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Old Yesterday, 11:37 PM
RAMSET RAMSET is online now
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Hydrogen + metal = surprising reactions without plasmas

Our friend Dr Steven Jones shared this today..
Quote
So this topic is not really new, but it is certainly developing. I'm following, very interested. Mostly the research is done in Italy and Japan. This from the October 2018 paper from the Celani team in Italy:


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Anomalous Heat Effects (AHE) have been observed in wires of Cu55Ni44Mn1 (Constantan) exposed to H2 and D2 in multiple experiments along the last 8 years. Improvements in the magnitude and reproducibility of AHE were reported by the Authors of the present work in the past and related to wire preparation and reactor design. In facts, an oxidation of the wires by pulses of electrical current in air creates a rough surface featuring a sub-micrometric texture that proved particularly effective at inducing thermal anomalies when temperature exceeds 400 °C.
The hunted effect appears also to be increased substantially by deposing segments of the wire with a series of elements (such as Fe, Mn, Sr, K, via thermal decomposition of their nitrates applied from a water solution). Furthermore, an increase of AHE was observed after introducing the treated wires inside a sheath made of borosilicate glass (Si-B-Ca; BSC), and even more after impregnating the sheath with the same elements used to coat the wires. Finally, AHE was augmented after introducing equally spaced knots (the knots were coated with the mixture of Fe, Mn, Sr, K) to induce thermal gradients along the wire (knots become very hot spots when a current is passed along the wire). Interestingly, the coating appears to be nearly insulating and it is deemed being composed of mixed oxides of the corresponding elements (mostly FeOx, SrO). Having observed a degradation of the BSC fibers at high temperature, an extra sheath made of quartz fibers was used to prevent the fall of degraded fibers from the first sheath; recently the 2 sheaths assembly has been replaced with a hybrid single sheath developed by SIGI-Favier (i.e. made of both glass and quartz fibers). The treated wire, comprising knots and sheaths, was then wound around a SS316 rod and inserted inside a thick glass reactor. The reactor operates via direct current heating of the treated wire, while exposing it to a 5-2000 mBar of D2 or H2 and their mixtures with a noble gas (in these conditions electromigration phenomena are supposed to occur).

In 2014, the Authors introduced a second independent wire in the reactor design and observed a weak electrical current flowing in it while power was supplied to the first. This current proved to be strongly related to the temperature of the first wire and clearly turned to be the consequence of his Thermionic Emission (where the treated wire represents a Cathode and the second wire an Anode). The presence of this thermionic effect and a spontaneous tension between the two wires did strongly associate to AHE. All these observations were reported at various Conferences, and tentative explanations were provided for the observed effects. The presence of thermal and chemical gradients has been stressed as being of relevance, especially when considering the noteworthy effect of knots on AHE.
The ICCF21 Conference held on June 2018 marked a turning point, and the scientific community did show a notable interest on the effects of knots and wire treatments, further increasing the confidence on the described approach. From that moment, attempts to further increase AHE focused on the introduction of different types of knots, leading to the choice of the “Capuchin” type (see fig.). This knot design leads indeed to very hot spots along the wire and features three areas characterized by a temperature delta up to several hundred degrees. Efforts were also made to better understand the thermionic effect of the wire, and the spontaneous tension that arises when a second wire is introduced close by (anode). Eventually a large AHE rise was noticed when introducing an extra tension between the active wire (cathode) and the second wire (anode) through an external power supply; a truly remarkable effect, despite his short duration due to the wire failure attributed to an AHE runaway able to melt it. Eventually the authors have observed a stunning similarity of the best performing reactor design and a thermionic diode where the active wire represents the cathode and the second wire the anode, whereas the electrodes are separated by fibrous layers impregnated with mixed oxides comprising Iron and alkaline metals. This observation allows to speculate on a thermionic power converter able to generate electricity through the thermionic emission of a cathode heated by AHE and collected by an anode (colder and/or featuring a different work function with respect to the cathode). The presentation, summarized in this abstract, reports the latest AHE results obtained from a new reactor design comprising capuchin knots and hybrid sheaths manufactured for the purpose.

Figure content uploaded by Francesco Celani


Figures can be seen here: https://www.researchgate.net/publica...h_temperatures
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Dr.Jones quote
Note that nickel metal and H2 (also D2) are used here. I believe the first to claim anomalous heat production (AHP) from metals + H2, from H2O in his case, was Peter Davey of New Zealand in the 1940's.
(We've discussed his work in a different thread).

Now the research focusses on H2 and D2 gas entering nickel (also other metals) at elevated temps (but well below plasma temps). It seems important that the metal lattice be present.

Hence, a solid lattice is needed for the (presumed nuclear) reaction to occur. That is what is so surprising, that a nuclear (not d-d fusion) reaction appears to occur at a sufficient rate for heat to be observed and measured.

Here is a photo and corresponding drawing of one of the "knots" in the Constantan wire where the reactions evidently occur:

end Quote

--------------------------------------------------------------

respectfully submitted
Chet K
Attached Images
File Type: jpg Celani Coil diagram.jpg (166.1 KB, 15 views)
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  #2  
Old Today, 03:15 AM
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spacecase0 spacecase0 is online now
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I have always thought that metal is a mostly solid plasma, after all, they each have the same shared electron sate.
I wonder if the distance between the structures of that alloy they say is the same as the hot plasma the reactions would otherwise normally happen in.
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Old Today, 01:06 PM
RAMSET RAMSET is online now
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I will ask about that

Sir
I always enjoy your thoughts and input on this forum
and also how your opinions are not easily swayed.

your comment here gave me pause , I am certain these fellows have theories,
but as of Yet ....
just anomalous mysterious results .

I will try to work a bit with Steve [Dr.Jones] on better understanding all the minutia
of the technique the Celani team is using as well as Parkhomov's better understood kitchen work.

Alexander Parkhomov Reports on Just-completed 225 Day Test | E-Cat World

perhaps with a few more pieces of equipment and technical support a few of our open source Labs could play here ?
and maybe a few other techniques could tickle the lattice ??

after all Parkhomov does literally work in his kitchen.....

I will ask about your thoughts .... heat does change things and perhaps this Celani potpourri ... in the oven .... ?
maybe it does mimic the attributes of plasma due to its similarities ?

to me this is mind bending stuff ...and I don't have much to bend...

thanks for your thoughts


respectfully
Chet K
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Last edited by RAMSET; Today at 01:42 PM.
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