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  #1  
Old 12-17-2013, 06:30 AM
ZPDM ZPDM is offline
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ZPDM's Oscillator: A new?? oscillator

Posted this over at Energy Science Forum and thought I might post this here as well. Not sure if the "insert image" is working but maybe the link will.



ZPDMsOscillator_zps3ef996c3.jpg Photo by PDMaher123 | Photobucket

By way of background I was trying a short while ago to rebuild this magnetic pendulum circuit that I found in the magazine Nuts and Volts, http://nutsvolts.texterity.com/nutsv...?folio=36#pg36 . I had different transistors and a different coil and was having trouble getting it to work. I figured it was all the changes to the specs but I also at one point thought, I can't keep the pin-outs straight on transistors, and so I flipped the NPN. It still didn't work and now when the magnet came by the coil stuck to it and started humming. I felt stupid but then thought, well, that should mean the coil is oscillating, maybe Bedini has taught me something, that humming might be useful in a different scenario. So I hooked up a bridge rectifier across the coil and sure enough it was pumping out the spikes, so I went from stupid to "hey this guy's good". I first thought it would be a very particular sort of thing, but it isn't. I have run this with a PNP PN290A mated to an NPN 2n2222 or 2n4401 or 2n3904 (if memory serves). Right now I am running a Tip 42/Tip 31 set-up, it just goes. I have oscillated 10 turns or 1000 turns, straight welding rod cores and toroids, even air cores. What I am having most success with right now is toroids.

I have some toroids from Nebraska surplus with pretty high magnetic permeability I took a two inch one and put 70 winds on the primary and 900 winds on the secondary. Was getting 400+ plus volts off the secondary with a 1.5 volt input, however, after playing with it for a while I saw that for charging batteries I was getting best results off the 70 turns. So I am finding good results from just throwing 100 turns on a toroid. It seems to work a bit better than a joule thief.

The way to tune this is by changing the 1mOhm and 100K pots. For each value of the 1mOhm pot there is a best value for the 100k pot. If you open the 1 MegaOhm pot up all the way you may fry the transistors, it certainly looks to go from oscillating to wide open. If there are very few turns on the coil there is only a narrow band of resistance where the coil oscillates.

So aside from from having great fun radiantly restoring batteries and wanting to share this I am also posting because I feel a bit like Goethe's Sorcerer's Apprentice fiddling with the two potentiometers. I have no idea why this circuit works but it does so and consistently with a variety of parts. I don't have an oscilloscope and this is the first time I have really wanted one, to look at what is going on with the wave form and how it might change with changes in resistances.

I hope people replicate this circuit and if someone explains to me how it works that would be great.

ZPDM

PS There is a small chance the circuit diagram is wrong, it is the first time I have used software to diagram a circuit, I think it is right but if there are problems let me know so I can correct them.
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Old 12-17-2013, 05:57 PM
barbosi barbosi is offline
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Q2 tranzistor is in "reversed biased" connection, well known acting as "negative resistor". 2N2222 was largely known to experience this, some other transistors too, but not any stock transistor will work.

In your case, Q2 is the oscillator while Q1 biases Q2 and it drives the coil with those generated pulses.

More examples:
RF Oscillator with Three Parts

Simplest LED Flasher Circuit

Or Google "2n2222 negative resistance".
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Old 12-17-2013, 07:58 PM
Farmhand Farmhand is offline
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Looks a bit like a "Stingo" circuit.

..
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Old 12-17-2013, 10:01 PM
ZPDM ZPDM is offline
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Originally Posted by barbosi View Post
Q2 tranzistor is in "reversed biased" connection, well known acting as "negative resistor". 2N2222 was largely known to experience this, some other transistors too, but not any stock transistor will work.

In your case, Q2 is the oscillator while Q1 biases Q2 and it drives the coil with those generated pulses.

More examples:
RF Oscillator with Three Parts

Simplest LED Flasher Circuit

Or Google "2n2222 negative resistance".
Interesting I just built that simplest LED Flasher a couple weeks ago. I am not sure how negative resistance applies to that circuit, it just looks to me that when the emitter/collector junction breaks down you get a pulse, it (simple LED flasher) did work with various transistors for me. You may be correct in your analysis of what Q1 and Q2 are doing I simply don't know. The ZPDM oscillator is not a breakdown of emitter/collector junction as you would need 10+ volts to see anything. I've let an LED down to 0.7 volts with this.

There is a straight connection between point 2 (one end of the coil) on the diagram and the battery negative, so what is turning on and off is the connection between the battery positive and point 1 (the other end of the coil). This connection is either going through Q1 or Q2.
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Old 12-17-2013, 10:05 PM
ZPDM ZPDM is offline
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Originally Posted by Farmhand View Post
Looks a bit like a "Stingo" circuit.

..
A bit, but the PNP is reverse oriented compared to the Stingo, now that I look at it the NPN is flipped around from the Stingo as well. Thx for the reference though, had never heard of the "Stingo"
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Old 12-18-2013, 08:43 AM
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Hi ZPDM.

That lower transistor is NPN with its emitter towards positive, the exact opposite to what we intuitively understand as being part of the normal operating capabilities of an NPN device.

However, NPN is just that - *NPN* - 'N' junctions with respect to the 'P' base, and thus still an NPN device when connected either way round;
such that those supply rails, bias arrangements and circuit can still cause it to operate when connected with its collector as if an emitter, and the emitter as if a collector.

True, the hfe (gain) will be very much reduced, with 'transistor' action as if the device were faulty, but it will still work as a transistor !!!!!

Look at where the Q2 base is connected to - to the toroidal core via a resistor !

The toroidal field will likely be induced to oscillate via noise from adjustment of the two potentiometers, whereupon the unloaded back-EMF potential developed by that winding will likely far exceed the empowering battery voltage, and R1 adjustment will provide Q2 bias with respect to Q1.
The circuit and device capacitances/ characteristics in association with the potentiometer settings will then determine oscillation frequency.

So imagine the collector and emitter (line and arrow) connections on this ZPDM circuit diagram being swapped over for Q2 and you should immediately understand how this arrangement oscillates (conventionally).

Those accidental or deliberate pin-out reversals might well give rise to some additional control/ stabilisation effects impossible to achieve by using a *correctly* biased/ connected NPN device, but at the same time, they leave the circuit vulnerable to either back-EMF induced failure, or, bias arrangement induced failure prior to any oscillation arising at all or non-resettable latch-up.

Cheers .............. Graham.
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Old 12-18-2013, 05:29 PM
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ZPDM, thanks for sharing this interesting circuit. I've got some 4 or 5" toroids I'll try this with. I've found they work in situations that smaller ones simply won't work. I can look at it with an o-scope too. Not sure I'll get to this soon with the holidays coming up but probably in a week or two.

BTW the Nuts and Volts link gives a 404 error right now... maybe just temporary? Or do you need to be subscribed?
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Old 12-19-2013, 03:29 AM
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ZPDM, Three questions on your circuit:

1. Do you just have one coil wound on the toroid? So basically an inductor? Or is there a secondary also?

2. Is the schematic I've attached here correct ? It looked somewhat like you had the negative of the bridge rectifier going to one of the AC legs but I assume it is like I show in the modified schematic here.

3. You mentioned a magnet. Are you using a magnet on the toroid?
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File Type: jpg ZPDMsOscillator_zps3ef996c3.jpg (26.5 KB, 127 views)
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Old 12-19-2013, 05:18 AM
ZPDM ZPDM is offline
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Originally Posted by GSM View Post
Hi ZPDM.

That lower transistor is NPN with its emitter towards positive, the exact opposite to what we intuitively understand as being part of the normal operating capabilities of an NPN device.

However, NPN is just that - *NPN* - 'N' junctions with respect to the 'P' base, and thus still an NPN device when connected either way round;
such that those supply rails, bias arrangements and circuit can still cause it to operate when connected with its collector as if an emitter, and the emitter as if a collector.

True, the hfe (gain) will be very much reduced, with 'transistor' action as if the device were faulty, but it will still work as a transistor !!!!!

Look at where the Q2 base is connected to - to the toroidal core via a resistor !

The toroidal field will likely be induced to oscillate via noise from adjustment of the two potentiometers, whereupon the unloaded back-EMF potential developed by that winding will likely far exceed the empowering battery voltage, and R1 adjustment will provide Q2 bias with respect to Q1.
The circuit and device capacitances/ characteristics in association with the potentiometer settings will then determine oscillation frequency.

So imagine the collector and emitter (line and arrow) connections on this ZPDM circuit diagram being swapped over for Q2 and you should immediately understand how this arrangement oscillates (conventionally).

Those accidental or deliberate pin-out reversals might well give rise to some additional control/ stabilisation effects impossible to achieve by using a *correctly* biased/ connected NPN device, but at the same time, they leave the circuit vulnerable to either back-EMF induced failure, or, bias arrangement induced failure prior to any oscillation arising at all or non-resettable latch-up.

Cheers .............. Graham.
Thankyou to Barbosi Farmhand and Graham for helping me start to get a handle on all this! When I reread my posts they sometimes sound a little rude it is not my intent. Graham I will need to spend some time re-reading your post, and perhaps some background reading, I have no formal background in electronics, so I understood about half of it. I will try swapping Q2 around and see what I get, however, I can tell you that, unless I am missing something, when Q2 is swapped back conventionally it is back to being identical to the Nuts and Volts hobby magazine magnetic pendulum circuit (with the exception that I replaced the 100 kOhm resistor with a 100 K pot). I need to test what you are saying, if I understood it correctly, however, I don't suspect this will self oscillate (having at one time successfully built the magnetic pendulum) nearly as easily with the NPN placed conventionally, I may be wrong there but it never oscillated (that I know of) until I flipped the NPN. This is also why I first thought it was going to be a very particular idiosyncracity (if that's a word) but it's worked with a number of transistors and they don't seem to be frying after hours of use. Thx again and give me time to mull over what you wrote.
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Old 12-19-2013, 06:20 AM
ZPDM ZPDM is offline
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ZPDM, Three questions on your circuit:

1. Do you just have one coil wound on the toroid? So basically an inductor? Or is there a secondary also?

2. Is the schematic I've attached here correct ? It looked somewhat like you had the negative of the bridge rectifier going to one of the AC legs but I assume it is like I show in the modified schematic here.

3. You mentioned a magnet. Are you using a magnet on the toroid?
Ewizard, you are right about the link, don't know what's up, if you just google "Nuts and Volts Magnetic Pendulum" it will bring you to a magazine page and then click the mouse icon and it will bring up the PDF with the circuit diagram (you know that circuit also might have some applicability to pulse motors as well as pendulums, I just got side tracked from it)

1. Yes just one wind, that's much of the beauty of it. If by secondary you mean like the second winding that's needed for a JT to oscillate, no. If, however you want to throw another wind on the inductor and grab some spikes off it you can. The 2' inch toroid I am using now has 70 winds and 900 30gauge secondary winds. I was getting 400+ volts off the secondary into a 450 volt electrolytic cap from a 1.5V input. I found though that for charging caps or batteries the thicker wire 70 winds (charging alone) was best, I am a little put out that I can't find anything to do with the secondary as it took me so long to wind but it does keep things simple. A couple other points, I am mainly working between 1.2 and 6.0 volts, it may be more difficult at 12V at least with my set up. And as I mentioned if there is too little resistance on the 1MOhm pot it sometimes opens up like there is a short but so far at these voltages hasn't fried a transistor.

2. Yes your revision is correct and more clear. Thx.

3. I don't use a magnet, when I was building the magnetic pendulum I had a straight welding rod core and when it accidentally grabbed the magnet I heard the coil humming. I've fiddled with it a bit with the toroids and a magnet changes the frequency but doesn't seem to have much other effect.

If you get around to replicating it and it works I'd be indebted if you put it on a scope. I've never really wanted a scope before because I figured 1) Tesla never had one and he did some cool stuff 2) for the most part all I see is people fiddling for 5 minutes with dials and then they show there is a spike off the collapsing inductor, I get it. That said I do wonder whether the 100 Kohm pot may be affecting the pulse width. Appreciate the interest and good luck with the replication.
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Old 12-19-2013, 09:44 PM
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Thanks for clarifying all my questions. I'll post any results I get here including scope shots.
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Old 12-21-2013, 04:09 AM
barbosi barbosi is offline
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Sorry guys to spill your toys but this is old stuff. Leo Esaki was the first, it was awarded with the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1973 and later researches in semiconductors lead to development of tunel diode. Until this was developed, HP used the reversed biased transistor for ages in their electronic research to produce pulses with rise/fall time in range of nanosec. And yeah, HP is the same company that produces cheap PC and printers nowadays for the delight of its share holders.

Hence ZPDM's Oscillator is an old oscillator! The oscilator won't bare ZPDM name on it, as it was awarded already.

But it is a great example to start learning long forgoten electronics of the past, which is not a bad idea. Bedini did it in his youth, but there is more and it is not in the school books. Bedini proved it. And just by chance ZPDM just combined fast pulses (created by the oscilator which needs no coil) with Bedini principles (which use effects in coils).

Further experiments will find eventually what biases could be used to make it deterministic. As I said, until now not all stock transistors behave the same. The name of the one who can make it (deterministic wise), it will be awarded much like Hartley, Colpitts, Clapp and others.

Regards.
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Old 12-22-2013, 02:04 PM
ZPDM ZPDM is offline
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Sorry guys to spill your toys but this is old stuff. Leo Esaki was the first, it was awarded with the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1973 and later researches in semiconductors lead to development of tunel diode. Until this was developed, HP used the reversed biased transistor for ages in their electronic research to produce pulses with rise/fall time in range of nanosec. And yeah, HP is the same company that produces cheap PC and printers nowadays for the delight of its share holders.

Hence ZPDM's Oscillator is an old oscillator! The oscilator won't bare ZPDM name on it, as it was awarded already.

But it is a great example to start learning long forgoten electronics of the past, which is not a bad idea. Bedini did it in his youth, but there is more and it is not in the school books. Bedini proved it. And just by chance ZPDM just combined fast pulses (created by the oscilator which needs no coil) with Bedini principles (which use effects in coils).

Further experiments will find eventually what biases could be used to make it deterministic. As I said, until now not all stock transistors behave the same. The name of the one who can make it (deterministic wise), it will be awarded much like Hartley, Colpitts, Clapp and others.

Regards.
As for myself, its coming on Christmas, no need to apologize for spilling toys. I will need to look into what you are saying, if valid then sure let's call it an Esaki style oscillator, doesn't seem like a loss to me. If HP hasn't done it then someone probably did it with sticks and stones in the 1800s. In terms of sharp transients the nanosecond sounds good which likely explains my enjoyment with charging batteries with this set-up. Its also nice to only have to worry about a single wind. I don't have the electronics background and may not have the terms right but I was looking at the 555 and the same sort of voltage splitting between two resistors seems to be used to adjust pulse width on a 555. So I still don't know exactly what, or at all, to make of this circuit, but if someone suddenly shows a simple mod that starts giving it a COP of 100 I may just start calling it the Barbosi oscillator. In all seriousness, thank you Barbosi for the interest and research I will try to look into and see if I can understand where you are coming from with it. One take I am getting at first read is that a reversed biased transistor can behave similar to a fast switching tunnel diode.
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Old 12-22-2013, 08:21 PM
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Hi ZPDM, I'm looking at ordering some transistors as I think I've fried most of my 2N2222's but wanted to ask which transistors seem to be working best for you out of the ones you listed. I see the TIP 42 and 31 have a lot higher current ratings. I usually get my transistors for a very good price from a guy at Thai Shine Home Page and there's not a lot of difference in cost for the TIP versions so I'd go with those if they seem to be working best. This guy sells on eBay too but you save a little from his web site since he doesn't pay eBay fees he passes along the savings to buyers. Fast shipping too. Both his 2N2222's and TIP42 and 31 are 10 for $3.51 and that includes shipping.
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Old 12-22-2013, 08:34 PM
ZPDM ZPDM is offline
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Did you fry them on this circuit??!! I'd just use a tip 42 and 31 since that's what I had around but I haven't found an NPN/PNP combination that doesn't oscillate yet, just got the trannys from Radioshack.
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Old 12-23-2013, 07:02 PM
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No I haven't tried this circuit yet. Fried them on other experiments. I've got other tranny's laying around I may try but I'll probably pick up some of the TIP 42 and 31's anyway. Thanks for the info. It will probably be sometime after the Holidays before I actually get to this but I'll for sure be playing with this.
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Old 12-24-2013, 04:45 AM
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To be fair, all reversed biased npn transistors did not have (in my knowledge) any bias on the base of the transistor.

Since the schematic that was posted has for the active transistor a potentiometer biasing its base, it would be interesting to see if that factor can make the functioning predictable. This is what I meant by the term “deterministic”.

If someone can take any stock transistor, make it oscillate and predict the frequency and eventually the duty factor based on the bias, that is surelly a gain.
Unfortunately, this will require ample testing using a oscilloscope. But I bet, determined people will do a throughout research, so I wish you the all the best.
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Old 12-24-2013, 01:26 PM
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@Ewizard,

I am glad to hear that, I may have fried one 2N222 but even there I am not sure if I didn't accidentally short it, if you open the 1 MOhm pot too quickly it does seem to "short" but for brief intervals at least doesn't seem to fry anything.

This circuit doesn't seem to mind not having a load but is quite sensitive to whatever load you attach. I originally looked at it with about 15 uF 450V caps which it plays nice with and with regular 35V caps, going from 1.5V to a 1.5 V batteries is no problem or 1.5V to 4x 1.5 V batteries in series isn't a problem. Going from 6V input to a 1.5V battery though it won't oscillate for me and looks to be drawing an amp or so for the little time I keep it connected. 6Volts to 6 Volts again no problem. This is all with my set-up of a 2 inch toroid with 70-80 turns. The, well its Christmas Eve, the "blessed" thing, does seem to like to oscillate.
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Old 12-24-2013, 01:39 PM
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To be fair, all reversed biased npn transistors did not have (in my knowledge) any bias on the base of the transistor.

Since the schematic that was posted has for the active transistor a potentiometer biasing its base, it would be interesting to see if that factor can make the functioning predictable. This is what I meant by the term “deterministic”.

If someone can take any stock transistor, make it oscillate and predict the frequency and eventually the duty factor based on the bias, that is surelly a gain.
Unfortunately, this will require ample testing using a oscilloscope. But I bet, determined people will do a throughout research, so I wish you the all the best.
Barbosi, understand my background and degree is as an MD so while I am educationally not a fool I am also not fool enough to figure I understand this circuit more than enough just to say this looks quite strange to me. I hope you and others with tools and experience in the area take time to replicate and investigate.
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Old 12-25-2013, 08:43 AM
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Hi ZPDM
thanks for sharing. Why are you saying self oscillating?
There's a battery in this circuit.
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Old 12-25-2013, 08:51 PM
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Hi ZPDM
thanks for sharing. Why are you saying self oscillating?
There's a battery in this circuit.
Can't say I follow you there Guruji, it is the battery, the volts and amps from it into the inductor, which is turning on and off, i.e. oscillating. Of course there is a battery in the circuit. It is self oscillating in that like a Hartley oscillator, Joule thief oscillator, Slayer Exciter oscillator, Simplest LED oscillator and others it begins to oscillate on its own once all the connections have been made. This can be contrasted with say a Bedini SSG circuit where a first push of the rotor is required for the spinning magnets to generate an inductive signal to continue the oscillations or for that matter a physical pendulum which requires a push to start oscillating. It may be redundant to call any oscillator, self oscillating but that is the distinction I was driving at.
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Old 01-21-2014, 06:08 AM
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I just came across some info from Professor Pappas on his web site that might be a part of the puzzle for this effect: http://papimi.gr/transistors.htm

Been busy but still going to give this a try. Part of the holdup has been my source for the transistors is having some web site problem preventing me from ordering them.
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Old 01-24-2014, 03:46 AM
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Thank you Ewizard,
To be honest since the New Year I have been away from electronics experiments entirely, been too busy enjoying the whole Dogecoin cryptocurrency thing. You know those young pups just sponsored the Jamaican Bobsled team with Dogecoin? Young kids using money (well Dogecoins but it sends people to the Olympics) to have fun. This is one of the most positive developments I've seen in a long time.

That is a great find concerning possible theory on what may be going on but I also don't want to get ahead of myself. I would just be very appreciative if someone just replicates the oscillator so I know that there wasn't something strangely idiosyncratic that I was doing. And if it does turn out to be an easily repeatable oscillator maybe people will start to have fun with it like they do with the Joule Thief circuit. Let me know what you find when you have a go at replication. -Z
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Old 01-30-2014, 08:49 PM
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I finally got the transistors today another way as it seems his web site (thaishine.com) just isn't working right anymore. I'll probably get something hooked up in the next couple days here and post results with o-scope readings.
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Old 01-31-2014, 11:57 PM
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Scope shots! Interesting circuit

I think this is a very interesting circuit. Initially using a power supply at 1.5 volts I was getting too much noise from the line and had not yet tuned the pots so I went to a couple NiMh batteries that together were reading about 2.6 volts (not fully charged). Initial tuning found a sweet spot on the scope that produced some strong spikes and full of harmonics? I am posting scope shots in order they were taken and successive shots were of different voltage input settings on the scope which show a lot of harmonics I think. All were done with a 10x probe. Adding a ground to the circuit (Tip42 collector) greatly increased size of the spikes. I had to go from 0.2V division to 1 volt division to get roughly the same size spikes just after connecting a ground wire (while on battery power). The 2.6 vots with the 2 x NiMh batteriess yielded 32 volts (Nice!) out as measured no load at the FWBR DC output. After getting the 1 megohm pot tuned in for the above tests I switched to a power supply and adjusted it to about 2.6 volts input. This yielded even larger spikes. It also seemed the circuit was very sensitive to the location of my hands even at several inches away. The TIP42 seemed to be getting quite warm initially after finding a sweet spot so I put a big heat sink on it and it seems to be staying cool enough now.

Putting a Fluke multimeter across output of FWBR roughly doubled the size of the spikes on the scope pattern. My fingers were not touching any part of the circuit or the meter probes except on the rubber part. Scope pictures coming shortly. I used my 40Mhz scope rather than the digital 400Mhz scope as it is easier to photograph but it's still a decent scope for the $3 I paid for it at a garage sale

Also interesting is that nearly all the scope patterns were showing a negative output except the last one (I think that was when I hooked up the Fluke meter - maybe the leads were acting as an antenna since they are roughly 4 foot long each).
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Old 02-01-2014, 12:11 AM
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Just getting started playing with this. IIRC those output spikes are bigger and stronger than any of the other battery chargers I've built (like the radiant ones from a couple members here and OU). Considering the low input I can certainly see how this would charge batteries good. I've got several to test it on and may see how it does with charging a set of 350 Farad caps in series (6 of them set up like Laserhackers power boost pack). That last scope shot is the one where I put the meter across it. Also once a battery is on it you see positive spikes above the zero line.
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Old 02-01-2014, 12:32 AM
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I forgot to mention that I threw a real twist into this circuit. As I didn't have a coil wound yet like ZPDM mentioned I just grabbed what I had laying on the bench which was a toroid split in half with 2 strong Neo magnets between the halves in repelling mode. Pic's of the coil below. I'll be trying it with a more conventionally wound coil soon. I've got another toroid this size that has not been split (about 4" diameter) I'll put a hundred wraps on.

So far with a little more tuning I have found that 1.5 volts input is optimal. If I go higher in voltage the output voltage goes DOWN! With 1.4 to 1.5 volts in I get 51 to 53.6 volts out. Current measurement is interesting as it appears I'm only getting 0.7 microamps out and yet it is charging a battery up. Even more interesting was that I was still seeing 51 volts output with 0.2 microamps when I disconnected one leg of the input to the FWBR!!! That's just ONE WIRE connected to the FWBR input and still seeing 51 volts output at about a fourth of the output current when it's connected. I'll have to look into whether power supply and o-scope connection might be coming into play with that though....

I find that with the pots I'm using it's hard to fine tune and hit that best resonant spot. Probably need a 500 or even 100 Ohm pot in series to better hit the resonant spot. When I do hit that point you can hear it in the coil and the charging rate increases greatly. I look forward to trying a number of things with it.
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Old 02-01-2014, 02:59 PM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by ewizard View Post
I have found that 1.5 volts input is optimal.
Did you measure the current here?
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Old 02-01-2014, 07:59 PM
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Later I was trying higher voltages up to around 4 volts but current input tended to stay around 0.5 amps when I was getting resonance based on sound and fastest charging as well as the o-scope signal. Very narrow band for tuning to get any charging. Too little resistance and current will go high to around 1.5 amps (with loss of all spikes) and too low it will drop to 0.0 amps and no spikes. It's not something that would appear to be even close to any free energy from those numbers but it is odd how it charges batteries with such low current output. One other thing I did last night involved an 18650 Li-Ion battery (large Li-Ion) which had dropped to 1.6 volts. Normally if they go below around 2.8 volts they are bad and not rechareable. My Li-Ion smart charger would not even try charging it. So I put it on my circuit above and it went from 1.6 to over 3 volts in about 45 seconds. At that point I stuck it on my smart charger and it was fully charged in a couple hours and has held that charge this morning. So it appears to be recovered.

I was also charging a NiCad pack for a drill and while not especially fast it was still charging it from around 10.0 volts to 12.5 volts in about an hour. It seems odd to me that it can charge at all when output seems to only be less than one microamp. My guess is something is doing charging that can't be easily measured.
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Old 03-06-2014, 03:33 AM
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Originally Posted by ewizard View Post
Later I was trying higher voltages up to around 4 volts but current input tended to stay around 0.5 amps when I was getting resonance based on sound and fastest charging as well as the o-scope signal. Very narrow band for tuning to get any charging. Too little resistance and current will go high to around 1.5 amps (with loss of all spikes) and too low it will drop to 0.0 amps and no spikes. It's not something that would appear to be even close to any free energy from those numbers but it is odd how it charges batteries with such low current output. One other thing I did last night involved an 18650 Li-Ion battery (large Li-Ion) which had dropped to 1.6 volts. Normally if they go below around 2.8 volts they are bad and not rechareable. My Li-Ion smart charger would not even try charging it. So I put it on my circuit above and it went from 1.6 to over 3 volts in about 45 seconds. At that point I stuck it on my smart charger and it was fully charged in a couple hours and has held that charge this morning. So it appears to be recovered.

I was also charging a NiCad pack for a drill and while not especially fast it was still charging it from around 10.0 volts to 12.5 volts in about an hour. It seems odd to me that it can charge at all when output seems to only be less than one microamp. My guess is something is doing charging that can't be easily measured.
Ewizard,

I greatly thank you for replicating this and exploring it with more detailed tools then I had available. I apologize that I have been busy with a new job, but I hadn't forgot about this circuit. I think it is likely if not quite safe to say that reversing a conventional transistor can lead with some consistency to some unusual and potentially useful oscillatory behavior. I'll try and get back to this later this spring and until then can't thank you enough for your efforts. If you get a chance though, will you post more about your set-up, i.e. core, coil geometry, windings, wire diameter. Seems clear to me now, flipping a transistor can be zany fun
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