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#61
02-22-2012, 04:02 PM
 evolvingape Senior Member Join Date: Dec 2011 Posts: 164
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manifold

In mathematics (specifically in differential geometry and topology), a smooth manifold is a subset of Euclidean space which is locally the graph of a smooth (perhaps vector-valued) function. A more general topological manifold can be described as a topological space that on a small enough scale resembles the Euclidean space of a specific dimension, called the dimension of the manifold. Thus, a line and a circle are one-dimensional manifolds, a plane and sphere (the surface of a ball) are two-dimensional manifolds, and so on into high-dimensional space. More formally, every point of an n-dimensional manifold has a neighborhood homeomorphic to an open subset of the n-dimensional space Rn.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High-dimensional_space

In physics and mathematics, the dimension of a space or object is informally defined as the minimum number of coordinates needed to specify any point within it.[1][2] Thus a line has a dimension of one because only one coordinate is needed to specify a point on it (for example, the point at 5 on a number line). A surface such as a plane or the surface of a cylinder or sphere has a dimension of two because two coordinates are needed to specify a point on it (for example, to locate a point on the surface of a sphere you need both its latitude and its longitude). The inside of a cube, a cylinder or a sphere is three-dimensional because three co-ordinates are needed to locate a point within these spaces.

In physical terms, dimension refers to the constituent structure of all space (cf. volume) and its position in time (perceived as a scalar dimension along the t-axis), as well as the spatial constitution of objects within – structures that have correlations with both particle and field conceptions, interact according to relative properties of mass, and which are fundamentally mathematical in description. These or other axes may be referenced to uniquely identify a point or structure in its attitude and relationship to other objects and occurrences. Physical theories that incorporate time, such as general relativity, are said to work in 4-dimensional "spacetime", (defined as a Minkowski space). Modern theories tend to be "higher-dimensional" including quantum field and string theories. The state-space of quantum mechanics is an infinite-dimensional function space.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minkowski_space

In mathematical physics, Minkowski space or Minkowski spacetime (named after the mathematician Hermann Minkowski) is the mathematical setting in which Einstein's theory of special relativity is most conveniently formulated. In this setting the three ordinary dimensions of space are combined with a single dimension of time to form a four-dimensional manifold for representing a spacetime.

In theoretical physics, Minkowski space is often contrasted with Euclidean space. While a Euclidean space has only spacelike dimensions, a Minkowski space also has one timelike dimension. Therefore the symmetry group of a Euclidean space is the Euclidean group and for a Minkowski space it is the Poincaré group.

The spacetime interval between two events in Minkowski Space is either space-like, light-like ('null') or time-like.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spherical_harmonics

In mathematics, spherical harmonics are the angular portion of a set of solutions to Laplace's equation. Represented in a system of spherical coordinates, Laplace's spherical harmonics are a specific set of spherical harmonics that forms an orthogonal system, first introduced by Pierre Simon de Laplace in 1782.

Spherical harmonics are important in many theoretical and practical applications, particularly in the computation of atomic orbital electron configurations, representation of gravitational fields, geoids, and the magnetic fields of planetary bodies and stars, and characterization of the cosmic microwave background radiation.

RM
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 Algebraic Manifold Curves.png (9.4 KB, 0 views) 4 Spatial Dimensions.png (13.6 KB, 2 views) 2 Dimensional 1 Time Minkowski Space.jpg (11.1 KB, 4 views) Spherical Harmonics.png (49.0 KB, 0 views)
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#62
02-22-2012, 04:35 PM
 evolvingape Senior Member Join Date: Dec 2011 Posts: 164
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluid_dynamics

In physics, fluid dynamics is a sub-discipline of fluid mechanics that deals with fluid flow—the natural science of fluids (liquids and gases) in motion. It has several subdisciplines itself, including aerodynamics (the study of air and other gases in motion) and hydrodynamics (the study of liquids in motion). Fluid dynamics has a wide range of applications, including calculating forces and moments on aircraft, determining the mass flow rate of petroleum through pipelines, predicting weather patterns, understanding nebulae in interstellar space and reportedly modeling fission weapon detonation. Some of its principles are even used in traffic engineering, where traffic is treated as a continuous fluid.

Fluid dynamics offers a systematic structure—which underlies these practical disciplines—that embraces empirical and semi-empirical laws derived from flow measurement and used to solve practical problems. The solution to a fluid dynamics problem typically involves calculating various properties of the fluid, such as velocity, pressure, density, and temperature, as functions of space and time.

Compressible vs incompressible flow

All fluids are compressible to some extent, that is changes in pressure or temperature will result in changes in density. However, in many situations the changes in pressure and temperature are sufficiently small that the changes in density are negligible. In this case the flow can be modeled as an incompressible flow. Otherwise the more general compressible flow equations must be used.

Mathematically, incompressibility is expressed by saying that the density ρ of a fluid parcel does not change as it moves in the flow field.
where D/Dt is the substantial derivative, which is the sum of local and convective derivatives. This additional constraint simplifies the governing equations, especially in the case when the fluid has a uniform density.
For flow of gases, to determine whether to use compressible or incompressible fluid dynamics, the Mach number of the flow is to be evaluated.

As a rough guide, compressible effects can be ignored at Mach numbers below approximately 0.3. For liquids, whether the incompressible assumption is valid depends on the fluid properties (specifically the critical pressure and temperature of the fluid) and the flow conditions (how close to the critical pressure the actual flow pressure becomes).

Acoustic problems always require allowing compressibility, since sound waves are compression waves involving changes in pressure and density of the medium through which they propagate.

Viscous vs inviscid flow

Viscous problems are those in which fluid friction has significant effects on the fluid motion. The Reynolds number, which is a ratio between inertial and viscous forces, can be used to evaluate whether viscous or inviscid equations are appropriate to the problem.

Stokes flow is flow at very low Reynolds numbers, Re<<1, such that inertial forces can be neglected compared to viscous forces. On the contrary, high Reynolds numbers indicate that the inertial forces are more significant than the viscous (friction) forces. Therefore, we may assume the flow to be an inviscid flow, an approximation in which we neglect viscosity completely, compared to inertial terms.

This idea can work fairly well when the Reynolds number is high. However, certain problems such as those involving solid boundaries, may require that the viscosity be included. Viscosity often cannot be neglected near solid boundaries because the no-slip condition can generate a thin region of large strain rate (known as Boundary layer) which enhances the effect of even a small amount of viscosity, and thus generating vorticity. Therefore, to calculate net forces on bodies (such as wings) we should use viscous flow equations.

As illustrated by d'Alembert's paradox, a body in an inviscid fluid will experience no drag force. The standard equations of inviscid flow are the Euler equations. Another often used model, especially in computational fluid dynamics, is to use the Euler equations away from the body and the boundary layer equations, which incorporates viscosity, in a region close to the body.

The Euler equations can be integrated along a streamline to get Bernoulli's equation. When the flow is everywhere irrotational and inviscid, Bernoulli's equation can be used throughout the flow field. Such flows are called potential flows.

Hydrodynamics simulation of the Rayleigh–Taylor instability [2]
When all the time derivatives of a flow field vanish, the flow is considered to be a steady flow. Steady-state flow refers to the condition where the fluid properties at a point in the system do not change over time. Otherwise, flow is called unsteady.

Whether a particular flow is steady or unsteady, can depend on the chosen frame of reference. For instance, laminar flow over a sphere is steady in the frame of reference that is stationary with respect to the sphere. In a frame of reference that is stationary with respect to a background flow, the flow is unsteady.

Turbulent flows are unsteady by definition. A turbulent flow can, however, be statistically stationary. According to Pope:[3]
The random field U(x,t) is statistically stationary if all statistics are invariant under a shift in time.

This roughly means that all statistical properties are constant in time. Often, the mean field is the object of interest, and this is constant too in a statistically stationary flow.

Steady flows are often more tractable than otherwise similar unsteady flows. The governing equations of a steady problem have one dimension fewer (time) than the governing equations of the same problem without taking advantage of the steadiness of the flow field.

Laminar vs turbulent flow

Turbulence is flow characterized by recirculation, eddies, and apparent randomness. Flow in which turbulence is not exhibited is called laminar. It should be noted, however, that the presence of eddies or recirculation alone does not necessarily indicate turbulent flow—these phenomena may be present in laminar flow as well.

Mathematically, turbulent flow is often represented via a Reynolds decomposition, in which the flow is broken down into the sum of an average component and a perturbation component.

It is believed that turbulent flows can be described well through the use of the Navier–Stokes equations. Direct numerical simulation (DNS), based on the Navier–Stokes equations, makes it possible to simulate turbulent flows at moderate Reynolds numbers.

Most flows of interest have Reynolds numbers much too high for DNS to be a viable option,[5] given the state of computational power for the next few decades. Any flight vehicle large enough to carry a human (L > 3 m), moving faster than 72*km/h (20*m/s) is well beyond the limit of DNS simulation (Re = 4 million). Transport aircraft wings (such as on an Airbus A300 or Boeing 747) have Reynolds numbers of 40 million (based on the wing chord). In order to solve these real-life flow problems, turbulence models will be a necessity for the foreseeable future. Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations (RANS) combined with turbulence modeling provides a model of the effects of the turbulent flow.

Such a modeling mainly provides the additional momentum transfer by the Reynolds stresses, although the turbulence also enhances the heat and mass transfer. Another promising methodology is large eddy simulation (LES), especially in the guise of detached eddy simulation (DES)—which is a combination of RANS turbulence modeling and large eddy simulation.

Newtonian vs non-Newtonian fluids

Sir Isaac Newton showed how stress and the rate of strain are very close to linearly related for many familiar fluids, such as water and air. These Newtonian fluids are modeled by a coefficient called viscosity, which depends on the specific fluid.

However, some of the other materials, such as emulsions and slurries and some visco-elastic materials (e.g. blood, some polymers), have more complicated non-Newtonian stress-strain behaviours. These materials include sticky liquids such as latex, honey, and lubricants which are studied in the sub-discipline of rheology.

Subsonic vs transonic, supersonic and hypersonic flows

While many terrestrial flows (e.g. flow of water through a pipe) occur at low mach numbers, many flows of practical interest (e.g. in aerodynamics) occur at high fractions of the Mach Number M=1 or in excess of it (supersonic flows). New phenomena occur at these Mach number regimes (e.g. shock waves for supersonic flow, transonic instability in a regime of flows with M nearly equal to 1, non-equilibrium chemical behavior due to ionization in hypersonic flows) and it is necessary to treat each of these flow regimes separately.

Magnetohydrodynamics

Magnetohydrodynamics is the multi-disciplinary study of the flow of electrically conducting fluids in electromagnetic fields. Examples of such fluids include plasmas, liquid metals, and salt water. The fluid flow equations are solved simultaneously with Maxwell's equations of electromagnetism.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shock_waves

A shock wave (also called shock front or simply "shock") is a type of propagating disturbance.
Like an ordinary wave, it carries energy and can propagate through a medium (solid, liquid, gas or plasma) or in some cases in the absence of a material medium, through a field such as the electromagnetic field.

Shock waves are characterized by an abrupt, nearly discontinuous change in the characteristics of the medium.[1] Across a shock there is always an extremely rapid rise in pressure, temperature and density of the flow. In supersonic flows, expansion is achieved through an expansion fan. A shock wave travels through most media at a higher speed than an ordinary wave.
Unlike solitons (another kind of nonlinear wave), the energy of a shock wave dissipates relatively quickly with distance.

Also, the accompanying expansion wave approaches and eventually merges with the shock wave, partially cancelling it out. Thus the sonic boom associated with the passage of a supersonic aircraft is the sound wave resulting from the degradation and merging of the shock wave and the expansion wave produced by the aircraft.

When a shock wave passes through matter, the total energy is preserved but the energy which can be extracted as work decreases and entropy increases. This, for example, creates additional drag force on aircraft with shocks.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Expansion_fan

A Prandtl–Meyer expansion fan is a centered expansion process, which turns a supersonic flow around a convex corner. The fan consists of an infinite number of Mach waves, diverging from a sharp corner. In case of a smooth corner, these waves can be extended backwards to meet at a point. Each wave in the expansion fan turns the flow gradually (in small steps). It is physically impossible to turn the flow away from itself through a single "shock" wave because it will violate the second law of thermodynamics.

Across the expansion fan, the flow accelerates (velocity increases) and the Mach number increases, while the static pressure, temperature and density decrease. Since the process is isentropic, the stagnation properties remain constant across the fan.

For an object moving at supersonic speeds (u > c) as it moves from point A to B (distance u·t), the disturbances originating from point A travel a distance c·t. The corresponding angle is known as Mach angle and the lines enclosing the disturbed region are known as Mach lines (in 2-D case) or Mach cone (in 3-D).

RM
Attached Images
 Bernoullis Law Derivation Diagram.png (5.7 KB, 0 views) Hydrodynamic simulation of the Rayleigh - Taylor instability.gif (27.4 KB, 2 views) (Hyper X) Mach 7 Standing Shock Waves.jpg (9.9 KB, 3 views) Mach Angle Expansion Cone.jpg (6.3 KB, 0 views) Shock Diamonds.jpeg (8.2 KB, 3 views)
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#63
02-23-2012, 05:54 AM
 evolvingape Senior Member Join Date: Dec 2011 Posts: 164
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supercritical_flow

A supercritical flow is when the flow velocity is larger than the wave velocity. The analogous condition in gas dynamics is supersonic.

Information travels at the wave velocity.
This is the velocity at which waves travel outwards from a pebble thrown into a lake. The flow velocity is the velocity at which a leaf in the flow travels. If a pebble is thrown into a supercritical flow then the ripples will all move down stream whereas in a subcritical flow some would travel up stream and some would travel down stream.

It is only in supercritical flows that hydraulic jumps (bores) can occur. In fluid dynamics, the change from one behaviour to the other is often described by a dimensionless quantity, where the transition occurs whenever this number becomes less or more than one. One of these numbers is the Froude number:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydraulic_jump

A hydraulic jump is a phenomenon in the science of hydraulics which is frequently observed in open channel flow such as rivers and spillways. When liquid at high velocity discharges into a zone of lower velocity, a rather abrupt rise occurs in the liquid surface.

The rapidly flowing liquid is abruptly slowed and increases in height, converting some of the flow's initial kinetic energy into an increase in potential energy, with some energy irreversibly lost through turbulence to heat. In an open channel flow, this manifests as the fast flow rapidly slowing and piling up on top of itself similar to how a shockwave forms.

The phenomenon is dependent upon the initial fluid speed. If the initial speed of the fluid is below the critical speed, then no jump is possible. For initial flow speeds which are not significantly above the critical speed, the transition appears as an undulating wave. As the initial flow speed increases further, the transition becomes more abrupt, until at high enough speeds, the transition front will break and curl back upon itself. When this happens, the jump can be accompanied by violent turbulence, eddying, air entrainment, and surface undulations, or waves.

There are two main manifestations of hydraulic jumps and historically different terminology has been used for each. However, the mechanisms behind them are similar because they are simply variations of each other seen from different frames of reference, and so the physics and analysis techniques can be used for both types.

The different manifestations are:

The stationary hydraulic jump – rapidly flowing water transitions in a stationary jump to slowly moving water.

The tidal bore – a wall or undulating wave of water moves upstream against water flowing downstream. If considered from a frame of reference which moves with the wave front, you can see that this case is physically similar to a stationary jump.

A related case is a cascade – a wall or undulating wave of water moves downstream overtaking a shallower downstream flow of water. If considered from a frame of reference which moves with the wave front, this is amenable to the same analysis as a stationary jump.

A common example of a hydraulic jump is the roughly circular stationary wave that forms around the central stream of water. The jump is at the transition between the point where the circle appears still and where the turbulence is visible.

RM
Attached Images
 Illustration of behaviour in a Hydraulic Jump.jpg (12.5 KB, 1 views) Hydraulic Jump Stationary Circular Wave.jpg (31.6 KB, 6 views)
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Last edited by evolvingape; 02-23-2012 at 06:07 AM.
#64
02-23-2012, 05:58 AM
 evolvingape Senior Member Join Date: Dec 2011 Posts: 164
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shock_tube

The shock tube is an instrument used to replicate and direct blast waves at a sensor or a model in order to simulate actual explosions and their effects, usually on a smaller scale.

Shock tubes (and related impulse facilities such as shock tunnels, expansion tubes, and expansion tunnels) can also be used to study aerodynamic flow under a wide range of temperatures and pressures that are difficult to obtain in other types of testing facilities.

Shock tubes are also used to investigate compressible flow phenomena and gas phase combustion reactions. More recently, shock tubes have been used in biomedical research to study how biological specimens are affected by blast waves.

A shock wave inside a shock tube may be generated by a small explosion (blast-driven) or by the buildup of high pressures which cause diaphragm(s) to burst and a shock wave to propagate down the shock tube (compressed-gas driven).

A simple shock tube is a tube, rectangular or circular in cross-section, usually constructed of metal, in which a gas at low pressure and a gas at high pressure are separated using some form of diaphragm. See, for instance, texts by Soloukhin, Gaydon and Hurle, and Bradley.

The diaphragm suddenly bursts open under predetermined conditions to produce a wave propagating through the low pressure section. The shock that eventually forms increases the temperature and pressure of the test gas and induces a flow in the direction of the shock wave. Observations can be made in the flow behind the incident front or take advantage of the longer testing times and vastly enhanced pressures and temperatures behind the reflected wave.

The low-pressure gas, referred to as the driven gas, is subjected to the shock wave. The high pressure gas is known as the driver gas. The corresponding sections of the tube are likewise called the driver and driven sections. The driver gas is usually chosen to have a low molecular weight, (e.g., helium or hydrogen) for safety reasons, with high speed of sound, but may be slightly diluted to 'tailor' interface conditions across the shock. To obtain the strongest shocks the pressure of the driven gas is well below atmospheric pressure (a partial vacuum is induced in the driven section before detonation).

The test begins with the bursting of the diaphragm. Several methods are commonly used to burst the diaphragm.

A mechanically-driven plunger is sometimes used to pierce it or an explosive charge may be used to burst it.

Another method is to use diaphragms of plastic or metals to define specific bursting pressures. Plastics are used for the lowest burst pressures, aluminum and copper for somewhat higher levels and mild steel and stainless steel for the highest burst pressures.

These diaphragms are frequently scored in a cross-shaped pattern to a calibrated depth to ensure that they rupture evenly, contouring the petals so that the full section of the tube remains open during the test time.

Yet another method of rupturing the diaphragm utilizes a mixture of combustible gases, with an initiator designed to produce a detonation within it, producing a sudden and sharp increase in what may or may not be a pressurized driver.

This blast wave increases the temperature and pressure of the driven gas and induces a flow in the direction of the shock wave but at lower velocity than the lead wave. The interface, across which a limited degree of mixing occurs, separates driven and driver gases, is referred to as the contact surface and follows, at a lower velocity, the lead wave.

The bursting diaphragm produces a series of pressure waves, each increasing the speed of sound behind them, so that they compress into a shock propagating through the driven gas. This shock wave increases the temperature and pressure of the driven gas and induces a flow in the direction of the shock wave but at lower velocity than the lead wave.

Simultaneously, a rarefaction wave, often referred to as the Prandtl-Meyer wave, travels back in to the driver gas.
The interface, across which a limited degree of mixing occurs, separates driven and driver gases is referred to as the contact surface and follows, at a lower velocity, the lead wave.

A 'Chemical Shock Tube' involves separating driver and driven gases by a pair of diaphragms designed to fail after pre-determined delays with an end 'dump tank' of greatly increased cross-section. This allows an extreme rapid reduction (quench) in temperature of the heated gases.

In addition to measurements of rates of chemical kinetics shock tubes have been used to measure dissociation energies and molecular relaxation rates they have been used in aerodynamic tests. The fluid flow in the driven gas can be used much as a wind tunnel, allowing higher temperatures and pressures therein replicating conditions in the turbine sections of jet engines. However, test times are limited to a few milliseconds, either by the arrival of the contact surface or the reflected shock wave.

They have been further developed into shock tunnels, with an added nozzle and dump tank. The resultant high temperature hypersonic flow can be used to simulate atmospheric re-entry of spacecraft or hypersonic craft, again with limited testing times.

Shock tubes have been developed in a wide range of sizes. The size and method of producing the shock wave determine the peak and duration of the pressure wave it produces. Thus, shock tubes can be used as a tool used to both create and direct blast waves at a sensor or an object in order to imitate actual explosions and the damage that they cause on a smaller scale.

Results from shock tube experiments can be used to develop and validate numerical model of the response of a material or object to a blast wave. Shock tubes can be used to experimentally determine which materials and designs would be best suited to the job of attenuating blast waves. The results can then be incorporated into designs to protect structures and people that might be exposed to a blast wave. Shock tubes are also used in biomedical research to find out how biological tissues are affected by blast waves.

RM
Attached Images
 Shock Tube Waves.png (29.4 KB, 1 views)
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Last edited by evolvingape; 02-23-2012 at 06:16 AM.
#65
02-23-2012, 07:54 AM
 evolvingape Senior Member Join Date: Dec 2011 Posts: 164

When you have constructed a basic Turgo turbine (or variant such as a Pelton), powered by water pressure from the standard house tap.

The turbine will rotate a permanent magnet alternator, and the electrical AC output filtered through a full bridge rectifier will produce Direct Current.

The DC will be fed into a HHO cell, either wet or dry cell design, doesn't matter for testing purposes at this stage.

The HHO will be pumped under it's own low expansion pressure to an outlet such as a small bore pipe creating a HHO torch, or water fuel supply.

The waste exhaust water from the turbine will gravity feed into a Kelvin generator reservoir.

The water will drip and create an electrostatic potential that will discharge across a spark gap, creating an ionised plasma arc of approximately 15,000 Volts.

The spark gap, if arranged at the HHO torch tip will detonate the gas.

Now look at this video:

The basic principles here are sound, you can charge a piston chamber with HHO and then detonate that charge using a Kelvin generator electrostatic discharge event.

The resultant detonation wave will be confined into a limited volume and the pressure will rise inside the chamber until peak chamber pressure is reached.

This is the fundamental basis for a linear piston engine running on Hydrogen, with the energy required for fuel processing provided by your water supply, or any suitable head of low pressure.

We all having fun ?

Be careful with this, it is dangerous if not done correctly!

Rob
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Last edited by evolvingape; 02-23-2012 at 07:59 AM.
#66
02-23-2012, 09:52 AM
 evolvingape Senior Member Join Date: Dec 2011 Posts: 164
What are the possibilities ?

Well detonating the Hydrogen in a chamber is a great idea, because the product is heat and a pressure increase through expansion. This will drive a piston.

If that piston was connected to a fire tube filled with air the resultant linear force would compress the air and generate heat. The back pressure as the air expands again would reset the HHO piston for charging.

Many of these pistons submerged in a water reservoir would create lot's of heat, and also space out the timing so you can charge each HHO piston.

Hydraulic pistons typically have high pressure ratings and very close bore tolerances so seals are not essential.

If you can boil the water then you can use it to heat a boiler, which will produce steam.

And the steam can run a Pulsometer, which will replace the water pressure head, currently supplied by your tap.

Be fun testing this!

RM
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#67
02-23-2012, 11:20 AM
 evolvingape Senior Member Join Date: Dec 2011 Posts: 164
I just had a better idea!

Hydraulic Tees, All Male and all Female... like these rated to 3000 psi:

Cotswold Engineering Supplies Online Store &ndash; Hydraulic Adaptors &ndash; BSPP Male Equal Tee Coned Seal

Cotswold Engineering Supplies Online Store &ndash; Hydraulic Adaptors &ndash; BSP Swivel Female Tee

When connected together via cone seal in a cross arrangement will create 90 degree sharp turns. You can also step up and step down sizes using converters.

This will create compression and expansion phases in the gas flow.

Now you can bolt the assembly down solid and point the structure down submersed in water.

The water will seek to equalise level and fill the assembly.

Attach your HHO supply to the inlet, monitor the gas charge fill like in the video, and the HHO will displace the water and seal the bottom of the chamber.

Now when you detonate it will blow the hot gas through the water, transferring heat.

The chamber will then refill for the next cycle, cooling it in the process.

The added beauty is that a hydraulic cross will give you opposing fixtures to mount your spark gap:

Cotswold Engineering Supplies Online Store &ndash; Hydraulic Adaptors &ndash; BSP Male Cross

Really simple, and no pistons to worry about!

RM
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#68
02-26-2012, 12:50 AM
 evolvingape Senior Member Join Date: Dec 2011 Posts: 164
A pulse detonation engine, or "PDE", is a type of propulsion system that uses detonation waves to combust the fuel and oxidizer mixture.The engine is pulsed because the mixture must be renewed in the combustion chamber between each detonation wave initiated by an ignition source.

Theoretically, a PDE can operate from subsonic up to a hypersonic flight speed of roughly Mach 5. An ideal PDE design can have a thermodynamic efficiency higher than other designs like turbojets and turbofans because a detonation wave rapidly compresses the mixture and adds heat at constant volume.

Consequently, moving parts like compressor spools are not necessarily required in the engine, which could significantly reduce overall weight and cost. PDEs have been considered for propulsion for over 70 years. Key issues for further development include fast and efficient mixing of the fuel and oxidizer, the prevention of autoignition, and integration with an inlet and nozzle.

To date, no practical PDE has been put into production, but several testbed engines have been built and one was successfully integrated into a low-speed demonstration aircraft that flew in sustained PDE powered flight in 2008. In June 2008, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) unveiled Blackswift which was intended to use this technology to reach speeds of up to Mach 6.[4] However the project was cancelled soon afterward, in October 2008.

Concept
All regular jet engines and most rocket engines operate on the deflagration of fuel, that is, the rapid but subsonic combustion of fuel. The pulse detonation engine is a concept currently in active development to create a jet engine that operates on the supersonic detonation of fuel.

The basic operation of the PDE is similar to that of the pulse jet engine; air is mixed with fuel to create a flammable mixture that is then ignited. The resulting combustion greatly increases the pressure of the mixture to approximately 100 atmospheres (10 MPa),[5] which then expands through a nozzle for thrust.

To ensure that the mixture exits to the rear, thereby pushing the aircraft forward, a series of shutters are used to close off the front of the engine. Careful tuning of the inlet ensures the shutters close at the right time to force the air to travel in one direction only through the engine.

The main difference between a PDE and a traditional pulse jet engine is that the mixture does not undergo subsonic combustion but instead, supersonic detonation. In the PDE, the oxygen and fuel combination process is supersonic, effectively an explosion instead of burning.

The other difference is that the shutters are replaced by more sophisticated valves. In some PDE designs from General Electric, the shutters are eliminated through careful timing, using the pressure differences between the different areas of the engine to ensure the "shot" is ejected rearward.

The main side effect of the change in cycle is that the PDE is considerably more efficient. In the pulse jet engine the combustion pushes a considerable amount of the fuel/air mix (the charge) out the rear of the engine before it has had a chance to burn (thus the trail of flame seen on the V-1 flying bomb).

Even while inside the engine the mixture's volume is continually changing, which is an inefficient way to burn fuel. In contrast the PDE deliberately uses a high-speed combustion process that burns all of the charge while it is still inside the engine at a constant volume.

This is said to increase the amount of heat produced per unit of fuel above any other engines, although conversion of that energy into thrust would remain inefficient. A combustion process able to produce more heat per unit of fuel would, of course, be incredibly valuable in countless applications.

Another side effect, not yet demonstrated in practical use, is the cycle time. A traditional pulsejet tops out at about 250 pulses per second due to the cycle time of the mechanical shutters, but the aim of the PDE is thousands of pulses per second, so fast that it is basically continuous from an engineering perspective.

This should help smooth out the otherwise highly vibrational pulsejet engine — many small pulses will create less volume than a smaller number of larger pulses for the same net thrust. Unfortunately, detonations are many times louder than deflagrations.

The major difficulty with a pulse-detonation engine is starting the detonation. While it is possible to start a detonation directly with a large spark, the amount of energy input is very large and is not practical for an engine.

The typical solution is to use a deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT)—that is, start a high-energy deflagration, and have it accelerate down a tube to the point where it becomes fast enough to become a detonation.

Alternatively the detonation can be sent around a circle and valves ensure that only the highest peak power can leak into exhaust. This process is far more complicated than it sounds, due to the resistance the advancing wavefront encounters (similar to wave drag).

DDTs occur far more readily if there are obstacles in the tube. The most widely used is the "Shchelkin spiral", which is designed to create the most useful eddies with the least resistance to the moving fuel/air/exhaust mixture. The eddies lead to the flame separating into multiple fronts, some of which go backwards and collide with other fronts, and then accelerate into fronts ahead of them.

The behavior is difficult to model and to predict, and research is ongoing. As with conventional pulsejets, there are two main types of designs: valved and valveless. Designs with valves encounter the same difficult-to-resolve wear issues encountered with their pulsejet equivalents. Valveless designs typically rely on abnormalities in the air flow to ensure a one-way flow, and are very hard to achieve in a regular DDT.

NASA maintains a research program on the PDE, which is aimed at high-speed, about Mach 5, civilian transport systems. However most PDE research is military in nature, as the engine could be used to develop a new generation of high-speed, long-range reconnaissance aircraft that would fly high enough to be out of range of any current anti-aircraft defenses, while offering range considerably greater than the SR-71, which required a massive tanker support fleet to use in operation.

While most research is on the high speed regime, newer designs with much higher pulse rates in the hundreds of thousands appear to work well even at subsonic speeds. Whereas traditional engine designs always include tradeoffs that limit them to a "best speed" range, the PDE appears to outperform them at all speeds. Both Pratt & Whitney and General Electric now have active PDE research programs in an attempt to commercialize the designs.

Key difficulties in pulse detonation engines are achieving DDT without requiring a tube long enough to make it impractical and drag-imposing on the aircraft (adding a U-bend into the tube extinguishes the detonation wave); reducing the noise (often described as sounding like a jackhammer); and damping the severe vibration caused by the operation of the engine.

RM
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#69
02-26-2012, 01:17 AM
 evolvingape Senior Member Join Date: Dec 2011 Posts: 164
Gas Laws - The Physics Hypertextbook

The gas laws are a set of intuitively obvious statements to most everyone in the Western world today. It's hard to believe that there was ever a time when they weren't understood. And yet someone had to notice these relationships and write them down. For this reason, many students are taught the three most important gas laws by the names of their discoverers. However, since the laws are known by different names in different countries and (more importantly) since I can never remember who gets credit for which law without referring to notes, I will not follow this convention.

Ideal Gas Law

An ideal gas is defined as one in which all collisions between atoms or molecules are perfectly eleastic and in which there are no intermolecular attractive forces. One can visualize it as a collection of perfectly hard spheres which collide but which otherwise do not interact with each other.

In such a gas, all the internal energy is in the form of kinetic energy and any change in internal energy is accompanied by a change in temperature.
An ideal gas can be characterized by three state variables: absolute pressure (P), volume (V), and absolute temperature (T). The relationship between them may be deduced from kinetic theory and is called the

Ideal Gas Law: P V = n R T = N k T

n = number of moles
R = universal gas constant = 8.3145 J/mol K
N = number of molecules
k = Boltzmann constant = 1.38066 x 10-23 J/K = 8.617385 x 10-5 eV/K
k = R/NA
NA = Avogadro's number = 6.0221 x 1023 /mol

The ideal gas law can be viewed as arising from the kinetic pressure of gas molecules colliding with the walls of a container in accordance with Newton's laws. But there is also a statistical element in the determination of the average kinetic energy of those molecules.

The temperature is taken to be proportional to this average kinetic energy; this invokes the idea of kinetic temperature. One mole of an ideal gas at STP occupies 22.4 liters.

Adiabatic process - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Adiabatic changes in temperature occur due to changes in pressure of a gas while not adding or subtracting any heat.
In contrast, free expansion is an isothermal process for an ideal gas.

Adiabatic heating occurs when the pressure of a gas is increased from work done on it by its surroundings, e.g. a piston. Diesel engines rely on adiabatic heating during their compression stroke to elevate the temperature sufficiently to ignite the fuel.

Adiabatic heating also occurs in the Earth's atmosphere when an air mass descends, for example, in a katabatic wind or Foehn wind flowing downhill. When a parcel of air descends, the pressure on the parcel increases. Due to this increase in pressure, the parcel's volume decreases and its temperature increases, thus increasing the internal energy.

Heat engine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Engineers have studied the various heat engine cycles extensively in an effort to improve the amount of usable work they could extract from a given power source. The Carnot Cycle limit cannot be reached with any gas-based cycle, but engineers have worked out at least two ways to possibly go around that limit, and one way to get better efficiency without bending any rules.

1. Increase the temperature difference in the heat engine. The simplest way to do this is to increase the hot side temperature, which is the approach used in modern combined-cycle gas turbines. Unfortunately, physical limits (such as the melting point of the materials from which the engine is constructed) and environmental concerns regarding NOx production restrict the maximum temperature on workable heat engines. Modern gas turbines run at temperatures as high as possible within the range of temperatures necessary to maintain acceptable NOx output.

Another way of increasing efficiency is to lower the output temperature. One new method of doing so is to use mixed chemical working fluids, and then exploit the changing behavior of the mixtures. One of the most famous is the so-called Kalina cycle, which uses a 70/30 mix of ammonia and water as its working fluid. This mixture allows the cycle to generate useful power at considerably lower temperatures than most other processes.

2. Exploit the physical properties of the working fluid. The most common such exploitation is the use of water above the so-called critical point, or so-called supercritical steam. The behavior of fluids above their critical point changes radically, and with materials such as water and carbon dioxide it is possible to exploit those changes in behavior to extract greater thermodynamic efficiency from the heat engine, even if it is using a fairly conventional Brayton or Rankine cycle.

A newer and very promising material for such applications is CO2. SO2 and xenon have also been considered for such applications, although SO2 is a little toxic for most.

3. Exploit the chemical properties of the working fluid. A fairly new and novel exploit is to use exotic working fluids with advantageous chemical properties. One such is nitrogen dioxide (NO2), a toxic component of smog, which has a natural dimer as di-nitrogen tetraoxide (N2O4).

At low temperature, the N2O4 is compressed and then heated. The increasing temperature causes each N2O4 to break apart into two NO2 molecules. This lowers the molecular weight of the working fluid, which drastically increases the efficiency of the cycle. Once the NO2 has expanded through the turbine, it is cooled by the heat sink, which causes it to recombine into N2O4.

This is then fed back to the compressor for another cycle. Such species as aluminium bromide (Al2Br6), NOCl, and Ga2I6 have all been investigated for such uses. To date, their drawbacks have not warranted their use, despite the efficiency gains that can be realized.

adiabatic (no heat is added or removed from the system during adiabatic process which is equivalent to saying that the entropy remains constant, if the process is also reversible.

The Pulsometer uses a fluid piston in an oscillating reciprocal cycle.

RM
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#70
02-27-2012, 08:47 PM
 evolvingape Senior Member Join Date: Dec 2011 Posts: 164
Some helpful tips on getting your spark generator to produce impressive results:

High voltage device: Kelvin's Thunderstorm

Electrostatic device: Kelvin's Thunderstorm, 'Inline' version

RM
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#71
02-27-2012, 08:51 PM
 evolvingape Senior Member Join Date: Dec 2011 Posts: 164
"The major difficulty with a pulse-detonation engine is starting the detonation. While it is possible to start a detonation directly with a large spark, the amount of energy input is very large and is not practical for an engine."

This is why Lord Kelvin's electrostatic spark generator is so important to us, for a stationary engine, it is perfectly suitable as prime mover source, and energy cost to you is zero!

RM
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#72
02-28-2012, 01:10 AM
 ashtweth Gold Member Join Date: Jan 2008 Posts: 2,499
“Kitchen Stove” Biorefinery Goes from Grass to Gasoline in One Hour
New Biorefinery Converts Grass Straight to Gasoline
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#73
02-28-2012, 11:56 PM
 evolvingape Senior Member Join Date: Dec 2011 Posts: 164
Vortex tube technology is important so you need to know about it, if you do not already.

Think about how you could use it... where could this be useful ?

Vortex tube - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Vortex Tube History

http://www.me.berkeley.edu/~gtdevera...vortextube.pdf

http://alexandria.tue.nl/extra2/200513271.pdf

RM
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#74
02-29-2012, 03:30 AM
 kcarring Silver Member Join Date: Dec 2010 Posts: 610
@ashtweth

Very cool article that looks very promising.
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#75
02-29-2012, 04:10 AM
 kcarring Silver Member Join Date: Dec 2010 Posts: 610
Quote:
 Originally Posted by evolvingape "The major difficulty with a pulse-detonation engine is starting the detonation. While it is possible to start a detonation directly with a large spark, the amount of energy input is very large and is not practical for an engine." This is why Lord Kelvin's electrostatic spark generator is so important to us, for a stationary engine, it is perfectly suitable as prime mover source, and energy cost to you is zero! RM
What frequency do you think is possible with drips of water?
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#76
02-29-2012, 11:04 AM
 evolvingape Senior Member Join Date: Dec 2011 Posts: 164
Quote:
 Originally Posted by kcarring What frequency do you think is possible with drips of water?
In the tests I have run with a single fast dripping water stream (not a continuous unbroken stream as that transmits charge as in electrode boilers) I consume about 1 liter / minute maximum. The water can be used as long as it is falling and so multiple charge inducer rings are possible from the same single drip source. I am currently experimenting with multiple ring stacks wired in series and parallel to boost the current in the spark.

The particular video I linked to is the easiest and cheapest to replicate and works! So should be no problem generating a spark for no money.

If we take an example turbine that runs on 1 litre / second, then it should be possible to multiply out the Kelvin generators until the input they require equals the output from the turbine exhaust. So in this example, 60 Kelvin generators would equal our flow rate of 60 liters / minute from the turbine exhaust.

If we then convert liters to Gallons per minute by multiplying by 4.54 (UK gallon) or 3.79 (US Gallon), I am going to use the UK Gallon.

So 60 liters / minute = 13.2 imperial gallon / minute.

The smallest model of Pulsometer put out 10 GPM at a head suitable for running a Turgo turbine, therefore if we multiply out our Kelvin generators to match the fluid exhaust from the turbine:

4.54 Kelvin generators @ 1 liter per minute ea / Gallon

13.2 Gallons per minute x 4.54 = 60 Kelvin Generators.

So if your turbine has a through rate of fluid at 13.2 GPM you will be able to run approximately 60 Kelvin Generators, with the number of inducer rings a variable depending on height the water is allowed to drop in the gravitational field.

In this example it would probably be best to use a single Kelvin generator structure with positive and negative ring stacks, and just build it big. Control the flow rate by how many tiny holes you drill, so for this calculation you could run 60 individual drip streams for the generator (that is 30 per ring stack, as my 1 liter / min consumption rate was for both stacks of a complete generator). It would be an easy way to balance the system, keep drilling one hole at a time until the turbine output and Kelvin input balance. You will know this when your reservoir height remains constant.

The frequency of the sparks generated will depend on how long it takes your generator to recharge between discharges, I have observed a frequency of as little as 4 seconds between sparks, and also much longer durations between sparks with the same generator. Preventing electrostatic leakage is very important to your spark discharge energy and recharge time between sparks.

RM
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Last edited by evolvingape; 03-01-2012 at 02:53 PM.
#77
03-02-2012, 01:03 AM
 FuzzyTomCat Silver Member Join Date: Jun 2008 Posts: 620
Quote:
 Originally Posted by rickoff Hi Glen, I recently purchased a new countryside homestead where I plan to do some farming, and I also picked up a 1950 Ferguson tractor in great condition. I plan to set up the tractor to run on woodgas, and will use the tractor for several purposes. Right now I'm using it just to plow snow in my driveway , but will be plowing a garden plot this spring. I also want to use the tractor to mow the 2 acre field my house sits on, and to harvest wood from my 20 acre woodlot. With a woodchipper attachment operated from the tractor's power take-off, I figure that I could produce all the chips that I would ever need not only to fuel the tractor, but also to produce abundant heat and hot water, while at the same time allowing me to drive a generator. So, I'll definitely be doing some homework on woodgas technology. By the way, the new home is a passive solar heated one, and I'm amazed at how efficient it already is. On a day like yesterday, when the temperature outside never went over 10 degrees, I was able to shut off all supplemental heat by 9:30 in the morning, and by 10:00AM actually had to start cracking some windows open as the inside temperature had risen to over 75 degrees. Most of the heat comes from the solar attic, which warms up quickly on a clear day. By noon time the attic temperature was 120 degrees F, and at 2:00PM it reached a high for the day of 143 degrees. A fan comes on when the attic temperature reaches 85 degrees and circulates the attic air down and through a hollowed masonry wall which continues to radiate heat well after sundown, so I don't have to switch any supplemental heat back on until 2 to 3 hours later, when the attic temperature drops below 85 again. Currently the home uses electric baseboard heat in the evenings, and I thought that would be expensive, but my electric bill for the past 30 day was under \$100, and everything in this house runs on electric. With just a few renewable energy enhancements I should be able to live entirely off grid next winter. I expect woodgas to play a major role in that. Rick
Hi Rick,

I'm so glad to hear your working on a older gasoline farm tractor to utilize wood gasification for operation. The FEMA document RR-28 reprinted in July 1989 http://www.soilandhealth.org/03sov/0...ma.woodgas.pdf was a comprehensive effort to give information on "Construction of a Simplified Gas Generator for Fueling a Internal Combustion in a Petroleum Emergency".

The problem being the State and Federal regulations imposed to farmers on the storage of Gasoline it being a hazardous location and costing lots of money for any storage tank installations and little to no regulations for Diesel. So the farmers went to Diesel for there fuel source and Wood gas wont work in a Diesel engine so there went the USA citizens and FEMA back up plan for a Gasoline substitute for our countries food and transportation supply.

As you may know most all food items are shipped in just like most all other consumables we import using large cargo ships. Those cargo ships from port to port ( small example China to the USA, Ecuador to the USA ) some 50,000 minimum running around the globe "DALEY" each using some 500,000 to 1,500,000 gallons of fuel oil ( do the math ) this is where we need to get a handle on the waste of Oil, which we also could make Gasoline with.

I understand each and everyone wanting to do there part in conserving energy and it's cost to you and me the consumer but the bottom line is private citizens spending hard earned money for a personal fuel economy vehicle is a grain of sand compared to the sand dune of waste from imports using "Cargo Ships" to bring anything into our country not to mention jobs we loose ..... and a food source we rely on that's on the store shelf stocked by supplies from other countries while our need or demand grows we become more vulnerable.

We cant ween our need for oil .... there's plastic, transportation from cars, planes, trains, buses and semi trucks but cargo ships we can and should, several a day would conserve "MILLIONS" of gallons of fuel a day.

Best Regards,
Fuzzy
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Open Source Research and Development
#78
03-08-2012, 06:39 PM
 evolvingape Senior Member Join Date: Dec 2011 Posts: 164

Those of you wondering what the purpose of everything I posted in this thread was, I was placing the background info for this:

Have fun!

Rob
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#79
03-15-2012, 03:33 AM
 evolvingape Senior Member Join Date: Dec 2011 Posts: 164
The diagram of the turbine accumulator heat pump in my article at SeaBirdAdventure is not the most efficient design but allowed me to combine the two major methods of joining hydraulic tees together for strength, showed the heat pump and turbine accumulator systems. I have included a picture at the bottom of what this looks like in real life, the pic is of the baby of the family in 1/8 BSP male and female tees, the detonation chamber is 1/2 BSP fixed female cross, there is a 1/4 NRV, and a 1/2 BSP shut off valve, and adaptors as necessary. Not the final design, I do not have all the bits needed yet, had enough to build it up for a picture for you though.

Fluke 179 is a good bit of kit if you can afford it and comes with a Type K port and temperature capability -40C / 400C which is very handy if you want to take water to its supercritical point of 374C

Multimeter | Fluke 170 Series Digital Multimeters - Fluke 179, 177, 175 multimeters

Type K thermocouples for pressure assemblies, essential for accurate temperature measurements inside a pressurised housing, such as a Superheated Electrolysis Cell. They plug into a multimeter with a port for Type K. See the HHO flame burning under water in post #46 that's what the guy is using to measure the temperature of the water.

http://media.conaxtechnologies.com/m...BulletinLR.pdf

Also in this pdf have a look at the High Performance Electrode Gland ( HEGPK ). This is also for pressure applications and will screw into your detonation chamber fixed female cross. They have a single piece PEEK insulator sleeve to ensure electrical isolation for the electrode. Two of these mounted opposing will give you your electrode gap.

I would love some of these but they are outside the budget so I made my own (see pics) from a 1/2 – 1/8 BSP Male – Male hydraulic adaptor, some 6 mm hydraulic hose with 4 mm bore, a piece of stainless threaded rod M4 and some nuts and nylon washers. The nuts stop the threaded rod from blowing out if the hydraulic hose loses it's grip. I had to really beat it in there with a big hammer, and you can see in the pic how I bent one of the electrodes a bit, oops, but no matter because it works. Only issue I have had with it is static builds up and it stops working after a while, going to look into grounding the body, see if that helps. Works with both piezo ignition from a bbq lighter and the Kelvin generator, but is very temperamental at present, sometimes it just doesn't wanna spark but when it does I get much bigger fatter blue sparks than when the electrodes are sitting on the bench with no housing.

I am looking at a single spark plug port, instead of a double opposed electrode assembly because I do not have a fixed female cross to use. The one in the pic is a 1/2 BSP F/F Tee and proved the concept, but only gives me one port to spark through if I want an inline detonation chamber, which I do, so:

AdvancedSpuds - No Spark Plug - Combustion Spud Guns - Your source for spudgun information!

This community is great and has been developing ignition systems for years, most of them have moved onto either stun guns or cheap disposable flash cameras for more reliable ignition, but I will be sticking with the piezo and Kelvin methods, because that is what I need for this system.

Burst disks for paintball air bottle regulators are 3/8 - 24 tpi thread so an adaptor will fit and come in 4 standard pressure ratings, 1.8k, 3k, 5k, 7.5k, so you have a good range to choose from. Water's supercritical pressure value at 373.946 C is 220.64 bar (3200 psi), no point in going higher pressure than this as it makes no difference to results, so choose your burst disc according to the pressure you are aiming for. Do not push 3000 psi class fittings past 6000 psi as that is the overpressure proof, 3200 psi should be easily attainable and safe. A 5k burst disk is my choice, 1000 psi below the hydrostatic test pressure. Multiple burst disks in parallel increase your flow rate and enhance safety so always a good idea.

Remember that if you keep the pressure value above the temperature value relationship any heat energy you add to the water in AC mode will be specific heat and raise the water temperature, not latent heat energy and cause phase change to steam. You cannot do this if your applied pressure comes from steam because the liquid and vapor must be in balance

And finally here is a great little calculator for relating temperature and pressure to analyse your results, you only get about 5 or 6 free goes without registering:

eFunda: Saturated Steam Tables

and another table for a quick comparison in degrees C:

Free Steam Tables - metric units

Have fun

Rob
Attached Images
 Electrode Gland.jpg (185.3 KB, 5 views) Opposing Electrode Glands and Detonation Chamber.jpg (213.2 KB, 6 views) Heat Pump Turbine Accumulator Single Electrode Gland.jpg (238.7 KB, 9 views)
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#80
03-18-2012, 10:31 PM
 evolvingape Senior Member Join Date: Dec 2011 Posts: 164
Spark Plugs

Now let's examine the common internal combustion engine spark plug:

Spark plug - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Let's learn some more about them from an alternative source, here is a particularly informative article from 1977:

How you can read spark plugs and select them - by Gordon Jennings.

Here we can see what NGK, the world leader, have to say about their spark plugs:

Cutaway View

NGK Spark Plugs USA

Now let's learn about what the letters mean on the spark plug specification:

Z1 Enterprises, Inc. NGK Spark Plug & Plug Cap Guide

and a double check from NGK, the main manufacturer of spark plugs in the world:

http://www.ngksparkplugs.com/techinf...tnumberkey.pdf

http://www.ngksparkplugs.com/docs/RacingSpecs2010.pdf

NGK Spark Plugs USA

So we now know that spark plugs use a metric thread as an international standard, with 14mm being common, so we double check with a spark plug tool manufacturer:

Snap-on Tools

So now what we need to do is find an adaptor that will allow us to fit a standard spark plug into our detonation chamber:

Products

This adaptor for example is 1/2 NPT to 14mm Metric, so if you are using an NPT cross it is a straight conversion.

Here is an interesting page:

Product Catalog

If you are using a BSP cross then a different adaptor is required, check that the metric female part of the adaptor is fixed, and not swivel, so that the spark plug will screw straight in without obstruction. I found this adaptor for 1/2 BSP to 14mm in brass, but hydraulic steel is always better for pressure applications:

Spark Plug Thread Adaptors Brass 1/2" Pipe down to 14mm | eBay

If you wanted to stay with steel hydraulic adaptors then you could use the easily obtainable 1/2 NPT to 14mm spark plug adaptor bush, a 1/2 NPTF fixed female to 3/4 BSP male bush with cone seal adaptor:

Atlas Hiflo - Quality Hydraulic Adaptors - 5BN - BSP MALE X NPT FIXED FEMALE BUSH TO DIN 3852 FORM A

and then use a 1/2" BSPP male x 3/4" BSPP swivel female hydraulic adaptor to connect to your BSPP detonation chamber:

Cotswold Engineering Supplies Online Store &ndash; Hydraulic Adaptors &ndash; BSPP Male x BSPP Female

Shop around for the adaptor you need for your particular choice of system, places like this may have what you want:

MARYLAND METRICS PRODUCT GUIDE

The one issue you may encounter is BSPP male to BSPP female connections which are both parallel thread, and so could vibrate loose. To prevent this I suggest using head gasket sealant on the fittings and then wire locking the adaptor to the chamber which will keep a secure torque and prevent the fitting unscrewing from vibration. Modify the fitting by drilling a small hole through the hex on the adaptor and on a suitable point on the chamber. This is standard practice on aircraft, I have done it many times and it is safe if done correctly. No problem using parallel threads now

Now you have the ability to fit a highly engineered spark plug with specifications of your choice, at a cheap mass produced price. The added advantage is that if you use a fixed female hydraulic cross to mount your detonation chamber your spark plug will only occupy one port, there will be another port directly opposite that can be used to direct a jet of cold air from the vortex tube to spot cool the spark plug between detonation cycles, keeping the temperature below 500 C to prevent auto ignition of Hydrogen.

RM
Attached Images
 Spark Plug Cut Away.jpg (17.7 KB, 1 views) Spark Plug with Two side (ground) Electrodes.jpg (13.8 KB, 0 views) Different Spark Plug Sizes.jpg (6.0 KB, 0 views)
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Last edited by evolvingape; 03-19-2012 at 12:06 AM.
#81
03-19-2012, 10:55 AM
 evolvingape Senior Member Join Date: Dec 2011 Posts: 164

I was doing some checking around on the suitability of the brass spark plug adaptor for this application and came across this quote in a forum from an old boy:

1/2 NPT Spark Plugs - SmokStak

Phillip Hutchinson

"why don't you do what i do ,i make an adaptor out of a piece of brass hex,you cut a 1/2 " bsp thread on the out side and bore and thread the inside to 14 mm.Then all you need to do is to pick up a plug in any supermarket so to speak,i have a number of engines with this mod employed and they run with out a problem.
Regards Phillip"

Gotta love the old boys, fountains of knowledge they are!

So the brass adaptor for BSP detonation chambers should work fine, only one way to find out, and as my system is based around BSP that is the route I am going, gonna be a while until I have all the parts to test though so if you give this a try let me know how it works out for you. Thanks.

Rob
Attached Images
 Half Inch BSP to 14 mm Brass Spark Plug Adaptor Reducing Bush.jpg (8.1 KB, 1 views)
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Last edited by evolvingape; 03-19-2012 at 10:58 AM.
#82
03-19-2012, 11:36 AM
 Cherryman Senior Member Join Date: Jul 2009 Posts: 398
Gasifier with stirling

Hi all,

I follow this guy on youtube now for a while. He started with simple Stirling engines doing actual work!

And now he combined it with a simple gasifier.

So not as advanced as the e-ape designs, but always nice to see working products:

Gasifier cookstove with Stirling engine - YouTube
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#83
03-19-2012, 12:04 PM
 evolvingape Senior Member Join Date: Dec 2011 Posts: 164
That's great Cherryman!

It shows perfectly how a gasifier can be related to power generation in something other than an ICE!

So the gasifier creates two outputs (the heat from the chamber and also combustible gas) which can be used to generate a steam pressure head in a boiler. The steam is used to run a Pulsometer to turn a turbine, which in turn drives an alternator.

If you want you can then use the electricity produced in a standard electrolysis cell or experiment with the hot off the press superheated electrolysis cell design.

The HHO can then be used in the detonation chamber providing turbine accumulator output, and or, an ambient air heat pump, and recycles the heat from the chamber for your boiler.

This is why all this information is in this thread

Thanks Cherryman, great find!

Rob
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Last edited by evolvingape; 03-19-2012 at 12:06 PM.
#84
03-19-2012, 12:20 PM
 Cherryman Senior Member Join Date: Jul 2009 Posts: 398
Quote:
 Originally Posted by evolvingape That's great Cherryman! It shows perfectly how a gasifier can be related to power generation in something other than an ICE! So the gasifier creates two outputs (the heat from the chamber and also combustible gas) which can be used to generate a steam pressure head in a boiler. The steam is used to run a Pulsometer to turn a turbine, which in turn drives an alternator. If you want you can then use the electricity produced in a standard electrolysis cell or experiment with the hot off the press superheated electrolysis cell design. The HHO can then be used in the detonation chamber providing turbine accumulator output, and or, an ambient air heat pump, and recycles the heat from the chamber for your boiler. This is why all this information is in this thread Thanks Cherryman, great find! Rob
Tnx,

If you liked that one;
There are many out there already, the trick is to combine systems.
Look at this Stirling engine:

Tamera - SolarVillage Testfield 2011 - YouTube

Tamera - SolarVillage Testfield 2011 - YouTube

They have a large Stirling solar engine powering real stuff, a solar "village"

Operating temp as low as 100c to 200c !
Low RPM
1.5kW Electrical output
1.7 kW Mechanical output

It's a low RPM Stirling type engine, operating gas is normal unpressurized air and they use either water or oil as a heat transfer medium.

The beauty is the use of a transfer fluid, so your heat source can be at another place. (Let sun heat the oil when available, let your stove be the source, or your gasifier.. just choose by switching the valve to your best heatsource and your stirling will work away!

Keep up the good work!
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Last edited by Cherryman; 03-19-2012 at 12:22 PM.
#85
03-19-2012, 12:31 PM
 evolvingape Senior Member Join Date: Dec 2011 Posts: 164
Quote:
 Originally Posted by Cherryman the trick is to combine systems.
You got it spot on, and hopefully so do a lot of other people

Rob
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#86
03-19-2012, 05:59 PM
 evolvingape Senior Member Join Date: Dec 2011 Posts: 164
Check this out:

A Process Model for the Production of Hydrogen Using High Temperature Electrolysis.

International Conference on Nuclear Engineering.

http://www.inl.gov/technicalpublicat...ts/3372467.pdf

I did not think I would be able to fit one of these in my garage, and it's a bit complicated, and has rubbish temperatures and pressures, so you got the superheated electrolysis cell instead...

Rob
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#87
03-21-2012, 02:14 PM
 evolvingape Senior Member Join Date: Dec 2011 Posts: 164

Here is a page that clearly lists the correct spark plug metric taps:

Metric taps fine 0.8mm 1x.25 tap 1.6x.35 mm taps 2x.45 taps 3x.35 3x.5 tap 4x.5 4x.75 taps 5x.5 5x.75 tap 6x.5 6x.75 taps 8x.75 8x1 taps 10x.75 10x1 10x1.25 tap11x.75 11x1.25 taps 12x1 12x1.25 12x1.5 taps 13x1.25 14x1 14x1.5 tap 15x1 15x2 16x1.5 18x1

Metric (mm) x Pitch (tpi)

10 x 1
12 x 1.25
14 x 1.25
18 x 1.5

Tapping drill size chart:

Tapping Drills for Taps-Drills for tapping

BSP Dies:

BSP dies BS Pipe dies BSPF die round split adjustable die British Standard Pipe die for pipe threading BSP die 1/8 BSP die 1/4 BSP dies 3/8BSP die 1/2 BSP dies 5/8 BSP dies 3/4 BSP die 1” BSP die 1.1/4 BSP dies 1.1/2 BSP die 1.3/4 BSP 2” BSP die

BSPT Dies:

BSPT dies BSPT Tapered die BSPT die round split adjustable British Standard Pipe Tapered form die 1/8 BSPT dies 1/4 BSPT dies 3/8 BSPT die 1/2 BSPT dies 3/4 BSPT die 1” BSPT dies 1.1/4 BSPT die 1.1/2 BSPT die 2” BSPT die

NPT Dies:

NPT dies NPTapered dies NPT taper form die round split adjustable NPT National American Pipe Tapered dies 1/8 NPT dies 1/4 NPT dies 3/8 NPT die 1/2 NPT dies 3/4 NPT die 1inch NPT dies 1.1/4 NPT dies 1.1/2 NPT die

Information you need:

ISO Metric Fine Thread DIN 13

ISO Metric Fine Thread DIN 13

BSPP

BSPP Whitworth Pipe Thread DIN ISO 228 (DIN 259)

BSPT

BSPT Whitworth Tapered Pipe Thread DIN 2999

NPT

NPT American Taper Pipe Thread ANSI B 1.20.1

NPTF

NPTF American Taper Pipe Thread ANSI B 1.20.3

Now you can take any hydraulic assembly and make the adaptor you need for whatever you want to fit, taps for cutting internal female threads, dies for cutting external male threads.

Then just choose the appropiate brass hexagon bar:

Smiths Metal Centres - Brass Stockholder - Brass Supplier

Smiths Metal Centres Product Catalogue

If you are unsure what size hex bar you need to start with measure a fitting (like a hex nipple) across the flats (spanner size) to find out. Bore (drill) and tap the female (spark plug port) and turn (on a lathe) and thread (with a die) the male. Now you can convert anything to anything

RM
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#88
03-25-2012, 08:39 PM
 evolvingape Senior Member Join Date: Dec 2011 Posts: 164
How to electroplate

If you want to experiment with electroplating your anode and cathode in your superheated electrolysis cell then you can follow the videos and learn how to do it.

Copper is an excellent conductor and is a good undercoat for Nickel which is very hard wearing and forms a seal. There are reports that Nickel is almost as good as platinum for electrolysis and is much cheaper.

Nickel also forms a good strong layer on stainless steel, so if you are going the BSP pipe route for your electrodes like me, should work pretty well. Will be interesting to compare the results to a standard stainless steel system.

Any voltage DC can be used from 2V to 12V so automatic car chargers are popular, often with a 6V or 12V setting. From what I can gather anything between 4V and 8V is popular.

How to make Nickel Acetate solution for use in electroplating - YouTube

Nickel Plating, Fast and Easy Way !!! www.beckerindustries.com - YouTube

Easy Nickel And Copper Electroplating Method - YouTube

Some information on the technology:

Electroplating

Shor International - General Plating Procedure Instructionsfor Nickel, Gold, Silver and Rhodium

Difference between Nickel plating and Electroless Nickel plating

and some really interesting stuff:

Electrochemistry Encyclopedia – Fuel cells

http://www.topsoe.com/sitecore/shell...006/Sunde.ashx

RM

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#89
03-27-2012, 02:00 AM
 kcarring Silver Member Join Date: Dec 2010 Posts: 610
@Rob

How is your project going? It's all a bit over my head to be honest.. very complicated, but interesting as heck.

Cheers
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Alberta is under attack... http://rethinkalberta.com/

Has anyone seen my Bedini Ceiling Fan that pushes the warm air down, and charges batteries as an added bonus? Me neither. 'Bout time I made one!!!!! :P
#90
03-27-2012, 06:40 AM
 evolvingape Senior Member Join Date: Dec 2011 Posts: 164
Quote:
 Originally Posted by kcarring @Rob How is your project going? It's all a bit over my head to be honest.. very complicated, but interesting as heck. Cheers
Hey

Well it depends on how you look at it.

From a certain point of view the project is complete. When I started out all those years ago I had no idea where I was going, or if I would be successful. Because of my background and my interests I pursued turbines and hho cells, which eventually came together in the Hydro Electro Lytic Turbine. My attempt to prototype that was a step too far and I have never really recovered, so it got released 18 months ago now. Quiet isn't it ?

I also arrived at a better understanding of rotary moment and energy conversion principles and released all that too. It was all mixed in with the rotary engines and closed looping the energy stuff. While important, that was kinda a filler while I finished the Linear Firing Valve design. This was a major focus for many years and grew out of the HELT and HRT projects. It is a miniature plasma rocket engine basically.

Once that was finished I tied off a few loose ends and began work on the RotoMax engine, which was actually much simpler than I expected, because the hard work had been done on the LFV. The RotoMax basically takes the principles of fluid dynamics from the De Laval nozzle and turns that linear principle into a rotary principle.

I think this was about the time I got into gasification, which grew out of the Fast Freddy scam last year, because I met Mr Goose. This then allowed me to get familiar with a technology I was only vaguely aware of at that point, it was not really my field. So I did some work on gasifiers for a bit, which was not too difficult because I had developed the Everyman principle of using off the shelf commonly available pipe fittings to design it. The added bonus was that Mr Goose was pushing plasma real hard which was the catalyst to start talking about it, because I had laid the groundwork with HELIS already and just not told anyone. Then i set about finishing the PRotoMax system, which is the basis for a plasma rotary water engine.

Then I thought it was time to introduce the Pulsometer into the mainstream here, as it will be incredibly significant technology soon, once it has been remade with modern improvements. The same principle that the Pulsometer works on, expansion and contraction of a fluid piston due to evaporation and condensation of water (phase change), is the same principle as the HHO heat pump and turbine accumulator works on which brings me onto...

The one system that took the longest, and was the most difficult to design, the fuel processing system. You got this finally a week ago ? something like that. This would never have gotten finished if it was not for Chet's invite to come and have a look at the sonic boiler thread, because this is when I came across electrode boilers. This is why I got so excited about it, I needed it for the Superheated Electrolysis Cell, it was the missing part. When i thought it was as safe as I could make it, you got it. I also then realised that the HELT designed to be a closed system crossover hho pump, would now also work as a steam pump as well, a concept that I had missed, because I lacked AC electrode boiler knowledge. So two bonuses there, and all because the community contributed to that thread. Amazing!

So that's it really, all I had left to do was wrap things up which I did in this thread. I have given up drinking about a month ago, which is also probably why you got the SEC when you did lol, So, from a certain point of view I have finished what I set out to do, invent some usefull stuff and then give it to everyone. Would I do it all again ? Sure I would, no choice. Would I want to do it all again ? No way.

I have taken the last week off mostly, spending time with my much neglected family, which has been nice. Not really made much progress in the workshop, a few things are moving slowly but still waiting on so many parts. You cannot start a full build until you have all the dimensions of the components, made that mistake before! lol

So yeah, on the whole I am happy now it's all over. Just trying to figure out what to do with myself, I do not have the energy to start on electro gravitics, my flying saucer will have to wait a while longer!

Hopefully you will all have picked up lot's of new skills and knowledge that will help you to build things and really be creative. I think it will make a big difference when the people who have built my stuff release the info, like Cherryman says, always nice to see a working prototype!

So probably going to chill for a while, try and keep myself out of trouble, and figure out what I used to do before I did this. No idea.

Rob
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