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Old 10-01-2012, 02:59 PM
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Mr Lester J Hendershot's magnetic generator.

Lester J Hendershot had something which no one else did, an empirically based intuitive understanding of cored inductor characteristics; an understanding not clouded by supposed the 'scientific theories' of Physics.

Sadly Lester passed from this world in 1961; officially stated to be a suicide, though in circumstances unknown, and his design, though published, has not run since.

There were many circuit drawings of the Hendershot generator; nobody knew how they worked, and some were shown with wax pressed into the inductors. Lester was also the only person who could make them run, and so I off-handed the design as one empowered by radium salts embedded within the wax, whereby the alternating magnetic field would align the emanations with the coil windings and generate output.

Question. What else was happening during the late 50s ?
Answer. The 'Top Secret' development of military Masers.

This is where a Maser could more correctly be defined as the Molecular Amplification of Stimulated Electromagnetic Radiation, and hence any non-military citizens working on this same secret technology without formal authorisation would have been deemed an individual of notable concern.
Masers went up on satellites and are still up there today, ostensibly for peaceful purposess, but they really are extremely powerful beam weaponry devices and thus capable of intentional military destructive use !

Almost two years ago I designed the high Q resonant Ferrite Sleeve Loop Antenna. This was based upon an understanding of EM radiation (photons) and magnetism (electron orbit alignment), whereby the transducing coil overwind electromagnetically precesses electron orbit alignments within the ferrite molecular structure (domains) of the sleeve.
7" Longwave Ferrite Sleeve Loop Antenna Demonstration - YouTube

Which brings me to Lester's generator that I'm sure many subscribers here have already studied.

Lester also had also used 'ferrite sleeves' (steel) inside his tandem inductors, and he too induced electron orbit precession within the sleeves via L1 tuned overwinds.
However he also had L3 and L4 windings having capacitor coupled phase shifted currents wrt L2. The fields from L3 and L4, being at one end of the steel sleeve, would have set up a longitudinal (phonic) wave through the core.

In the correct type of steel an L3/ L4 field wave would affect the magnetic domains longitudinally, and if suitably tuned could set up an axial standing wave of molecular energisation along the length but having amplitude reaction normal to the core axis; possibly in the form of a single standing full wave.
This physically resonant longitudinal domain (electron orbit alignment) energisation would combine with the axial energisation of L1/ C1 tuning, whereby the electron spin precession induced by L1 in the portion of the core overwound by L2, would become toroidally rotational and thus statically generate considerable voltage within L2. The L2 potential thereby feeding both the load and regeneratively energising the phase shifted L3/ L4 wave.

Also the tandem pairing of identical coil assemblies would be essential to maintaining RF oscillation, due to the likelyhood of external loading overcoming the possibility of continuous oscillation due to capacitor damping via L3/ L4. Also the coupling would not just be longitudinal but via synchronously rotating fields.

No wonder Lester was the only person who could tune these devices, for clearly he understood the physical (phonic) resonance characteristics of his steel pipe resonator cores as well as their ferric inductance properties: And this in a way not comprehendable to men of 'science' in the 1930s, though sadly only too well understood by the military during the late 50s.

When I first designed and tested ferrite sleeve inductors I already expected them to have 'energy' uses. Further thoughts had me wondering about mechanically resonant phonic excitation from one end to generate tuned electron orbit spin induction at the other (full domain rotation within the body of the ferrite material), and then whist reading through the Hendershot notes again only last week I came to realise that Lester had already done this; decades ago !!!!!
Obviously he would not have subjected his children to the then well know risks of radium.

I had before asked myself the question of whether AC phonic end excitation coupled with other end tuned excitation on a single ferrite rod or sleeve core using transistorised oscillators could 'generate' electricity, and now I firmly believe that it could, but the molecular nature of the core would be of prime importance.

( This also makes me think of the observed incidence of OU in a TV tube deflection yoke earlier this year, with different windings on the two coupled halves ! )

Cheers ........... Graham.

Last edited by GSM : 10-01-2012 at 03:12 PM.
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Old 10-01-2012, 04:47 PM
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Well...he was not alone. First was Alfred Hubbard in 1919. Frankly period between 1900 and 1930 was full of strange free energy inventions.
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Old 10-01-2012, 07:53 PM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by boguslaw View Post
Well...he was not alone. First was Alfred Hubbard in 1919. Frankly period between 1900 and 1930 was full of strange free energy inventions.
Hubbard used plain longitudinal coils with composite wire core and radium, all inside the sealed generator container.
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Old 10-01-2012, 11:07 PM
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At last...

Greetings Graham,

At last you've brought up my favorite subject -- Lester Hendershot. As there seems to be some "synchronicity"here, I guess it's time I divulged my thoughts on his device.

From the available schematics published by Aho, Hilton, et. al., it appears that the circuit "sloshes" a sine wave between the two L2s (bottom-most coils). The L1/C1 "simply"" assist in this process, assuming that L1/C1 are resonant with L2; it would also appear that C1 is charged by L2 electrostatically (damned interesting if that's true!) with the possibility of L3 and L4 contributing as well.

The portion of the circuitry involving L3, L4, the 1:5 transformer and the load are reminiscent of the Daniel McFarland Cook circuit, with secondaries wired phase-reversed to the primaries and vice-versa.

The heart of the circuit is the magnetic "vibrator." I'd be willing to bet that this little mechanical marvel induces a "kick" at the top and bottom of the waveform, thus adding a small amount of energy TWICE per cycle, caused by making and breaking its magnetic circuit, much akin to Flynn's parallel path, Leedskalnin's perpetual motion holder, etc.

The tuning of the L2s, as with the rest of the system, must be incredibly sharp, given the use of basket weave windings.This would go far in explaining why it was difficult to get it started, and Aho's mention that Hendershot often had to "squeeze" the basket weave coils before it would run. (i.e., slightly modifying the inductance and/or capacitance).

It's certainly possible that the two coil assemblies each produced a standing wave, and it has not escaped me that some interaction between the two might be occurring. As for a motional or rotating wave? Mmm... I'm not so sure about that.

As a mechanical analogue, I would say the device is like two people sitting in a bathtub, using their hands to push a wave of water back and forth, between each other. Timed just right (i.e., resonance) the wave would continue to get larger and more powerful with each push.

It seems to me the real secret of Hendershot's device is in his magnetic "vibrator" (for lack of a better term), being right on the raggedy edge of making and breaking the magnetic circuit -- hysteresis, if you will, the make and break caused by the slightest change in magnetization of the two "doorbell" coils, resulting from a current passing through them. This, in combination with a very touchy oscillator, would yield power galore, up to the current-carrying capability of the coils themselves. (And perhaps beyond, as Hendershot stated that sometimes the coils would burn up.)

One final point of interest is the use of the 80uF and 40uF capacitors, wired in series, with the negative leads connected together, thus functioning as a non-polarized capacitor overall. It seems to me this arrangement would always cause a flow, where the two caps are trying to balance out. (?) Also, the centerpoints of these two capacitor pairs are connected together, apparently creating a virtual ground. (?) A good understanding of this aspect has thus far eluded me, and I'm hoping some bright engineering-type here will shed some light on this for me.

I think I've explained it as best I can at the moment, so I'm looking forward to some discussion on it.

Graham, thanks for starting this thread! Perfect timing

Chris
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Old 10-02-2012, 09:44 AM
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Hi Chris,

Glad of your discussion, I regard the Hendershot principle as being the way forwards -
not with hydrogen, engines, sparks, ions, or radioactivity; though the latter COULD be safe as well as simple.

Yes there are so many Mk3 generator drawings, also no clear photographs of the wiring on any of these MagnaTronic (his son Mark's name for the generator) devices reported to have worked.
The circuit I would regard as being the most likely candidate would have commoned L2's and twin capacitor connections, thus as you say - with a *virtual common ground* between the oscillating halves - as per Ed Skilling's drawings, the Arthur Aho versions drawn by Edward O'Brian, and Mark's 1995 updates, though not Mk3c versions where the C1/2 capacitor was not connected to L1 windings.

Like you I have considered hysteresis and a second harmonic, for timed second harmonic addition on a synchronously triggered '90 to 180' and '270 to 360' degree per cycle basis can indeed augment field induction.
However, there are also reasons why I discount such consideration;-
a) Lester's principle added E-W to N-S for cyclic 'rotary' addition;
b) core saturation would 'magneticly' limit transducible output;
c) harmonic field addition within the core would be wholly passive.

My original post is to suggest electron *spin axis (domain) rotation* within the core (spin within a spin having mutual 90 degree axes), this being quite different to the normal passive electron *spin axis precessions* effected within cores by alternating magnetic field inductions (including mutual between adjacent inductor coils) upon fixed domains.

One thing is for sure Chris - it is already 2012, and we have not even started yet !

Cheers ........ Graham.

PS. There is more here than I can test out, but there are aspects which can be tested.
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Last edited by GSM : 10-02-2012 at 10:09 AM.
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Old 10-02-2012, 03:56 PM
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Moving ahead

Greetings Graham,

I would not discount the possibilites of such phenomena occurring in the device, though I can hardly imagine that Lester could have known or even imagined such concepts in his time.

I would concur that time is short and that we MUST develop a workable device quickly, even if it only exists as a proof of concept.

I suspect that with our combined intuitive and cognitive abilities, we can achieve this goal. Are you up for this?

The most tenuous part of the circuit is the magnetic section, thus I would suggest we design a temporary, battery-powered substite that would emit a properly timed pulse of the appropriate polarity. I envision this as a small transistor circuit powered by a pair of AA batteries. From there, we can explore the oscillator.

I happen to have two basket weave coils, constructed of 18AWG, with nearly identical inductance readings. As well, I have two 24V/3A tranformers which should serve adequately as Lester's 1:5 transformers. Further, I have several 80uF and 40uF capacitors rated at 450 volts, and they fairly well matched. So, as you see, I have come rather well prepared.

I look forward to your reply....

Chris
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Old 10-02-2012, 07:14 PM
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Are you sure that Hendershot and Hubbard devices were different ?
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Old 10-02-2012, 08:53 PM
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Hi Chris,

Good to hear of your motivation, been so involved with other everyday home/family matters here.

I think Lester had a very deep but highly individual understanding of his circuit. He tuned by intuition, ear and feeling, as described when squeezing the coil assembly to peak output. Likely he sensed coil assembly vibration, and this is what makes me think he understood the phonic aspects of magnetic cores.
Surface phonon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Okay - Transistor oscillator ?
Lester's magnetic buzzer was also a series inductance part of the circuit, and we do not know the induced current/voltage phase relationship, so to preserve circuit action any SS generator output might need to be applied to an equivalent series inductance.
If the buzzer ran at an audio frequency then there would not be any problem mechanically driving a core within a solenoid and close to a magnet by using a sine generator and audio amplifier with separate driving solenoid.
However, since the 1927 version Lester had been using cores as electromechanical resonators, and I feel it likely that his L1/ C1 had been tuned to the longitudinal resonance of the buzzer cores. I also feel that the longitudinal resonance of the steel L1 cores had been directly related to the buzzer core, with clamp tuning being significant here too; maybe even L1 core resonant half frequency so that the buzzer cores were second harmonic resonant to L1 ?
If this had been the case then a second oscillator would be necessary to set up all necessary vibration modes related to the composite magnetic buzzer/ coil assembly, for clearly there was so much more going on here than is simplistically observable from the sum of the parts !

Regarding the L1 coils, it is the steel pipe core that has me puzzled; ie, the type of steel and where to obtain same.

Regarding the thought of L1-4/ C1 'winding-to-capacitor' coupling: There were different voltages between windings and opposite voltages at winding ends. Also C1 is a curious rolled design having an unconnected intermediate layer, the action of which I do not understand other than its potential for introducing a reactive delay.

Cheers ............... Graham.

Last edited by GSM : 10-02-2012 at 08:57 PM.
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Old 10-03-2012, 12:07 AM
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food for thought...

Greetings Graham,

Well, you've certainly provided plenty of food for thought...

I find that I must take a slightly different approach. It is doubtful at best that any of us could exactly duplicate the device the way Lester created it. Lester himself commented that sometimes he'd get on too many turns, and at other times, too few, and that the device would occasionally "burn up." His son, Mark, apparently tried to duplicate his father's work and never achieved success -- at least not that he's admitted to publically.

Therefore, I would suggest we use our intuition, creativity and modern day knowledge to surmise, quite logically, how the device likely works.

First, would you concur that adding a bit of fresh energy, via the "magnetic buzzer," as you call it, at each half of the sine wave passing through it, would, over many cycles (especially in a resonant circuit) build to a substantial voltage and current being "sloshed" between the two L2s?

If so, then the idea of a small, battery powered transistor circuit to inject such energy into the circuit would suffice to prove the concept.

As for the steel pipe, I think it's safe to say that we'll never know, unless Mark can shed some insight on it. Recall that Lester had also tried a tin can (a coffee can, if memory serves me) which turned out to be inadequate. While it's possible that he was trying for a central magnetic core, it's equally possible, if not likely, that it served only to support the hand-wound capacitor. Why would he go to all the trouble of winding an air core, basket weave inductor, only to change it's resonant frequency with a bit of steel pipe or other ferrous material?

The way C1 was built is indeed intriguing. As I recall, the middle layer (plate) was split in half lengthwise, with a gap between them. That makes me think that he was getting a voltage increase (polarity?) by the charge moving from the larger plate to the smaller one. The schematics indicate a typical, two wire connection to L1, but my intuition tells me otherwise. Presently however, I haven't a clue how he might have wired it.

Again, I believe that if we can enumerate certain likely characteristics, and test them in practice, we'll gain a much better understanding of this little beast.

Chris
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Old 10-03-2012, 09:28 AM
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sleeve cores

Hi Chris,

That 'steel pipe' is so much more than a former for the capacitor.

I need to say this very clearly to everyone who reads this in order to share experience and understanding.

HF magnetic fields in inductor cores are little different to HF electricity in wires: There is an electron based 'skin effect', due to the 'domain' aligning electrons being intimately related with their parent atoms/ molecules through the body of the material.

At HF a solid high permeability core appears to lose permeability; the effective permeability becomes much less than that specified by the material manufacturer.
This is because a delayed electron spin-wave develops towards the core centre, thus creating an axial field incoherence with respect to the core perimeter.
However, if only a thin sleeve of the material is used near to the energising winding then the HF permeability remains high and the field developed by the thinner core becomes many times greater without need for increased coil energisation !!!!!

Factors which puzzle me about Lester's pipe core are - was it a shorted turn and thus posses characteristics essential to the resonant mode - was it a longitudinally welded pipe - did Lester make a longitudinal cut along it - did its crystalline nature particularly suit this application. ???

Were these coil assemblies something like a 'crossed-field' antenna arrangement ?

And yes - as you say - the third layer within the capacitor could have had a hidden connection not to L1.

Sorry Chris, I appear to be posing more questions than answers.

Yes the buzzer did provide energy, but as I suggested maybe via two modes of physical vibration, and which could not be simulated by a single oscillator, also which could not be imitated unless by full replication of the Hendershot Generator in order to first understand what was really happening, and thus how we might progress.

Morpher on YouTube has already completed many investigations, eg.
Hendershot Fuelless Generator Coil Study - YouTube

Cheers ........... Graham.

Last edited by GSM : 10-03-2012 at 09:40 AM.
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Old 10-03-2012, 10:26 AM
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the magnet

Yet another 'unknown' of the Hendershot generator would relate to the magnets Lester used, for these too have their own internal molecular impedances in series with their electron-spin encapsulated fields, and hence the magnet field would also have been oscillating in tune with the coil assemblies !

What kinds of magnets did Lester use - did he use the magnetron magnet because he knew about its internal mode of balanced oscillation about a central pole ??

Was there ever any indication of whether the output of a Mk3 Hendershot generator was AC or DC ?

So Chris, whilst you might be able to energise Hendershot type coils with a transistor oscillator, I remain convinced that the buzzer generated two frequencies in the form of a modulated carrier, and it is possible that a radio testing bench oscillator offering modulated RF output, with both modulation and RF frequencies being independently tunable, might represent a route for progress by eliminating many unknown buzzer related variables.

Cheers .......... Graham.
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Old 10-03-2012, 03:38 PM
ChrisW ChrisW is offline
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getting deeper!

Well, Graham, the well of questions is clearly getting deeper! You've made some interesting points in the prior two posts.

The thin sleeve core is a fascinating idea, since Joseph Cater's device has many such thin cores in its construction. This apparently affects the magnetization curve and so getting the right amount of current flowing through L2 appears critical. Cater used a shorted turn approach, according to the description in his book. If constructed properly, it should be possible to try both methods, shorted and thin gap in the material. I was thinking that something like .002" steel shim material might be a solution. Your thoughts?

The crossed field antenna -- hmm -- this reminds me of Larry Rayburn's TREC device. Your mention of this presents some intriguing thoughts, in light of the L2/L3/L4 arrangement. More food for thought.

As I recall, Lester didn't get around to using the magnetron magnet until quite late in the game, a refinement, if you will. Prior to that, he was using ordinary horseshoe magnets with a keeper across the poles. (Why on earth did he leave the keeper in place, I wonder? Any thoughts on this?)

The modulated carrier idea is a damn good bit of thinking, Graham. Could it be that the buzzer provided the carrier wave, whilst atop it was all the "noise" of the obviously much higher frequency signal of the L2 coils? Was the buzzer operating near 60Hz? It would seem viable, since a mechanical device is limited in frequency. The question now becomes, how would a modulated signal be translated to the load? Is some part of the circuit demodulating and combining the HF energy with the carrier? Would that even be necessary? You're the radio man, so I defer to you on this point.

It would appear some progress is being made -- exciting!

Chris
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Old 10-03-2012, 05:37 PM
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Here is related question which bothers me for a long time but since I don't have much experience with electronics I haven't built any device to proof it yet.

If we have very high frequency AC or DC pulsed current and modulate it to 50Hz would it behave exactly like 50Hz current ? I mean about power transfered to load like resistive electric kettle.
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Old 10-03-2012, 06:12 PM
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It may be crazy idea but Thomas Edison found etheric force working on with vibrator, and his statements were incredible.

Hendershot used something very close, very interesting resemblance...
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Old 10-03-2012, 08:10 PM
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modulated 50Hz

Hi boguslaw,

This is exactly the question I brought up to GSM. It's a good question. I don't think the typical power supply (especially one connected to sensitive electronics) would appreciate it. Light bulbs (incandescent, that is), on the other hand, don't give a crap what kind of power you feed them. There are plenty of examples of bulbs glowing on RF power, spikey stuff (Bedini energizers), Tesla coils, and so on.

Could you please post what you have found on the Edison stuff you mentioned. Sounds quite interesting.

Thanks!
Chris
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Old 10-03-2012, 08:27 PM
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Hi Boguslaw,

I don't think that the Hendershot generator runs at the sort of frequencies associated with spark gap technologies, and it is possible the longitudinal resonance induced within the core could be 30 to 60kHz, so although I suggested a modulated RF generator, it would need to be one running at low RF frequencies, or even be an audio generator having extended HF range. Besides, the TV frame output transformers would still be useful at this sort of frequency, whereas the cores used in mains transformers would be much more lossy.

Also whilst lamps would still run at that frequency your question about other equipment is most valid, because 'no' - a 50-60Hz modulated carrier is quite unlike 50-60Hz mains, and coiled wire heaters might have a self inductance which would effectively reduce their dissipation.

The Thomas Edison observations related to vibration are new to me and likely require further investigation, especially if this related to the vibration of 'magnetic domains'.

Hi Chris.

You know what, I have mused so much about this I find it difficult to find any starting point.

I have not heard of any works by Joseph Cater either, so obviously my studies must continue.

Re the magnet keeper; obviously to maintain maximum field when not in use, for the gap could not have been completely closed during operation.

Also yes, I believe the mass resonance would have been at a carrier frequency, with the those 40uF capacitors able to introduce phase change at such frequency.
Another reason why I think a travelling wave is longitudinally induced within the core is due to the twice phase shifted low impedance outputs of T1/2 being fed to L3 windings with respect to L2 and the single phase shifted drive to L4.

Anyone have an original Hendershot generator I can get my hands on, or even if I might directly question any owner of same to fill in some of the blanks ?

Is Mark Hendershot still alive and amenable to open source questions, for there is no way I would be willing to do this in a non-public way ?
If yes, does Mark communicate via the internet ?

Cheers ............. Graham.
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Old 10-03-2012, 09:36 PM
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a starting point?

Graham,

Perhaps as a starting point, you could present all of your "surmisings" (if that's a word!) and thoughts about how the device might work. I think I've presented my case fairly well, and clearly there's lots of room for improvement. I'm so-so in the electronics department, but I don't hold a general class radio license; pretty much everything I know is self-taught.

I don't recall reading anything about the keeper being removed during operation, but it's clearly drawn in nearly all the schematics, hence my question.

There appears to be a great deal of phase shifting taking place, which leaves me wondering if that's how Lester approached this thing ab initio. Add a little inductance here, a little capacitance there, until voltage and current were back in sync, with a power factor pretty close to one. Hmm?

You might try locating Mark, last I heard he was still alive and kicking. From the pictures I last saw back in the mid 90s, I'd say he's probably in his late 40s, maybe even early 50s at present. Best of luck trying to find an original device, however. Mark is probably the ONLY source.

As mentioned, I'd very much enjoy hearing your analysis of the schematics...

Chris
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Old 10-03-2012, 09:42 PM
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Cater's device

P.S. You can find a good write-up of Joseph Cater's device in Patrick Kelly's e-book, Chapter 5. http://free-energy-info.co.uk/index.html. It starts on page 138.
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Old 10-03-2012, 09:51 PM
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Aho notes.

http://www.hyiq.org/Library/Downloads/Alex's-Hendershot-Collection/1968_-_Arthur_C._Aho_-_Energy_Unlimited_-_A_Case_for_Space.pdf
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  #20 (permalink)  
Old 10-04-2012, 07:18 AM
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This is thread related to Edison etheric force. He was not alone to find this. Yes, I believe he found radio waves but it's properties from "near field" or longitudinal waves.

1872, Elihu Thomson - anyone got this document in scientific american 1872??

This is old thread related to Hendershot:

Hendershot Replications

Before you dismiss Edison discovery read carefully what he published as a response to critics. I found it startling, almost thought he lied us.What if not ?

Read the text from picture. More interesting details can be found in Edison papers but it's hard to decode handwritten text.
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Old 10-04-2012, 09:11 AM
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Thanks for the links Boguslaw. I will study these next.

I've checked out earlier links but found nothing similar to Hendershot's work.
No other devices had phased windings over a core capable of generating a longitudinal phonic (domain matter) oscillation within that core.

Such a standing longitudinal wave would be capable of vibrating magnetic domains (electron spin orbit alignments) beneath L2 in a manner beyond the simple electron precession of a normally induced L2 alternating field, thus into a transducible magnetic spin field, or limited NMR ?

I note from the Aho link I added that the generator output was circa 60Hz, though whether plain AC or a modulated carrier is not stated. Also I don't accept Aho's words about the manner in which he suggested the capacitors were working - too esoteric and lacking in fundamental detail.

As long as we search for the aetherial which commercially funded 'experts' claim exists - then we will never succeed.

Cheers ............. Graham.

Last edited by GSM : 10-04-2012 at 10:30 AM.
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  #22 (permalink)  
Old 10-04-2012, 10:20 AM
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Wtf

I have just lost a lengthy and detailed post here.

I must quickly make written notes and repeat later.

This has happened to me before via this forum ?????
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Old 10-04-2012, 12:30 PM
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Originally Posted by boguslaw View Post
This is thread related to Edison etheric force.

Before you dismiss Edison discovery read carefully what he published as a response to critics. I found it startling, almost thought he lied us.What if not ?

Read the text from picture. More interesting details can be found in Edison papers but it's hard to decode handwritten text.
Everything in our world is of electromagnetic form and relationship = atomic/ electron relationships.
Combustion is an electromagnetic reaction, explainable via the language of Chemistry, but also via atomic Physics where molecular changes accompany entropy change with electron separations or combination and/or ion/ plasma generation.
Edison is so correct in his statement that only electricity (electrons) could be involved, but electrons are of matter, NOT an imaginary aether.

Cheers .......... Graham.

Last edited by GSM : 10-04-2012 at 12:36 PM.
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Old 10-04-2012, 05:08 PM
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Life's little frustrations

Graham,

I have also had my share of editing glitches. Hopefully the people at Jelsoft are aware of these problems. I hope you were able to regain your thoughts, I'm anxiously awaiting to read them. For such deep posts, I might suggest using Notepad or other plain text editor as the primary tool, followed by a copy and paste of your text into this forum's editor. If "feces occurs," at least your work is preserved in Notepad.

I wish to make a correction to my earlier analogue of the Hendershot device. Rather than the "two people in a bathtub" approach, I think it's better expressed as two children on a see-saw. This implies a 180 degree phase difference at the L2 coils; while one is at its peak, the other is at its trough, and vice versa. It follows that the resonant frequency of the two coils must be very nearly identical, with only the most minute phase shifting permissible. Further, the L1/C1 pairs become the "children," if you will, to "push back" at the right time in order to maintain the oscillation.

I'm still "processing" the notion that a near 60Hz carrier wave is being modulated at the L2 resonant frequency. How that 60Hz is being generated is somewhat of a mystery given the small inductance and capacitance values being used. The "buzzer" seems to be the only point at which such a low frequency can be generated, and then the question becomes, is it really a sine wave, or some "spikey" looking waveform due to the mechanical make-and-break nature of the thing? More questions....

I do agree with you about Aho's commentary, albeit with some reservation, since consciousness *IS* the true "final frontier." However, I won't digress into that discussion on this thread, as it's vitally important to stay on topic and highly focused on the task at hand.

More to come....
Chris
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Old 10-05-2012, 09:30 AM
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Graham,

Rather than the "two people in a bathtub" approach, I think it's better expressed as two children on a see-saw. This implies a 180 degree phase difference at the L2 coils; while one is at its peak, the other is at its trough, and vice versa. It follows that the resonant frequency of the two coils must be very nearly identical, with only the most minute phase shifting permissible. Further, the L1/C1 pairs become the "children," if you will, to "push back" at the right time in order to maintain the oscillation.

Chris
The axial field within a core is 180 degrees out of phase with the tubular field outside of the windings, and the current within the wire is 90 degrees shifted with respect to either field at resonance.

The fields of these assemblies would be considerable with circa 100V being generated, and I am open to a see-sawing of energy, but not via a carrier frequency difference between the cores/ windings, because their fields are so closely situated they would have unavoidably high mutual coupling.

Can anyone else help out here ?

So my thoughts run to either sidebands or a circular interaction, with the 90 degree lead of one coil output referenced against a system virtual balanced zero point, driving the load against a 90 degree zero referenced lag from the other coil, and vice-versa via normal field alternation, with the cyclic core loading of both assemblies at 0 and 180 degrees being minimal so that both the coherent and sequential regeneration of oscillation and output can continue ?

I am short of time - notes made to add, but wanted to reply to your post Chris, and keep the brainstorming from flat-lining.

Cheers ......... Graham.

Last edited by GSM : 10-05-2012 at 01:32 PM.
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Old 10-05-2012, 01:22 PM
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Going through my notes;

The core - 32 thou stainless steel sheet, likely capable of attracting a magnet, cut to size suitable for making the sleeve core, and with a silver soldered seam ?
If soldered then the core was definitely a shorted turn, and if soldered why would the core look as if it had a taped join in a couple of photographs.
Mark Hendershots own construction does not even show a core, and there is no way one of these generators could operate without one.

Many folk mention 500kHz related to Lester's capabilities, or said to be the generator's frequency of operation just below the broadcast band, however I cannot see anything in this circuit capable of resonating circa 500kHz, whether naturally, or via tuning.
L1 was measured at 120uH. During energised operation this figure might well be greater and so when tuned with the hand made 7,800pF capacitor could be tuning around 100 to 120kHz (below the European LW band), or lower.
Around this frequency might turn out to be a second harmonic to the first phonic longitudinal resonance of the core, and thus tie in with Lester's coil winding arrangements whereby L1 and L2 are over one half of the core, whilst the phase transforming coils L3 and L4 are over the other; these pairings separated by the harmonic vibration mode null.

C1 - why hand make this component, for at RF it must posses a decidedly low Q, and thus better be replaced by the much higher quality standard components already available in radio shops ?
The long and not-connected strip of C1 was wound directly against the stainless steel core though separated by paper insulation. The strips of this capacitor are aluminium, a common metal which releases electron charge when impinged upon by emanations from atomic modification and energetic EM radiation; thus yet more reason to consider either fully rotational orbit spin of sleeve core electrons, or NMR induced within core !
Excess electron charge actively induced within the long strip would also be alternated between the C1 terminals and thereafter across L1 under the directing influence of the cylindrical magnetic field alternating longitudinally with respect to the core's outer circumference. Thus correctly phased connections would be essential between C1 and L1, for this might well prove to be THE potential source of RF field regeneration, and thus electrical output !

Remember folks you read these aspects here first, and as of today already having prior Worldwide publication, so the scum First to File Patent scammers will no longer be able to claim commercial originality and novelty - for truly - these have always belonged to the so long ago reported sole inventor - Lester Hendershot.

Cheers ............... Graham.

Last edited by GSM : 10-05-2012 at 02:36 PM.
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Old 10-05-2012, 04:09 PM
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Yikes!

Jesus Christ, Graham, it's taking me longer and longer to absorb and understand your posts. Either I'm an idiot or you've become an academician on me. Yikes!

Don't misunderstand, I love where you're going with all of this. It's brilliant! It's just that I tend to adhere to Einstein's philosophy, to paraphrase, it shouldn't require ten thousand words to explain a simple concept!

Okay, so let's tear apart your last post so that I can wrap my feeble mind around it:

1. You're saying 32/1000" (.032") stainless steel sleeve. I think I suggested 2/1000" (.002") garden variety (non-stainless). First of all, you're not going to "solder" either one, nor are you going to weld them. You might be able to braze it into a tubular shape. Yes, I'm being rather picky with terminology, but there are distinct differences in all three techniques (welding, brazing and soldering) and simply wish to avoid confusion.

As for the material thickness, IMHO, the thinner the better, since there's less matter involved to become magnetized, hence a speedier magnetization rate, and likely less current required to achieve magnetization. Am I right on this?

As for the "tube" being "solid" (shorted turn) or having a gap or slit down the side, I would intuitively vote for the latter, but perhaps we should discuss the pros and cons of both techniques.

2. Operating frequency vs. 500 KHz. As I recall, the story was that Lester could intuitively peel off the proper amount of wire from a reel for a desired frequency, in one case, this being 500KHz (which would seem to imply that Lester knew a thing or two about radio!) I don't have the numbers in front of me at the moment, but perhaps we should examine the wire length of L2, since its resonant frequency will be determined by that length (in an air core coil, anyway).

3. Hand wound C1. Ah, here's the biggie! First, the salient points: A) Yes, the material was aluminum, chemically treated to cause surface pitting, thus creating a larger surface area and thus a higher capitance; B) In response to "The long and not-connected strip of C1 was wound directly against the stainless steel core though separated by paper insulation." Graham! Really? If there were a paper sheet separating the stainless steel from the aluminum strip, then the two were NOT in physical contact! Let's look at this another way.

Current flows through L2 by which we establish its electric and magnetic field components. My sense of it is that C1 is being charged SOLELY by L2's E field. With C1 charged, L1/C1 can now "push back" (as a current source) through L2. In other words, it's keeping the swing moving at "no charge" (pardon the bad pun!)

NMR? Hmm. Maybe, but I thought iron's NMR was up around 6MHz. Even harmonically, that's a helluva long way up the chain.

Now here's a kick in the pants for you. I seem to recall that both Searl AND Otis T. Carr used stand-alone LC circuits in their EM/ES craft. In other words, an L and a C connected in parallel with no electrical connection to any further circuitry -- but with a definite magnetic connection via anther coil. Wild, eh? It appears that this method was devised LONG before you and I came on the scene!

Damn, if Project Pegasus was real and still exists today, I want to go back in time and meet these guys!

So yes, it would seem we're on the right track. I say the next step is some experimenting...

Chris

PS. Looks like somebody gave this thread a 5-star rating... cool

Last edited by ChrisW : 10-05-2012 at 04:16 PM. Reason: missing word in sentence!
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Old 10-05-2012, 05:27 PM
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Hi Chris,

I never realised that stainless steel was available so readily.
I guess near to 32 thou would be 0.7 and 0.9mm sheet.
stainless steel sheet plate 100mm x 100mm x 3mm 304 2b finish items in inspiredsteel store on eBay!
Also silver solder for joining stainless steel is readily available, and not expensive either.
Silver solder is the cool way to join stainless steel without changing its homogenuity (magnetic characteristics).
Shorted turn or not, it would not be difficult to try both.

L2 is part of the power circuit and not 'doing' the tuning. Tuning is related to L1 and C1 - as adjusted by Lester using tiny compression clamps.

Re your vision of C1 charging; I would ask "how?"
C1 foils run against a common foil, and are not connected to anything else.
Also their closeness of proximity causes a (shunting) RF impedance much lower than would be the case with a field energisable coil winding.

What I suggest is that it is the capacitor foil which could transduce induced core emanations, and I'm not sure where that 6MHz figure comes from.

Cheers ............ Graham.

Last edited by GSM : 10-05-2012 at 05:31 PM.
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Old 10-05-2012, 07:44 PM
ChrisW ChrisW is offline
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"There's plenty, you know!"

Hi Graham,

You can also find steel shim stock (which IS magnetic) in many widths, lengths and thicknesses. To quote Eddie Murphy in the film "Coming to America'" "There's plenty, you know!"

Hmm! Hadn't considered silver soldering, though I suspect it'd take some substantial heat to do it on steel.

So, you don't think the L1/C1 + L2 form a resonant circuit? I'll bet they do! Consider: a basket weave coil is going to have a REALLY sharp resonance point. Getting TWO of them to resonate at the SAME frequency would VERY difficult (especially without a variable cap for tuning), so it makes perfect sense that Lester would have to hand-tweak the coils.

As to how C1 gets charged: TWO ways, now that I think about it. First is through inductance via L1 (albeit at a pretty low voltage and current level), but also by L2's E-field! I did thing quick experiment a year or so ago: I took a PVC coil form, wrapped it first with a non-shorting length of copper foil, over that some paper, then over that, a hundred or so turns of magnet wire. I connected the coil to my signal generator, put my scope ground on the SG's ground, and the scope probe on the copper foil. Voila! That signal appeared on the copper foil, sharp and clear. Now this is undoubtedly not enough evidence to say that C1 would get a REAL charge this way, but it does seem to comport with Daniel McFarland Cook's phase-flipped "transformers" and some of the coil/capacitor hybrids that have been researched here and on other fora. It gives me every reason to believe that there's something to the concept that bears further investigation.

Well, I just read the last line of your post: "What I suggest is that it is the capacitor foil which could transduce induced core emanations." Hmm. Didn't I just say that?

As for the 6MHz, look up the NMR frequency of iron -- mmm...maybe it's copper I'm thinking of... but that number seems to be stuck in my head for some reason, related to something I must have read at one time about ferromagnetic resonance.

I've never quite wrapped my mind around the "virtual ground" idea. I know Dollard has talked about it, maybe you or someone here could expound on this a bit. It makes me think it's somehow highly frequency-dependent.

Chris
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  #30 (permalink)  
Old 10-05-2012, 11:40 PM
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Hi Graham,

Well, I just read the last line of your post: "What I suggest is that it is the capacitor foil which could transduce induced core emanations." Hmm. Didn't I just say that?

As for the 6MHz, look up the NMR frequency of iron -- mmm...maybe it's copper I'm thinking of... but that number seems to be stuck in my head for some reason, related to something I must have read at one time about ferromagnetic resonance.

Chris
No. You wrote -
"My sense of it is that C1 is being charged SOLELY by L2's E field."

Geotech - Technology for Treasure Hunting
What I am suggesting is down to oscillated domains of magnetically induced electron precessions plus induced spin orbit changes to atomic relationships within the molecular body of the core; these radiating directly into the insulated long aluminium strip, which develops electron charge that is synchronously dielectrically alternated between C1/2 terminals into L1 windings.
Not from L2 E field, but from a resonantly phased L2+3+4 longitudinal spin wave induced within the core.

Cheers .......... Graham.
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