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  • Why pulsed DC?

    So I've enjoyed learning from Eric and going through the references, including Tesla's Colorado Springs notes, Steinmetz and others. However, I've got a question. I understand the concept that electricity gets stored in the magnetic and dielectric field and then can oscillate between these two. Yet why is there something special about a pulsed DC source? Based on the references, I still don't understand why pulsed DC is special. Any thoughts from anyone?

    Does pulsed DC do something special to the dielectric field?
    Last edited by skaght; 03-15-2012, 02:03 PM.

    Comment


    • Originally posted by skaght View Post
      So I've enjoyed learning from Eric and going through the references, including Tesla's Colorado Springs notes, Steinmetz and others. However, I've got a question. I understand the concept that electricity gets stored in the magnetic and dielectric field and then can oscillate between these two. Yet why is there something special about a pulsed DC source? Based on the references, I still don't understand why pulsed DC is special. Any thoughts from anyone?

      Does pulsed DC does something special to the dielectric field?
      From what I understand it is not so much pulsed DC....as in conventional square wave pulsed DC in modern circuitry rather it is DC Impulses.

      Watch the video with Eric Dollard & Chris Carson. In it Eric explains the difference between AC, DC, Impulse and Oscillating.

      Impulse waveforms in Tesla Coil Resonance have infinite amplitudes and the harmonic components are IN PHASE. Contrary to standard up and down DC waveforms where amplitude is limited and harmonics are out of phase. This is what makes Impulses special. The video has pictures as well to help explain.
      A collection of Eric Dollards latest posts and writings on my website: Gestalt Reality - Eric Dollard

      Comment


      • Originally posted by Gestalt View Post
        From what I understand it is not so much pulsed DC....as in conventional square wave pulsed DC in modern circuitry rather it is DC Impulses.

        Watch the video with Eric Dollard & Chris Carson. In it Eric explains the difference between AC, DC, Impulse and Oscillating.

        Impulse waveforms in Tesla Coil Resonance have infinite amplitudes and the harmonic components are IN PHASE. Contrary to standard up and down DC waveforms where amplitude is limited and harmonics are out of phase. This is what makes Impulses special. The video has pictures as well to help explain.
        wait a sec

        how can harmonics be in phase?

        Parts of them can be in phase.

        They can be best lined up (mathematically) for best transfer by phase adjusting but I have never seen harmonics et al in phase or any math that would lend credence to it even being possible.

        yes the idea is impulse having more punch through power, and as far as I am concerned it is similar to a typical ballistics problem.

        For a very general example to make a point not be in any respect mathematically correct, if you have 100 grains of lead moving 1 million feet per second impacting an object or you have a 1 ton chunk of lead impacting at 100 feet per second the disturbance will be the same.

        Both the lead and the watt are doing work by a force and it all comes down to power which is a function of both pulse height and pulse width, ie velocity and mass in the case of the lead and maybe also in the case of power. If the impulse were infinite sparks would be jumping all over the place and it would be uncontainable, so suffice to say they are not infinite in the real world.

        There is no such thing as infinite or even approaching infinite in the real world applications as the peak of the impulse will be determined by the internal resistance plus any reactive components of the media.

        At this point I have not seen any other things going on here that would lead me to a well grounded understanding of the 1.57c or magnification meaning anything beyond a transformer action.

        I do want to believe but I am still not in a position to do so, and I do not know if its me or the manner in which the theory and information is put out here, and several of my questions went and continue to go unanswered to my satisfaction.

        call me unenlightened Mr stick in the mud if that is what I am but that is where it stands with me LOL
        Last edited by Kokomoj0; 03-16-2012, 05:59 AM.

        Comment


        • Impulses NOT Pulses

          Gestalt,

          You gave an excellent response to Skaght's question, although I would have to somewhat agree with Kokomoj0 on the phasing issue of harmonics. I may, at some latter time, give my thoughts on that interesting problem. But for right now here's some basic considerations of an Impulse. When generally considered, you have two possibilities with super-imposed waves, constructive (additive) or destructive (subtractive) "interference". For an Impulse, the wave-front's steepness is determined by the parasitic capacity and inductance of the discharge path, the tail however is determined by the resistance or conductance of the discharge path and the storage capacity of the discharging medium. This matters because the rise time of the Impulse can be considered to be based upon the "bandwidth" of the wave-front (similar to a "Pulse", which is limited due to parasitic inductance & capacity) this would determine how many "waves" are composing the wave-front of the Impulse. If you consider radiation resistance, then you will have a certain amount of Hertzian waves emitted near (and progressively less further away from) the source of the disturbance (i.e. the discharging storage medium). As for a nearby circuit it will be affected by two entities, the radiated hertz waves and rapidly changing Dielectric and Magnetic gradients G & H this causing mutual coupling to the surrounding circuits. Here, with mutual and radiative coupling, the harmonics play a bigger role in my opinion, this followed with the understanding of FREE OSCILLATIONS (NOT "ALTERNATIONS") will give much more insight into the Tesla transformers workings.

          Interestingly (for fun) you can HEAR the difference in bandwidth between a Sine, Impulse and Pulse with a pair of head phones (I actually did this experiment the other day while building a tube amp). The square wave will have more HIGHS and a consistent sound level. The Impulse will have Highs initially but then fade and sound level varies giving a super imposed "beat" to the sound. A sine wave is a "pure" tone (if you have a good signal generator) and its sound level doesn't "seem" to vary. The best tests are done at 30 to 100 hertz where you can easily tell if there shouldn't be any high frequency sound or secondary beats.

          Here's my 2¢ on the subject of Skaght's question;

          I think a lot of people confuse "Impulse" and "Pulse" when they're brought up in conversation. IMPULSES are SINGLE ENERGY TRANSIENTS they have little to no relation to PULSES, this may seem like pointless semantics but there is a difference between the two. An Impulse is the (sometimes explosive) release of energy from a dielectric (as a surge current psi/time) or magnetic (as a surge voltage phi/time) storage medium. Whereas Pulses are controlled signals, whether for use in digital or analogue circuits or even for power conversion in switch-mode power supplies.

          NOTE, Impulses are almost NEVER used in engineering practice, although they do find use in RAIL-GUNS and other high-energy experimental devices that need explosive amounts of power.

          Interestingly, Impulses and Pulses do share one commonality, they LOOK like DC, or more specifically they don't alternate between polarities (Negative and Positive) during their aperiodic duration (although they both can incite oscillations in the same circuit or even nearby circuits). Furthermore "DC" is not what people think it is, DC has NO FREQUENCY thus is TIME INVARIANT so ANYTHING that does something other than look like a horizontal "straight line" is not "DC". The term CONTINUOUS CURRENT is more accurate a term than DIRECT CURRENT. If the current varies in time it is no longer DC, but now AC, OC or IC superimposed upon DC, forming a "compound wave". Hence why you use AC filters on DC circuits to IMPROVE the DC "characteristics" or "cleanup the DC signal".

          The understanding of PULSES comes from that of SINE WAVES and NOT ASYMPTOTES. In a general sense, Pulses can be described by odd-order harmonic sines superimposed upon a fundamental sine. DC Pulses are "DC Offset" AC square waves. The "rise time" and "fall time" of a square wave relates to its "bandwidth" or how many (odd-order) harmonics are superimposed upon the fundamental signal. Capacitance and Inductance act as filters, which slopes the edges of a perfect square wave, thus there will never be an infinite rise time square wave, if any amount of inductance or capacitance is present. Generally, in digital circuits, too fast a rise time can cause issues so the slope of the wave is carefully chosen to "play" well with the logic elements used.

          Impulses are an interesting subject but for the sake of brevity and to not belabor the issue, I put up some (I believe to be excellent) references to the subject and links to them via my Scribd account.



          By the way, I would like to give a HUGE shout of thanks to Jpolakow and Information_synthesis for "modernizing" and uploading the Generalized Electric Wave and other books of Mr. Dollard (to the yahoo N6KPH group). (They almost look like modern text books!)

          REFERENCES:

          EP DOLLARD;

          Symbolic Representation of the Generalized Electric Wave [1985]

          CP STEINMETZ;

          General Equations of the Electric Circuit [1908] (This is Pt1)
          Outline of Theory of Impulse Currents [1916] (This is "Pt2")
          General Equations of the Electric Circuit Pt3 [1919]




          Garrett M
          Last edited by garrettm4; 03-16-2012, 10:56 PM.

          Comment


          • construction details

            How important is it that the secondary turns remain parallel?? i.e. can you use a "basket weave" style.

            I tried to wind the secondary using 14ga but it is very unfriendly.. small changes caused by the dowles bending slightly caused bending and twisting of the wire. Which lead to not very parallel turns and a horrible experience with winding on a large wood former. I threw in some toothpicks to keep the spacing sufficient.

            Anyways it makes a good directional radio? Picks up 1620 with no problem and no 60Hz hum.

            Making the extra coil today should be easier with the thiner wire.

            And on the primary. How close should the two turns be? Would as close as possible be the place to start?
            Attached Files

            Comment


            • Originally posted by garrettm4 View Post
              Gestalt, you gave an excellent response to Skaght's question.

              Here's my 2¢ on the subject;

              I think a lot of people confuse "Impulse" and "Pulse" when they brought up in conversation. IMPULSES are SINGLE ENERGY TRANSIENTS they have little to no relation to PULSES. An Impulse is the (sometimes explosive) release of energy from a dielectric (as a surge current psi/time) or magnetic (as a surge voltage phi/time) storage medium. Whereas Pulses are controlled signals, weather for use in digital or analogue circuits or even for power conversion in switch-mode power supplies.

              NOTE, Impulses are almost NEVER used in engineering practice, although they do find use in RAIL-GUNS and other high energy experimental devices.

              Interestingly, Impulses and Pulses do share one commonality, they LOOK like DC, or more specifically they don't alternate between polarities (Negative and Positive) during their aperiodic period. Furthermore "DC" is not what people think it is, DC has NO FREQUENCY thus is TIME INVARIANT so ANYTHING that does something other than look like a horizontal "straight line" is not "DC". The term CONTINUOUS CURRENT is more accurate a term than DIRECT CURRENT. If the current varies in time it is no longer DC, but now AC, OC or IC superimposed upon DC (or CC). Hence why you use AC filters on DC circuits to IMPROVE the DC "characteristics" or "cleanup the DC signal".

              The understanding of PULSES comes from that of SINE WAVES and NOT ASYMPTOTES. In a general sense, Pulses can be described by odd-order harmonic sines superimposed upon a fundamental sine. DC Pulses are "DC Offset" AC square waves. The "rise time" and "fall time" of a square wave relates to its "bandwidth" or how many (odd-order) harmonics are superimposed upon the fundamental signal. Capacitance and Inductance act as filters, which slopes the edges of a perfect square wave, thus there will never be an infinite rise time square wave, if any amount of inductance or capacitance is present. Generally in digital circuits too fast a rise time can cause issues so the slope of the wave is carefully chosen to "play" well with the logic elements used.

              Impulses are an interesting subject but for the sake brevity and not belaboring the issue, I put up some excellent references to the subject and links to them via my Scribd account.

              By the way I would like to give a HUGE thanks to Jpolakow and Information_synthesis for "modernizing" and uploading the Generalized Electric Wave and other books of Mr. Dollard. (They look like modern text books!)

              REFERENCES:

              CP STEINMETZ;

              General Equations of the Electric Circuit Pt1 [1908]
              Outline of Theory of Impulse Currents [1916] (This is "Pt2")
              General Equations of the Electric Circuit Pt3 [1919]



              EP DOLLARD;

              Symbolic Representation of the Generalized Electric Wave [1985]

              Garrett M
              Hi Garrett, So am I to assume that Batteries don't supply DC then ? Because
              the voltage of a battery varies all the time when in use ? If batteries don't
              supply DC then what do they supply ?

              My understanding is that DC just doesn't alternate from positive to negative
              or negative to positive. For DC to be only a non varying voltage is a very stiff
              requirement.

              Cheers

              Comment


              • So then from the above reasoning, impulses work better. Unless I'm mistaken, that doesn't explain why you couldn't use AC impulses, rather than DC impulses. A lot of the free energy dogma seems to indicate that if you switch to AC, the magic goes away. From the above explanations, I don't see why an AC impulse signal would present a problem. i want to understand the underlying physics, so I'm hoping to continue the discussion on the topic...

                Comment


                • Originally posted by skaght View Post
                  So then from the above reasoning, impulses work better. Unless I'm mistaken, that doesn't explain why you couldn't use AC impulses, rather than DC impulses. A lot of the free energy dogma seems to indicate that if you switch to AC, the magic goes away. From the above explanations, I don't see why an AC impulse signal would present a problem. i want to understand the underlying physics, so I'm hoping to continue the discussion on the topic...
                  Who's free energy dogma? If you are referring to Peter Lindemann's explanation from the "Free Energy Secrets of Cold Electricity" then you had better think again. I am by no means saying that Peter is not giving out accurate information as far as he knows. All I am saying is that when asked in July at the Renaissance Charge Conference what he knew about the importance of parameter variation with regard to "free energy", he told me that that sounded like "hocus pocus" and that "Eric didn't stay around long enough to explain himself". (Referring to first EPD forum posts in 2010) I am not really sure why Peter acquired the Chris Carson Electrostatic Machine without knowledge of parameter variation but that will be a story for Peter to tell...


                  If you look at the math of energy storage by means of Dielectric or Magnetic, you will see something significant happen when you start to vary the parameters. For example, the magnetic:





                  Start playing with L and i and see what happens to the energy. These equations show that you get a rise in energy when lowering the inductance. I am currently using a dual AC waveforms to experiment with this at home. You can see my preliminary results using a generic core material here: http://www.energeticforum.com/renewa...tml#post183463 As far as I am concerned, this waveform is worth a second look (When I talked to Eric, he said it looked like I was getting somewhere).

                  From an archetypal view at all of this energy mess, I see variation in the parameters appearing all over the place. Just look at the Veljko Milkovic Two Stage Mechanical Oscillator. What is it doing? Why does it show more energy out than in when tuned correctly? I don't buy it as being attributed to gravity only. Gravity only assists in the oscillations of the pendulum which from its imbalance changes the parameters of the oscillations much like the oscillations of parameter variation from the dielectric and magnetic resonance components in the control winding of a MAGAMP. EPD quote: "Just keep them swinging"...

                  I think that pulsed DC is more for the Bedini machines and the IMPULSES RETURNED by the discharging inductor from which the passing magnets saturate the cores causing an INDUCTANCE CHANGE in the system.

                  Dave
                  Last edited by Web000x; 03-30-2012, 04:15 PM.

                  Comment


                  • anytime you have delta t, you do not have DC.

                    DC is the near steady state difference in potential.

                    The idea that a varying voltage is dc is nonsense though a full wave rectifier for instance is considered pulsed dc, then when filtered and loaded the variation is considered ripple, or the ac component riding on dc.

                    Comment


                    • I think the terms are mostly outdated and need changing.

                      AC or Alternating Current should instead be Alternating Potential.

                      DC or Direct Current should instead be Continuous Potential.

                      Alternating Current should be reserved for current that changes direction or polarity.

                      Direct current should be reserved for current that does not change direction or polarity.

                      DC as an unchanging potential should be just considered a "scalar potential" shouldn't it ?

                      Impulses in my mind would have an almost instantaneous rise in potential.

                      Pulses can have a more gradual increase in potential.

                      That's my uneducated and unenlightened misunderstanding of it anyway.

                      Cheers

                      Comment


                      • Archtype Electric "Waves"

                        General or Archtype Electric "Waves"



                        The Cyclic or Periodic variety:

                        1) Forced Alternations: (example, generator or alternator)
                        Alternating Current, Undamped - Continuous Level
                        Time: Radians per Second
                        Effective Field Energies: ONE, Magnetic OR Dielectric

                        1A) Constant Potential (this is what you use in your home)
                        RMS Current changes with load impedance, RMS Voltage remains constant

                        1B) Constant Current
                        RMS Voltage changes with load impedance, RMS Current remains constant

                        2) Forced Oscillations: (example, LC tank or coax)
                        Oscillating Current, Undamped - Continuous Level
                        Time: Radians per Second
                        Effective Field Energies: BOTH, Dielectric AND Magnetic

                        3) Free Oscillations: (example, LC tank or coax)
                        Oscillating Current, Damped - Logarithmic Rising or Falling Level
                        Time: Neper-Radians per Second
                        Effective Field Energies: BOTH, Dielectric AND Magnetic

                        NOTE for 2) & 3) in a distributed element network like a coaxial cable a harmonic wave (square wave) can develop rather than a fundamental sine, which a lumped LC tank would produce.

                        The Acyclic or Aperiodic Variety:

                        Impulses:

                        A)Magnetic Discharge (through an "effective resistance"), Damped - Logarithmic Rising or Falling Level with a Steep wave-front
                        Time: Nepers per Second
                        Effective Field Energies: ONE, Magnetic

                        B)Dielectric Discharge (through an "effective conductance"), Damped - Logarithmic Rising or Falling Level with a Steep wave-front
                        Time: Nepers per Second
                        Effective Field Energies: ONE, Dielectric

                        The Non-Cyclic or Non-Periodic Variety:

                        Continuous or Direct Current (NOT PULSED)
                        Time: NONE
                        Effective Field Energies: BOTH, Dielectric AND Magnetic

                        A)Constant Potential (a battery)
                        Current changes with load resistance, Voltage remains constant

                        B)Constant Current
                        Voltage changes with load resistance, Current remains constant

                        NOTE, All of the above can be simplified further (condensed to only 4 general types) but I thought it best to expand the General Archtypes a little bit to give more insight.

                        EVERYTHING ELSE:

                        Every other "wave" type is a combination of the above periodic, aperiodic and non-periodic types and can be looked at as compound waves.

                        Compound waves with DC Source (example):

                        Battery to BoomBox (radio) initial turn on is a Dielectric impulse, charging the filter capacitors. If on but not playing any music a quiescent current draw is DC. If playing music Load impedance changes dynamically, this causes a changing level in current draw and subsequently an AC signal is super-imposed upon the DC power signal from the battery. During turn off, if there was a high current draw as the switch was flipped off, then a Magnetic Impulse would be seen, although it would be very small due to low inductance.

                        Tesla Longitudinal Wave Energy [Video Transcript] Excerpt:

                        Mr. Dollard Giving a Lecture at a HAM Radio Meeting:

                        Now if we analyze these systems we find that [in] the longitudinal magneto dielectric system […] the electrostatic lines of force and the magnetic lines of force are directed in the same axis as the propagation of electrical energy. In the Hertzian system, the magnetic lines of force and the electrostatic lines of force exist at right angles to the direction of electrical energy propagation and this is what accounts for it's incredible losses. In [the LMD] system we have little or no losses. In [the TEM] system we have an extremely high level of losses, in fact by its very definition is resistance. It's called radiation resistance, a term familiar to many.

                        Also we have the waveforms that these devices produced. We are familiar with the conventional alternating current, and the alternating current has a real frequency in cycles per second, and it constantly cycles in a circular fashion back and forth. And then of course we know about the continuous current or the direct current which has no cycles per second. This would be called a scalar frequency. Scalar by definition is a quantity that does not vary in your system of variation, in either time or space or whatever variation you're talking about. An example would be atmospheric pressure. Atmospheric pressure is the same everywhere in this room and that's a scalar function. But if we take the function of the height of people in the room, obviously that's a spatial function, I can see all these waves moving around. so we have a scalar function and then we have a regular function of variation in this dimension of space within this room.

                        Now we have the waveforms that have been forgotten since the days of spark gap and wireless. One is the impulse wave, which is measured in decibels per second and has an exponential waveform. Where [the AC] waveform is expressed in sines and cosines, [the impulse] waveform is expressed in hyperbolic sines and hyperbolic cosines and never truly dampens out but always approaches zero asymptotically. Then we have the oscillating current waveform, and this is the one that was utilized by Tesla. This waveform is expressed in cycle-decibels per second. Now in Tesla's time, he had a concept which he called individualization where he would tune his resonant devices not only to respond to cycles per second but to the decibels per second and produce a second order of tuning where the waveform would become much more individualized.

                        Carrying this concept on further, if we take the resonant action of a simple LC circuit it produces a sinusoidal function. But if we take the resonant action of a quarter wave transmission line shorted at one end and open at the other, not only will it resonate at the fundamental frequency, but it will resonate at the third harmonic, fifth, and ninth and ad infinitum all the way up and it will produce [a square wave]. So we can see with the conventional tuning we're using the sine wave, in the transmission line tuning we end up with rectangular waves. Now if we take the resonance of a coil instead of a linear transmission line which is shorted at one end to ground and open at the other end, the harmonics are in phase and we end up with impulses. Now we find with the sine wave, the amplitude rather than being one, is the square root of two, √2, higher because of the peak to average ratio. With the rectangular wave it would be one. With the impulses, it's infinity.

                        Now what I attempted to show here is that in a measurable quantity of time like on an oscilloscope I've used the black to show what we would see on the screen. Now if we look at a square wave on the oscilloscope we know that this transition is not visible because the amount of time occupied is infinitesimal. Now with the impulse waveform, the pulses are of infinitesimal width.

                        What I'm trying to show with the shading here is the integration that shows that the energy contained in the wave is the area underneath it. There is no area on [the impulse waveform]. The amplitudes are infinite. And these are the waveforms that Tesla were working with and these waveforms would tend to punch through where the continuous waveforms wouldn't make it.

                        [end of excerpt]

                        Garrett M
                        Last edited by garrettm4; 03-20-2012, 01:57 AM.

                        Comment


                        • When compression and rarefaction is sufficient to observe
                          it becomes more evident that transverse is not the same.

                          The boombox is acoustic example. Two people at ends of a rope
                          can demonstrate both transverse and longitudinal waves.

                          We sometimes use a function in an equation to produce a meaningful
                          graph is not always evident so we plug in numbers and forget the demonstration and it becomes dogma.

                          The lump transmission line or a tsunami are other examples to help see there is more than transverse waves. Some are more noble and would like to harness some of it as free individuals.

                          Comment


                          • Notes on a Hollow Earth

                            Some time ago someone put out a picture of a coyote, and the coyote asked about the idea of A Hollow Earth. This is a persistent story, however, I cannot produce and engineerable concept of a Hollow Earth. The existing algebra for gravity is not well developed. It would seem possible however thru Functional Thinking that such a physical condition can make sense. This could lead to a functional Theory, so let us give it a try.

                            (I) To begin, science today exists in a Direct Analog to the situation with the Catholic Church in the years prior to Martin Luther (1499). Reading, or even possessing a Bible, was a Capital Offense and the penalty was Death. The “Church” was taking steps to ban music in their structures and this sparked the Lutheran Revolt. You were required to pay your own way into Heaven, to the Church of course. You will not need money in Heaven anyway. Great monarchs feared the wealth and power of the Church, ask the Knights Templar. By the way what ever became of Jesus? (He Died)

                            Verily, this is “Science Today”, a sort of T.V. show. The Pope is now Al Gore, and it is that the Pope has many Bishops, and in turn the Bishops have many Priests. We have met some of Them in the Town of Bolinas, Hillary’s “Village”. But the Bolinas station pre-dates these people. And as Tesla said, “they are no more than microbes of a nasty disease”.

                            The R.C.A. Research at the Landers Installation continued the scientific study of the Interaction of the Earth with solar and cosmic forces. Here is the starting point for the knowledge of the Earth’s Interior. The physical mass of the Earth is here found to be alive with mechanical and electrical impulses and oscillations. These are continuously active often reaching astonishing magnitudes. Leveled cities and incinerated substations serve testimony to these wave-forms, and these seem to come from nowhere.

                            The Landers Installation contained the highest sensitivity and fidelity seismic recording system in known existence. In proportion to the standard (U.S.G.S.) systems, the one at Landers was 120 decibels more sensitive. A mosquito is now a jet aircraft. Also advancements on the Alexanderson system produced a network serving as a “Radio Telescope” for reception of Telluric Currents in the Earth. This also was of high sensitivity and fidelity. Here the amplifier theories of Bell Telephone Labs, along with Navy requirements of reliability and electro-magnetic compatibility, this with Western Electric Construction Practices, led to a remarkable “Bell System Installation”. But it is gone! (See the American Marconi website for pictures of this installation before they vanish like the rest.)

                            Here then existed a complimentary pair of systems. One was the Seismic Recorder-Indicator receiving mechanical vibrations from within the Earth, the other was the Telluric Recorder-Indicator receiving electrical vibrations from within the Earth. The sensitivity was normally set in the range of one milli-micro watt on both systems. This is one million times smaller than a telephone signal.

                            Among the various findings at this installation we will focus upon a few basic relations.

                            1) The mechanical waveforms and the electrical waveforms during significant events are directly inter-related with each other.

                            2) These electrical waveforms lead, in time, the co-responding mechanical waveforms. This time angle is from one half to two rotations of the Earth. The Giant Japan Quake was two rotations.

                            3) Lightning Impulses arrive at the Alexanderson underground antenna ahead in time of the lightning impulses at the beverage over ground antenna.

                            4) The telluric signals are in no way related to any so called “Earth-Ionosphere Waveguide”. These signals definitely originate from the interior of the Earth.

                            5) Both mechanical and electrical waveforms often become sinusoidal, particularly before a Major Event. This is to say, both become alternating waves. This is important. Theory:

                            Because there exist “sine waves”, that is, circular functions, these waves thus represent natural harmonic frequencies of the Earth itself. This observation indicates that the Earth is hollow. The Earth, mechanically is hereby a huge “Helmholtz Resonator”, and electrically it is hereby a huge “Cavity Resonator”. Also, as explained by N. Tesla, the “Earth-Ionosphere Condenser” is far too thin to support any wave-guide modes. Only electro-magnetic waves parallel, of magneto-dielectric waves normal, to the surface of the Earth are possible. This sends the notions of T. Grotz, or The Corum Gang, to the dumpster. Again it is food for the crows and the rats, they love it.

                            (II) There exists no real engineering “Theory of Gravity”, none. There is no “Tesla Theory”, no “Einstein Theory”, no Theory at all. All we have is guesswork and speculation, nothing for the engineer. All we have is the basic algebraic expressions of Newton, and the observations of astronomers. Gravity tells us what to do, we do not tell it what to do. Hence the idea of gravity is akin to the idea of God, unknowable. But to be sure we do have no shortage of priests muttering in Latin.

                            Since age six I have been turning wrenches, filling test tubes, and discharging condensers, etc. It might be possible that at age sixty I may have acquired some archetypal sense of physical reality. With no more than this “heuristic” sense and in the “Coyote Like” manner of Thomas Alva Edison, let us attempt at a basic “Theory of Gravity”.

                            The notion that the force of gravity increases in intensity toward the center of the Earth, reaching infinity at the central point of singularity, makes no sense to my engineering mind. I cannot see how to build it, something just does not seem right. It is an axiom that isolated masses in free space congregate toward one another, and draw together upon vectors on their “Centers of Gravity.” It is also, however, an axiom that the outer masses shield, or screen, the inner masses of the congregation. The physical model is throwing a batch of marbles out of the space ship into free space and watching them congregate. What will they do, can we see it on “Youtube”?

                            The Earth itself is a contiguous mass, and it is postulated by contemporary dogma that all force vectors are radially directed towards and into the center point of the Earth. This is certainly true at the surface but what about inside. But wait Mr. Wizard no mass is left in an infinitesimal singularity to draw anything, all the mass is now outside of it!

                            It may be best to consider gravity to be based upon causes external to the physical body exhibiting the effects of gravity. This has already been done for electricity, despite the fierce opposition of the “Catholics”. The force of gravity inside a body is then in analog to the depth of penetration into a metallic body by electricity. This is known as the skin effect. In this the force of gravity would be a space integral not unlike that for magnetic penetration into a metallic body. Now the force of gravity can even reverse direction in analogy to electricity within metallic bodies. Here then the “Center of Gravity” would exist at a finite depth below the surface, and also a finite distance from the center. This condition could give rise to an inner surface and hence a Hollow Earth. Let us take a tentative value of about a third in, near the value of one over epsilon, the log base. This establishes the inner surface upon which to stand. Now your head points to the center of the Earth, whereas, on the surface your head points to the sky.

                            (III) To stretch the Theory of a Hollow Earth to heretical extremes. Let us suppose that at the center of the Earth at the singular point, this in a photo emissive spherical geometry, there exists a “Farnsworth Star”. This star provides the radiant energy for life within the Earth. Its radiant matter provides a continuous supply of “electrons” to the body of the Earth, this is explaining the so called “Negative Charge” on planet Earth. Taking this to fiction is the movie “Journey to The Center of The Earth”, the original, not he adulterous (censored) re-make. Watch this movie.

                            Finally, we can take our notions of a Hollow Earth to the “Art Bell” level, la-la land phantasy. There are those who claim that there are people who live in the Hollow Earth, and they travel to our surface world thru a passage within Mt. Shasta. I myself try to avoid these things, if I can.

                            This takes us to the Landers Installation of George Van Tassle. Contained in his Landers Installation was a hemispherical structure approximately 50 feet in diameter and thirty feet high. This structure served as a magneto-dielectric transformer, operating at a potential of 100 kilovolts. This is the same potential as used by Marconi and Alexanderson. In a strange way it seemed like the Wardenclyffe Dome had come back and was waiting. George Van Tassle called it the INTEGRATRON. This structure was founded upon archetypal Four Quadrant relations. The central figure is known as the “Solar Cross”. Van Tassle wrote a book on the Four Quadrant Theory called “When Stars Look Down”. Then (1978) Van Tassle was no more and his installation went to hell and beyond. (Not much different today).

                            Later on in time, about 1982, the Integratron Installation gained a new superintendent, Donald Floyd Lockwood. (We always referred to him by his last name as in the Navy). Lockwood has now a problem to solve, this is where to find an engineer who can figureout how to make this extra-terrestrial apparatus work, with no blueprints or design formulae. Well, I wish you luck!

                            One day Lockwood entered the galley of the Navy LSM I was working at the Richmond Yard. He had got wind of a “Certain Naval Electrical Engineer” that may be the one to “finish the dome”. Lockwood tells me that he has just come from Mt. Shasta where he had met with a lady who “walked out of the mountain”. She had given him a symbol, or diagram, and this would prove the identity of the engineer. Before I could get pissed off he puts the diagram next to my open notebook on the “Symbolic Representation of A.C. Waves”, page six. The diagram on page six and his were IDENTICAL!

                            73 DE N6KPH
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                            • Here is what bothers me. Meyl regardless of how well he duplicated teslas work put his coils on a printed circuit board to test the theory. The kool thing about that is consistency. The windings are cad drawn and perfect spacing etc and that is good for splitting hairs. He had about a 4 turn primary and roughly a 90 turn secondary on the other side. The 4 turn primary was underneath the secondary and I would estimate the secondary was about 62% spacing incidentally.

                              Now what bothers me is that he said in his lectures that he was able to get at 3 different schools where he taught how the device works, he said they (the students) measured 100%, 300% and 1000% output over input at the receivers.

                              So did he get lucky and get something right by accident or doing some kind of magicians trick or what?

                              Well needless to say all the german physicists are all over him about this faster than speed of light business and calling him a fraud etc etc.

                              Now interestingly another physicist somehow measured the density around the dome while meyls towers were in operation and he charted out it all out and was surprised to see that the density was substantially greater on the side facing the receiver.

                              So is meyl just leading us up the golden path or did he get really lucky and just happen to build a device that works?

                              There is an old saying that goes, you cant argue with success, at least not much. and "IF" meyl really had success did he use erics math or how did he derive his work?

                              Last edited by Kokomoj0; 03-18-2012, 04:11 AM.

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                              • For german speaking readers (or use google translate), here Meyl is debunked.
                                Skalarwellen

                                There is a guy "Jensen" selling replications of the the meyl resonating coil sets on ebay.com for a thrith of the price by the way.
                                wdjensen123 | eBay

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