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#1
08-24-2017, 08:39 AM
 socratus Senior Member Join Date: Aug 2011 Location: Israel Posts: 351
The geometry of global universe and red- shift. /by Socratus /

* The geometry of global universe and red- shift. /by Socratus /
===============
* a)* the global geometry of the universe* ( which is the curvature of the universe)
depends on its density ( the Cosmological Constant)
Today the* average density of the universe as whole is* about* 9.9 x 10-30 g/cm3.
Such small value of the average density cannot ''close'' the universe into sphere
and therefore it is an infinite ''open'' continuum.

b) but in some local places the picture of universe is different.
*
By some reason, in some local places the masses, and the density is much bigger
than in the infinite ''open'' universe.
* In these places we can see Gravity effect.
It means, that in the infinite ''open'' universe the Gravity effect* can ''close''
a part of ''open'' universe into*local spherical space , and create stars, planets, . . . . etc.
The states of stars, planets depend on their gravity-masses and their speed.
Gravity is*an effect of local masses - density and their speed.
Gravity is* the local ( curved into sphere ) geometrical part of infinite ''open'' universe.
Therefore local Gravity effect cannot be used to the* global* universe as whole.

The right question must be:* ''Where the Gravity come from?''.
''Where the Gravity - masses come from?''.

c) Today in every scientific book is written about ''the age of the universe'',
and it* is about 14 billion years old.
If it so, then light / quantum of light also must have an age.

d)*Then* the cosmological red-shift (which is assumed to be a result
* of the expansion)* can have an another interpretation.

For example: cosmological red-shift is the conditions of light quanta.
The* cosmological red-shift directly relates to the age of the quantum of light.
The quantum of light can have different age:
* * the more distance quantum of light travels the older it is.
========================================
Best wishes.
======================================….
__________________

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#2
09-01-2017, 02:34 PM
 socratus Senior Member Join Date: Aug 2011 Location: Israel Posts: 351
** Doppler effect and Cosmology / Red-shift.
=======
The Doppler effect (or the Doppler shift)* an increase (or decrease) in the frequency of sound,
light, or other waves as the source and observer move toward (or away from) each other.
* ** /today's knowledge /
=========
a)* all galaxies ( . . . . etc )* exist in an infinite vacuum.
* *If a tree falls in the vacuum, it doesn't make a sound, none*would hear this.
This is because sound waves can't travel through an '' empty''* vacuum.

b)* in* the vacuum,* photon with constant speed* c* has no wavelength.
Photon travels with constant speed* c** is a pure particle, without wavelength.
This pure particle travels in a straight line until it will meet big gravity-masses.

It means, that
* it* is impossible to use Doppler effect to understand* Cosmology and* Red-shift.

===========================
Best wishes.
======================================
__________________

#3
09-01-2017, 02:38 PM
 socratus Senior Member Join Date: Aug 2011 Location: Israel Posts: 351
The theory ( Hubble’s law ) says:

a) the spectra from distant galaxy has red-shift, that means the galaxy
goes away from us.

b) the amount of red-shift is proportional to the distance.

c) the farthest galaxies are moving even faster than the close ones.

But there is an exception: Andromeda galaxy.
Andromeda, is the closest spiral galaxy which emits the ultraviolet wavelength.
That must mean: the Andromeda galaxy moves in direction towards us
( Earth - Sun - Milky Way galaxy)

Some theorists try to explain this exception saying that
by cosmological scale the distance between these two galaxies is short and
therefore the gravity forces can attract them.
Then i thought:

a) the distance is short, time travel is short, the light quanta are young )

b) the far galaxies don’t obey gravity laws.

c) even in one single galaxy the gravity laws don’t work,
and therefore was invented ‘‘dark matter’’ and ‘‘dark energy’‘.
( dark matter and dark energy make up more than 90% of
all the matter / energy of the universe.
This can mean that all visible matter was make up from
dark matter / energy substance.
Nobody knows what hypothetical dark matter / energy substance is.)

When the basis of physics is wrong the amount of abstractions grow infinitely.

I say that all galaxies don’t run anyway.
All galaxies have own reference frame for existence and only
light / quantum of light can travel between them.
Solar system has its reference frame,
Earth has its reference frame.
all animals have their reference frame on the Earth.
Everything and everybody has its reference frame for existence.
Everything and everybody has its own time of life:
an universe, stars, planets, atoms, quantum particles.
So is with a quantum of light:
It was born, it lives, it will die as everything and everybody.
========================
Why quantum of light is a privileged particle?
Why quantum of light can travel with absolute constant speed?
Einstein:
‘’ All these fifty years of conscious brooding have brought me
no nearer to the answer to the question, ‘What are light quanta?’
Nowadays every Tom, Dick and Harry thinks he knows it, but he is mistaken ‘‘

‘What are light quanta?’ The question still waits an answer.
==================================.
__________________

#4
09-01-2017, 02:42 PM
 socratus Senior Member Join Date: Aug 2011 Location: Israel Posts: 351
Author: Halton Arp, 6"x9” paperback, 314 pages, ISBN:0-9683689-0-5
A wonderful book, Seeing Red is a must read since it is both educational and hard-hitting
while being readable and entertaining. Arp dismantles conventional astrophysics, based
on redshift being proportional to distance, by sharing his observations on quasars,
some of which are highly redshifted yet connected to low redshifted galaxies
by material bridges. Writing eye-opening material in more than one arena,
Arp takes on the corruption of good science in academia, government and publishing
after giving us great material concerning red shift, the Big Bang, and cosmology.
Seeing Red can be ordered via the link below.

A common belief today is that Edwin Hubble discovered in 1929 that the universe
was expanding and that the Big Bang theory is the unavoidable conclusion from that fact.
But what did Hubble actually say?
“If the redshifts are a Doppler shift…the observations as they stand lead to the anomaly
of a closed universe, curiously small and dense, and, it may be added, suspiciously young.
On the other hand, if redshifts are not Doppler effects, these anomalies disappear and
the region observed appears as a small, homogeneous, but insignificant portion
of a universe extended indefinitely in both space and time.”
(MNRAS, 17, 506, 1937)

Material bridges HAVE BEEN CONFIRMED!

But science is not about accepting what is familiar.
Science is about asking further questions: How could the familiar explanation be disproved?
What else could it be? Hubble was referring to these further questions with his words
“if” and “on the other hand.” Until his death in 1953, Hubble continued to argue against
an expanding universe/big bang interpretation of the data from his 1929 observations.

It took 40 years to discover the evidence that disproved the argument from familiarity:
Beginning in the late 1960’s, Halton Arp photographed high-redshift objects (QSOs)
clustered around and connected to low- redshift galaxies.
His observations contradicted the “redshift equals distance” assumption and suggested
that “smaller and fainter” meant merely smaller and fainter.
But by then the Big Bang had become an object of faith, institutionalized in the
astronomical hierarchy and in the professional journals.
Arp was ostracized. He lost his access to publishing in the astronomical journals,
his prestige and his telescope time because he continued to make observations
“If astronomy were a science,” a famous astronomer has said, the Big Bang would
[See Arp’s lecture video, “Intrinsic Redshift,” for more details of this new picture of the universe.] Available from Mikamar Publishing

================
__________________

#5
09-02-2017, 12:50 AM
 socratus Senior Member Join Date: Aug 2011 Location: Israel Posts: 351
* It is interesting situation:
Many believe that* all* galaxies started (14 billion year ago) from one singular point
and had equal energy, and then ''the farthest galaxies are moving even faster than
the close ones '' , but don't believe that* quantum of light can have age and they say:
this theme '' does not qualify as a science discussion.'' **

Alice's Wonderland
===
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