the cold in my liquefying machine exactly as well as a steam engine”

(COMMENT: This is for us readers to understand the 10 gallons of liquid air production for expense of every 3 gallons of liquid air as engine driving fuel input and thus a surplus of 7 gallons)
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Last edited by baywatch80; 06-10-2018 at 02:37 PM.
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  #37  
Old 06-09-2018, 03:09 PM
baywatch80 baywatch80 is offline
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4. “The heat of the atmosphere is boiling the liquid air in my engine and producing power just exactly as the heat of coal boils water and drives off steam. I simply use another form of heat. I get my power from the heat of the sun; so does every other producer of power. Coal, as i said before, is only a form of the sun's energy stored up.”

(COMMENT: So once again in above statement the usage of ambient heat is proven to be more than just a mere possibility and also economical too.)

5. “If I could produce only two gallons of liquid air from my liquefying machine for every two gallons I put into my engine, I should gain nothing at all; I should only be performing a curious experiment that would have no practical value. But I actually find that I can produce, for every two gallons of liquid air that I pour into my engine, a larger quantity of liquid air from my liquefier. This seems absolutely unbelievable, and it is hard to explain; you will understand it better after I show you exactly my process of making liquid air.”

(COMMENT: So as Tripler says rather than using steam engine for powering the compressor, he can use the liquid air initially made and that too just a part of it to power the compression/liquefaction process. So there it is….the overunity part but even here also we should not call it a overunity thing just because we ain’t spending money on coal to fire a steam engine for running the compressor rather we are expending liquid air to produce the output but the best thing is that only a small part of the outputted liquid air is needed to produce more and more of the same. It’s like a self-magnification effect just like the one observed in Tesla’s Aether Magnifying Tower, the Wardenclyffe one)

(COMMENT: Well let’s go ahead and call it a overunity process but I am only afraid that the jackasses who don’t want such things to succeed call it overunity/perpetual and spread false information that the inventor is a scam artist etc.)


6. “The liquefaction of air is caused by intense cold, not by compression, although compression is a part of the process. After once having produced this cold, I do not need so much pressure on the air which I am forcing into the liquefying machine. Indeed, so great does the cold actually become that the external air, rushing in under ordinary atmospheric pressure to fill the vacuum caused by liquefaction, itself becomes liquefied. I have actually made about ten gallons of liquid air in my liquefier by the use of about three gallons in my engine. There is, therefore, a surplusage of seven gallons that has cost me nothing and which I can use elsewhere as power”


(COMMENT: We all were put under the impression that liquefaction of air is a very energy intensive process and nothing more can be gained in the total affair but after reading this above statement by Tripler, we need to drastically change our mindset about our brain-washed/pre-programmed assumption on air liquefaction!)
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  #38  
Old 06-09-2018, 03:11 PM
baywatch80 baywatch80 is offline
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7. Previous attempts to liquefy air:

“Until twenty years ago scientists thought that air was a permanent gas – that it never would be anything but a gas. They had tried compressing it under thousands of pounds of pressure to the square inch. They had tried heating it in the reverberatory furnaces and cooling it to the greatest known depths of chemical cold but it remained air – a gas.”

“But one day in 1877 Raoul Pictet submitted oxygen gas to enormous pressure combined with intense cold. The result was a few precious drops of a clear bluish liquid that bubbled violently for a few seconds and then passed away in a cold white mist. Pictet had proved that oxygen was not really a permanent gas, but merely the vapor of a mineral, as steam is the vapor of ice. Fifteen years later, Olzewski, a Pole, of Warsaw, succeeded in liquefying nitrogen, the other constituent of air. About the same time Professor James Dewar of England, exploring independently in the region of the North Pole of temperature, not only liquefied oxygen and nitrogen but produced liquid air in some quantity and then actually froze it into a mushy ice—air ice. The first ounce that he made cost more than $3,000. A little later he reduced the cost to $500 a pint, and the whole scientific world rang with the achievement.”

“Yesterday, in Mr. Tripler's laboratory, I saw five gallons of liquid air poured out like so much water. It was made at the rate of fifty gallons a day, and it cost, perhaps, twenty cents a gallon. Not long ago Mr. Tripler performed some of his experiments before a meeting of distinguished scientists at the University of the City of New York. It so happened that among those present was M. Pictet, the same who first liquefied oxygen. When he saw the prodigal way in which Mr. Tripler poured out the precious liquid, he rose solemnly, extended his arm across the table, and shook Mr. Tripler's hand. "It is a grand exhibition," he exclaimed in French ; " the grandest exhibition I ever have seen.”


(COMMENT: Back in those days they made 50 gallons per day of liquid air at 20 cents per gallon. What more proof do we need that liquid air can be very economically manufactured??? Even in your garage???)


8. “At the earliest announcement of the liquefaction of air, Mr. Tripler had seen with the quick imagination of the inventor its tremendous possibilities as a power-generator, and he began his experiments immediately. That was eight years ago. After futile attempts to utilize various gases for the production of the necessary cold, it suddenly occurred to him that air also was a gas. Why not produce cold with it? "The idea was so foolishly simple that I could hardly bring myself to try it," he said; " but I finally fitted up an apparatus, turned on my air, and drew it out a liquid." And thus Mr. Tripler makes liquid air with compressed air.”

(COMMENT: Sometimes the most foolish idea is the most simplest and plausible experiment to do. This is not a trivial fact. Also Tripler identifies the tremendous possibilities of liquid air as a power-generator which is supposedly in various forms and not just limited to electric power generation but also motive, heating etc)

9. A NEAR VIEW OF THE ACTUAL MAKING:

“Mr. Tripler's work-room has more the appearance of a machine shop than a laboratory. The huge steam boiler and compressor engine in one end of the room strikes one at first as oddly disproportionate in size to the other machinery. Apparently there is nothing for all this power — it is a fifty-horse-power plant —to work upon; it is hard to realize that the engine is drawing its raw material from the very room in which we are walking and breathing. Indeed, the apparatus by which the air is actually liquefied is nothing but a felt-and-canvas-covered tube about as large around as a small barrel and perhaps fifteen feet high.”

(COMMENT: So Mr. Tripler started out by working with a 50HP engine to run the compressor to start the liquefaction process)

“Mr. Tripler explained that they both carried air under a pressure of about 2,500 pounds to the square inch. The heat caused by the compression had been removed by passing the pipes through coolers filled with running water, so that the air entered the liquefier at a temperature of about fifty degrees Fahrenheit.”

(COMMENT: So it means Mr. Tripler compressed air to 2500 PSI and cooled the hot compressed air by using nothing but an intercooler with circulating water. Also we are to understand that the temperature of the compressed air came down to fifty degrees Fahrenheit in this way before it entered the liquefaction column like chamber)

“The first of these pipes contains the air to be liquefied," explained Mr. Tripler; "the other carries the air which is to do the liquefying. By turning this valve at the bottom of the apparatus, I allow the air to escape through a small hole in the second pipe. It rushes out over the first pipe, expanding rapidly and taking up heat.”

(COMMENT: This is nothing but the regenerative feedback double pipe construction which is always used in liquefaction and the “small hole in the second pipe” is nothing but a needle valve type construction for sudden expansion of the compressed air and thereby cooling and liquefaction to occur)


“You see the liquefier is so tall that it acts as a chimney, and the icy cold air is drawn up to the top, following the first pipe all the way and greedily extracting its heat. This process continues until such a degree of cold prevails in the first pipe that the air is liquefied and drips down into a receptacle at the bottom. Then all I have to do is to turn a valve, and the liquid air pours out, ready for use.”

(COMMENT: The thing to note here is the extreme simplicity of the construction of the liquefaction chamber but to increase efficiency of the entire process, we should use a baffle design at the end of the first pipe (inlet pipe) to slow down the velocity of compressed air and liquid air droplets so that air which is already liquefied is not carried away into the return tube for the cold un-liquefied air to go back to the compressor)

“Mr. Tripler says that it takes only ten or fifteen minutes to get liquid air after the compressor engine begins to run. Professor Dewar always lost ninety per cent, in drawing off his product; Mr. Tripler's loss is inappreciable. Sometimes the cold in the liquefier becomes so intense that the liquid air actually freezes hard, stopping the pipes. Mr. Tripler has never tried, but he says he believes he could get a degree of cold in his liquefier sufficient to reduce hydrogen gas to liquid form. Mr. Tripler has sent liquid air in open cans to Boston, Washington, and Philadelphia. "But it is my belief," says he,'' that there will be little need of transporting it; it can be made quickly and cheaply anywhere on earth.”

(COMMENT: So it took only 10 – 15 mins to produce liquid air i.e it can made very quickly, and also we are to understand that intense cold will be produced if the apparatus is run for longer duration than required for air liquefaction and the air freezes hard and plugs the pipes. Certainly we do not want to run it this way and also possibly liquefy hydrogen which is dangerously explosive even if present in combination with liquid air or liquid nitrogen etc)
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  #39  
Old 06-09-2018, 03:14 PM
baywatch80 baywatch80 is offline
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10. “My greatest object is the production of a power-giving substance," says Mr.Tripler; " if you can get cheap power, all other problems are solved. "And that is why Mr. Tripler has spent so much time on the little engine in his laboratory, which runs by liquid air. The reasons for the supremacy of this strange liquid over steam are exceedingly simple. In the first place, liquid air has about 100 times the expansive power of steam. In the second place, it begins to produce power the instant it is exposed to the atmosphere. In making steam, water has first to be raised to a temperature of 212 degrees Fahrenheit. That is, if the water as it enters the boiler has a temperature of fifty degrees, 162 degrees of heat must be put into it before it will yield a single pound of pressure. After that, every additional degree of heat produces one pound of pressure, whereas every degree of heat applied to liquid air gives twenty pounds of pressure. ''Liquid air can be applied to any engine,'' says Mr. Tripler," and used as easily and as safely as steam. You need no large boiler, no water, no coal, and you have no waste. The heat of the atmosphere, as I have said before, does all the work of expansion. The advantages of compactness and the ease with which liquid air can be made to produce power at once suggested its use in all kinds of motor vehicles.”

(COMMENT: So liquid air has 100 times the expansive power of steam which is so damn good to know. Also it instantly starts producing power on exposure to ambient heat)

So finally as Charles E Tripler says that the heat of the atmosphere does all the work of expansion, I say that the ambient heat engine theory by Tesla is not just a theory but has already been practically realized long ago and we are to just to replicate, refine the design in some aspects and use it economically for the betterment of mankind.
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