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  • Originally posted by garrettm4 View Post
    For those who would like to know how I constructed my solid-state SPV generator take a glance at the circuit diagram:



    While there are many improvement to make, the basic design does works, although it is a bit complex to control all the switching elements.

    Some insight into how and when the switching should take place consider the diagram below:



    (This diagram was made with Microsoft Mathematics for those who would like to graph the waves under study, I have the worksheet saved if anyone wants it)

    The, 2x frequency, blue square wave shown is one of the control signals for the circuit and for the sake of discourse we will say it controls the MagAMP in the above circuit diagram. The green sine wave is that of voltage and is in a quadrature relationship with the purple sine wave of current and the black, 2x frequency, is that of power, something that will interest you is that the power waveform goes into both the top and bottom half of the graph, this represents reactive power or a surging to and fro of stored and returned energy. Something to take note of, is if, the black waveform is on one side or the other, top or bottom of graph with respect to the x axis, this would mean unilateral transfer of power is taking place, or simply power dissipating into a load. Dependent upon the actions taking place in the circuit, the power waveform can be any place between the two points of top/bottom or in between. Thus you could see in a device that returns more power than it consumes, such as in the circuit above, that the power wave form will be smaller on top and bigger down below where it is situated on the x axis. Thus the source input becomes a load and the load now a source. The understanding that power is a cross product of voltage and current, with phase angle taken into account, and the direction it flows is fundamental in making one of these devices work. Now back to the blue control waveform as seen above, the current pulsed into the control winding of the MagAMP controls its relative saturation or capacity at any one moment in time. Thus you would saturate the core from the zero crossing / rise to peak portion of the purple wave and desaturate at the peak to fall / zero crossing portion. Thus inductance changed from L0, low inductance to L1, high inductance at the proper times. As for the switched capacitor as can be seen in the circuit above, you would have a separate control signal that would be out of phase with the one controlling the inductance. Thus the capacitance would go from CO, large value from zero crossing/ rise to peak and to C1, small value at peak to fall / zero crossing.

    What you will notice is that there will be two resonant frequencies C1 & L0 and L1 & C0. Caused from C1 discharging into L0 and L1 discharging into C0.

    Take into consideration the following equations:





    The first one shows the discharge of C1 into L0 with currentA and voltageB and the other shows L1 discharge into C0 at currentA and voltageA, this caused from the fact that current remained the same during the point of parameter change for inductance but voltage changed because both capacitors are now in parallel. With the law of conservation of energy taken into mind, these equations state, that the maximum energy stored could only be that of the source energy, or L1 for C0 and C1 for L0. Thus excess energy can only come from the parameter change and nothing else.

    Note that if you can get one of these devices to work, they simply self destruct within a few seconds of operation, if you loop the two equations above you will see a exponential rise in oscillatory energy. Thus you need to properly load the circuit to remove the excess energy from the oscillatory system. The concept of positive feedback to build the oscillations and a negative feedback mechanism to control the magnitude of the output comes to mind. The best method would be to alter the phase angles of the control circuits and not their frequency so as to slightly alter where on the curves of the voltage and current you choose to change your parameter. So a microcontroller could, with some hard work, tame the circuit, at least in principle.
    Do you have any test data from the circuit?

    I understand the possibility of using the Magamp to vary the inductance successfully, but do you really think that using two static caps being switched in and out of position will really work as a true capacity parameter variation?

    I have yet to do any extensive analyzing of the numbers, but from all of the math that I've worked with in the "Charge Conserving Capacitive Spring" thread suggests that you actually need to move capacitor plates in order to produce the effect that we are looking for.

    Dave
    Last edited by Web000x; 08-21-2011, 03:28 PM.

    Comment


    • Graphing of Sine Waves

      To assist anyone who would like to graph these waveforms for further study I copied some of my notes on the graphing of sine wave in radians:



      The above notes are intended to help anyone who didn't know how to graph a wave with dc offset or phase angle relations and are not meant to be a all in one source on the subject.

      I hope someone finds them useful.

      Garrett M
      Last edited by garrettm4; 01-12-2012, 12:42 AM.

      Comment


      • Originally posted by garrettm4 View Post
        For those who would like to know how I constructed my solid-state SPV generator take a glance at the circuit diagram:



        Note that if you can get one of these devices to work, they simply self destruct within a few seconds of operation, if you loop the two equations above you will see a exponential rise in oscillatory energy.
        What is this Special SSR that you speak of?. I hope to find it so that I can replicate your circuit and put up a yotube.

        Comment


        • Swithced Capacitor

          Originally posted by Web000x View Post
          Do you have any test data from the circuit?

          I understand the possibility of using the Magamp to vary the inductance successfully, but do you really think that using two static caps being switched in and out of position will really work as a true capacity parameter variation?

          I have yet to do any extensive analyzing of the numbers, but from all of the math that I've worked with in the "Charge Conserving Capacitive Spring" thread suggests that you actually need to move capacitor plates in order to produce the effect that we are looking for.

          Dave
          In my view, which to some may seen crazy, it is the method of the implementation of any one thing that makes it useful, or in other words, it is how you use it and in what context. The two capacitors in series/charge, and parallel/discharge, is only used to lower the voltage of the design and raise the current of the variable inductor, but needs to be matched to the proper natural impedance or natural admittance of the circuit so as to be able to transfer the excess work of the variable inductance.

          On a side note, the method of two capacitors, parallel/charge series/discharge, isn't very useful for charging batteries from my experience, although I have seen some strange effects, the battery will charge extremely fast after having been completely discharged in a sudo-"Tesla Switch" oscillator (described by "Bill & Ray" on one of Bill Jenkins radio broadcasts), as opposed to being discharged normally in a resistive load and then charged. So the thoughts of a battery as a giant electrolytic capacitor come to my mind and lines of dielectric force to describe why that the above use or method is quite a poor implementation. In my view, dielectric lines of force want to "move" into something like an inductor and thus a translation of energy takes place. John Bedini's battery charging method comes to mind although it is used in a different context, the thought can be retained of impedance matching and the use of one type of energy to generate another type, dielectric to magnetic and vice versa (if the idea of a battery as a giant electrolytic capacitor is used).

          The point being, the circuit I gave was in a unique situation where there is a resonant tank shuttling energy across one storage element to another fed by a unique source (switched battery bank) that is able to absorb and store excess energy, if present. If the parametric variation is disabled or turned off the the LC tank will still build a high resonant current and voltage across its-self (but to the source seem as an infinite resistance, if it has a high Q), and if you modulate the right parameter at the right time, it is theoretically possible to get excess work but that doesn't mean the resistive load you hook up will use it properly. So the difference in my implementation is use of the switched capacitor merely as a means of translating the excess work of the variable inductor to match a single resonant frequency as opposed to two resonant frequencies from one value of capacity. The use of the unique transistor configuration (known as a solid state relay) is from the fact that a single transistor transfers power uni-directionally and not bidirectionally as would be required to transfer the excess energy back to the source, if present.

          Now, I can say that I do think it is possible, under the right context of use, to use a switched capacitor and have a successful result. With out belaboring the issue, you will only know if you try, theory helps but doesn't dictate reality, and sometimes reality is quite harsh.

          Please read "Correction on Design and Use of a Switched Capacitor" I posted below for a update to this general Idea

          Garrett M
          Last edited by garrettm4; 01-12-2012, 01:13 AM.

          Comment


          • I understand your method. My bad on the confusion.

            I'm sick of trying to tame high voltages for parameter variation using a Joseph Hiddink capacity changer. Magnetism is the next step...

            Have you determined a good start for a core material?

            Dave

            Comment


            • Continuing with Variation of a Dimension with Respect to Time

              Hello All,

              Continuing with the concept of the variation of a quantity (or dimension) with respect to time (another dimension). We may say then we are talking about a RATIO of a physical dimension to a metrical dimension. Previously given, the ratio of a physical dimension, the Planck Q to a metrical dimension the time t gives then the dimensional relation of energy W. Then from the Newton-Liebnitz concept we say delta Q over delta t equals W, that is, the first order time derivative of electrification Q equals the energy W. Now the Einsteiner says the inverse, and that is, the time integral of W, the energy, over time interval t’ to t” is the electrification Q. This is to say Q is the PRODUCT of the energy W and the time interval T. W times T equals Q. This is backward-ass, thereby occluding the interrelationships of these three distinct relationships.

              Further, hit your erase button on the gibberish of 1, 2, or 3 dimensional space, there is only ONE DIMENSION OF SPACE – SPACE! Coordinates are NOT dimensions. Example, the volume of a cylinder can be expressed in TWO terms, height and circumference. So where is the third “dimension”, erased?

              Continuing then it has been given that the total electrification Q is the union, or product, of the total dielectric induction Psi and the total magnetic induction Phi, Psi times Phi equals Q. In other words, the dimensional relationship Q, the total electrification, is the product of the dimension of total dielectric induction Psi, and the dimension of total magnetic induction Phi. Hence we have FOUR primary dimensions in electrical engineering. These are
              1) Time 3) Dielectricity
              2) Space 4) Magnetism

              Every other relation, quantity, or expression, Volt, Amp, Ohm, etc. is derived from these FOUR dimensions. Time and Space are the metrical dimensions, Dielectricity and Magnetism are the physical dimensions. It is that basic! We are now prepared to move forward in our effort to stop being parrots.

              Break – more to follow DE N6KPH
              SUPPORT ERIC DOLLARD'S WORK AT EPD LABORATORIES, INC.

              Purchase Eric Dollard's Books & Videos - 70% of the sale goes to Eric and EPD Laboratories: Eric Dollard Books & Videos
              Donate by Paypal: Donate to EPD Laboratories

              Comment


              • Originally posted by T-rex View Post
                Hello All,

                Continuing with the concept of the variation of a quantity (or dimension) with respect to time (another dimension). We may say then we are talking about a RATIO of a physical dimension to a metrical dimension. Previously given, the ratio of a physical dimension, the Planck Q to a metrical dimension the time t gives then the dimensional relation of energy W. Then from the Newton-Liebnitz concept we say delta Q over delta t equals W, that is, the first order time derivative of electrification Q equals the energy W. Now the Einsteiner says the inverse, and that is, the time integral of W, the energy, over time interval t’ to t” is the electrification Q. This is to say Q is the PRODUCT of the energy W and the time interval T. W times T equals Q. This is backward-ass, thereby occluding the interrelationships of these three distinct relationships.

                Further, hit your erase button on the gibberish of 1, 2, or 3 dimensional space, there is only ONE DIMENSION OF SPACE – SPACE! Coordinates are NOT dimensions. Example, the volume of a cylinder can be expressed in TWO terms, height and circumference. So where is the third “dimension”, erased?

                Continuing then it has been given that the total electrification Q is the union, or product, of the total dielectric induction Psi and the total magnetic induction Phi, Psi times Phi equals Q. In other words, the dimensional relationship Q, the total electrification, is the product of the dimension of total dielectric induction Psi, and the dimension of total magnetic induction Phi. Hence we have FOUR primary dimensions in electrical engineering. These are
                1) Time 3) Dielectricity
                2) Space 4) Magnetism

                Every other relation, quantity, or expression, Volt, Amp, Ohm, etc. is derived from these FOUR dimensions. Time and Space are the metrical dimensions, Dielectricity and Magnetism are the physical dimensions. It is that basic! We are now prepared to move forward in our effort to stop being parrots.

                Break – more to follow DE N6KPH
                Hi Eric!

                Keep it coming!

                Here is one of your Classic Borderland Research videos that I just found today!

                Free Energy Research with Eric Dollard, Peter Lindemann and Thomas Brown on Vimeo

                Free Energy Research with Eric Dollard, Peter Lindemann and Thomas Brown

                Classic borderland labs video from 1987.

                Eric Dollard gives a demonstration of the two sides of electricity, the decaying electromagnetic side and the growing dielectric side, and shows his singing Tesla coil burning Golden Ratio patterns into wood.

                Peter Lindemann demonstrates his Rotating Parametric Transformer operating at 108% efficiency. Shows an Alternating Current N-Machine provciding the researcher with AC waveforms directly extracted from space.

                Amazing science from the golden days of borderland research!
                The Alternating Current N-Machine looked promising, was it ever developed or found to be over-unity?

                Cheers Mike
                Last edited by vrand; 08-22-2011, 11:33 PM.

                Comment


                • @Garrett M

                  Many pages back in this thread, we demonstrated a rotary inductive parameter change device and found that it clearly worked as described in the Russian article. As with their device, we found that the drive motor was being loaded consistent with the increase in output power. It was very obvious that one could create power without any form of rotating magnetic field, but it was also obvious that wasn't going to exceed unity.

                  That pushed us toward considering other designs that might alter inductance or capacitance in such a way as to not require a mechanical force. We had a number of ideas, but had largely lost confidence in the concept and did not pursue them further.

                  Admittedly I have not studied your design in detail yet, but something you said caught my eye. Yes, these things do ramp up rather quickly, and when not properly regulated, they will summarily eat themselves. In the case of what we did, the regulation came in the form of loading the motor down, so nothing ever ramped to destruction. If one ever did find the real OU solution, regulation would be a must, and yes it would take a micro to handle it.

                  I would certainly love to hear more about your test experience.
                  Last edited by LtBolo; 08-23-2011, 02:12 AM.

                  Comment


                  • Correction on Design and Use of a Switched Capacitor

                    I would like to add a correction to my approach in the design of a synchronous parametric generator. The concept of charging in parallel and discharge in series is an interesting topic which can be debated in many ways, the concept I have come to see as being the most useful, is the exact opposite of the above, or charging in series and discharge in parallel. As many have pointed out, if you do the math on a switched capacitor you will see that the energy in terms of work is equal any way you do it, series/charge parallel/discharge or parallel/charge series/discharge. This fact comes from the inability to change the total value of capacitance to such a value that will be useful, i.e. if two 30uf are used, you will have 60uf in parallel and 15uf in series, both will yield equivalent "work". A rotary or spring type or even one akin to a MagAmp, if it existed, as others have described and debated, would be able to have a capacity change that would actually be useful.

                    With that said, I have come to realize the flaw in my current understanding, and would like to describe, what I believe, a useful situation a switched capacitance can provide. In a parametric oscillator, if you have an inductance that can change to two values that are not in the relationship of La=(Lb/2), it is possible to get one resonant frequency in the parametric oscillator with a switched capacitor (something not possible with a static capacitor). If for instance the switched capacitor has the values of Ca=60uf parallel/discharge, Cb=15uf series/charge (from two separate 30uf caps) and we have variable inductor values of La=0.1173h charge and Lb=0.4691h, discharge, and the oscillatory frequency of the system is 60 cycles per second, you will find that the discharge of Lb into Cb and Ca into La are of the same resonant frequency whereby the impedance of both dynamic values of L & C are matched and current into the inductor will rise exponentially as a result of the capacitors translating the excess energy of the MagAMP from a voltage E (EMF) to a current I (Displacement Current).

                    On their own, switched capacitors aren't terribly useful, but, when used in an appropriate system to match the RESONANT FREQUENCY of both storage components, you can facilitate the energy translation, here given, it can be a useful tool.

                    Garrett M
                    Last edited by garrettm4; 01-11-2012, 11:10 PM.

                    Comment


                    • Originally posted by Web000x View Post
                      I understand your method. My bad on the confusion.

                      I'm sick of trying to tame high voltages for parameter variation using a Joseph Hiddink capacity changer. Magnetism is the next step...

                      Have you determined a good start for a core material?

                      Dave
                      You'd be after a core material with a very steep B/H curve so a mag-amp core would be the most ideal. From what I've seen they are pretty expensive though. Here is a link to one; MAGAMP - Square Loop Cores

                      Good to hear from you again Eric. I've got nothing to really add to the discussion yet, I'm busily reading Man or Matter and I highly recommend it. Electromagnetic Induction is next on my list.

                      All, I've added some more documents to my references list (http://www.energeticforum.com/renewa...xcitation.html) including Electromagnetic Induction.

                      Raui
                      Scribd account; http://www.scribd.com/raui

                      Comment


                      • Few questions

                        Originally posted by T-rex View Post
                        Hello All,

                        Further, hit your erase button on the gibberish of 1, 2, or 3 dimensional space, there is only ONE DIMENSION OF SPACE – SPACE! Coordinates are NOT dimensions. Example, the volume of a cylinder can be expressed in TWO terms, height and circumference. So where is the third “dimension”, erased?

                        Continuing then it has been given that the total electrification Q is the union, or product, of the total dielectric induction Psi and the total magnetic induction Phi, Psi times Phi equals Q. In other words, the dimensional relationship Q, the total electrification, is the product of the dimension of total dielectric induction Psi, and the dimension of total magnetic induction Phi. Hence we have FOUR primary dimensions in electrical engineering. These are
                        1) Time 3) Dielectricity
                        2) Space 4) Magnetism
                        Thankyou for continuing the internet tranmissions from where you have previously left off.
                        Questions:
                        If total eletrification Q = Psi . Phi

                        Or the total eletrification Q = Total Dielectric induction, times the Total Magnetic induction.

                        The more dielectric induction (capacitance), the more Counterspace.

                        The more magnetic induction (inductance) the more Space.

                        So then of the four primary dimensions of Electrical induction Q, we have the two primary physical dimensions. One of Dielectricity (more Counterspace) and the other physical dimension of magnitism (more Space). But there is only one dimension of Space?

                        Of the other two primary metrical dimensions Space and Time, it follows then if there is space and counterspace, then is there then time and counter-time? But then there is only one dimension of time?

                        The more magnetic induction, the more Space, the more time? - (Makes sense to me, the bigger the inductance the lower the frequency).

                        The more dielectric induction, the more Counterspace, the more Countertime?


                        Thank you DE N6KPH for your electrical engineering, mustard seed planting, internet transmissions. Wonderful!
                        "Doesn't matter how many times you kick the coyote in the head, it's still gonna eat chickens". - EPD

                        Comment


                        • Originally posted by Web000x View Post
                          I understand your method. My bad on the confusion.

                          I'm sick of trying to tame high voltages for parameter variation using a Joseph Hiddink capacity changer. Magnetism is the next step...

                          Have you determined a good start for a core material?

                          Dave
                          Hello again!

                          That is exactly why I started down the magnetic amplifier road.

                          Comment


                          • Originally posted by T-rex View Post
                            Continuing then it has been given that the total electrification Q is the union, or product, of the total dielectric induction Psi and the total magnetic induction Phi, Psi times Phi equals Q. In other words, the dimensional relationship Q, the total electrification, is the product of the dimension of total dielectric induction Psi, and the dimension of total magnetic induction Phi.
                            DE N6KPH
                            Eric,
                            1. In Sinusoidal A/C, are the Psi and Phi always opposite in phase, 180 degrees apart.?.

                            2. Is BEMF, the expense product of Psi due to partial resonance?.

                            Comment


                            • Time Variance and Its Products

                              Time Variance and Its Products

                              Continuing on the concept change with respect to time. The total electrification Q in Plancks is a resultant of the union, of PRODUCT, of a pair of inductions, the total dielectric induction, Psi and the total magnetic induction, Phi.

                              Now let us deal with these two inductions individually. Variation of the total dielectric induction Psi with respect to time t, that is, the RATIO of the dimension of dielectric induction to the dimension of time, dielectric induction over time, or the time rate with which the dielectric induction is produced or consumed, the DISPLACEMENT CURRENT in amperes I.* PSI over t equals current I. This makes sense since the charge in a battery is given as Ampere–Hours, that is I times t equals Psi.

                              *Let us call this Maxwell law.

                              Hence we have arrived at a new dimensional relationship, the “current” in Amperes.

                              Analogously, we have the variation of the total magnetic induction Phi with respect to time t, that is, the RATIO of the dimension of magnetic induction to the dimension of time, magnetic induction over time, or the time rate with which the magnetism is produced or consumed, is the electro-motive force in Volts. Phi over t equals the voltage E. We know this as the “Faraday law”. Hence we have arrived at a new complimentary dimensional relationship, the E.M.F. in Volts.

                              Taking the one step further, consider the radio of the variation of the magnetic induction phi with respect to time t, E, to the variation of the dielectric induction Psi with respect to time t, i. Since the dimension of time appears on both top & bottom of the ratio this dimension cancels leaving simply the ratio of Phi to Psi. Hereby the RATIO of the total magnetic induction Phi to the total dielectric induction Psi gives the dimensional relation of impedance, Z, in Ohms. This can be arrived at some what differently. Since the variation of magnetism with respect to time is the electro-motive force, E, and since the variation of dielectricity with respect to time is the displacement current, I, then the RATIO of the electro-motive force, E, to the displacement current, I, give the impedance, Z, in Ohms. That is, the ratio of E to I is Z in Ohms.

                              Inversely, from the standpoint of dielectricity rather than magnetism the RATIO of the total dielectric induction Psi to the total magnetic induction Phi, that is the ratio of dielectricity to magnetism is the “Admittance”, Y, in Siemens. Hence the ratio of the displacement current I to the electro-motive force E gives the Admittance ,Y, in Siemens. I over E equals Y.

                              Here by we have arrived at four new distinctive dimensional relationships;
                              1. Displacement current in amperes I
                              2. Electro-motive force in volts E
                              3. The impedance in ohms Z
                              4. The admittance in Siemens Y

                              Break- more to follow DE N6KPH

                              SUPPORT ERIC DOLLARD'S WORK AT EPD LABORATORIES, INC.

                              Purchase Eric Dollard's Books & Videos - 70% of the sale goes to Eric and EPD Laboratories: Eric Dollard Books & Videos
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                              Comment


                              • The Planck Revisited

                                Continuing with the conceptualization of RATES OF CHANGE with respect to time and the interactions that arise.

                                In summary it has been given that variation of a quantity of dielectric induction, psi, with respect to time is the DISPLACEMENT CURRENT, in amperes, i. We will call this Maxwell’s Law of Dielectric Induction after its’ discoverer James Maxwell.

                                Also given is that the variation of a quantity of magnetic induction, phi, with respect to time is the ELECTRO-MOTIVE FORCE in volts, e. We will call this Faraday’s Law of Electro-Magnetic Induction, after it’s discoverer Michael Farady.

                                It should be noted that displacement currents flow thru the insulation (dielectric). It is NOT the familiar conduction current of the electronic ideologies.

                                Likewise the electro-motive force is a result of the conductor (metallic). It is NOT the electro-static potential of the dielectric field. A conjugate relation exists here, the “insulator’ and the “conductor”. So now we have TWO distinct “volts” and TWO distinct “amps”, hence e and I are seen to have dual definitions. The ampere, I may be a displacement current, or may be a conduction current. Likewise the volts, e, may be an electro-motive force, or it may be an electro-static potential. These distinctions are important and misunderstanding rests here.

                                The Maxwell-Tompson concept of electric induction, and the of the aether which engenders this induction, considers the dielectric lines of force, and the magnetic lines of force, as CONCREATE PHYSICAL REALITIES. (Read electricity and matter by J.J. Tompson, and also read Theory of Light and color by Babbit, the Un-sterilized version).

                                These lines can be considered “tubes of force” a hydro-dynamical vortex tube of sorts. Here we find the “hydro-dynamical model of the aether” as given by James Clerk Maxwell. Understanding of this sort has been buried by the relativists and quantum car mechanics. From the initial concept of Faraday, thru the theoretical reasoning of Maxwell, into the experimentalist like Crookes and J.J. Thompson, it gave an ENGINEERABLE CONCEPT of the primordial aether. Finally Nikola Tesla, Oliver Heaviside, and Carl Steinmetz turned this into today’s electrical technology. The roots of Edison sprang to life.

                                So what may aether be? Consider what are called the “states of matter”.

                                1. SOLID
                                2. LIQUID
                                3. GAS
                                4. PLASMA
                                5. AETHER

                                Hence, the five distinct states of matter.

                                Electricity is embodied in the aetheric state of matter, or “proto-matter”. Electricity is aether in a state of dynamic polarization; magnetism is aether in motion, dielectricity is aether under stress or strain. The motions and strains of the aether give rise to electrification. Phi times Psi gives Q.

                                In defining the hydro-dynamical tubes of force as concrete realities, a distinct phenomenon taking place with the aether, the constitution of the Planck sticks its snout out of the sand. The tubes of force are discrete, fiber-like, quanta as some would say. Experiments by J.J. Tompson indicate this. Lines of force are a quantum phenomenon, distinct concrete entities.

                                Further, we have the idea of “Planck’s Constant”, any variation in the total density of electric induction Q, in Planck’s, cannot vary continuously but must exhibit its variation in discontinuous, or discrete steps. Hence a distinct quanta Q. We may infer that the union, or CROSS PRODUCT, of a single tube of DIELECTIC induction, with a single tube of MAGNETIC induction, gives birth to a single unit of ELECTRICICATION Q. This idea embodies the concept of the photon, a QUANTUM UNIT of electro-magnetic induction. Also consider the J.J. Tompson concept of the “electron” (his own discovery). Tompson considered the electron the terminal end of one unit line of dielectric induction. One tube, one electron. So then, how big is a unit Planck, the quantum unit of electric induction, Q?

                                Let us summarize the knowledge we have gained from what has been given to this point. The basic engineering dimensional relationships are hereby:

                                Q, the undivided quantity of the total electrification, “Planck”

                                W, the time rate of the production or consumption of this electricification,
                                “Joule”. (energy)

                                PSI, the total dielectric induction, or the ratio of the total electric induction Q,
                                to the total magnetic induction which is embodied in this electric induction.
                                This is the “Coulomb” (charge)

                                PHI, the total magnetic induction, or the ratio of the total electric induction, Q, to the total dielectric induction, psi, which is embodied within this electric
                                induction. This is the ”Weber” (induction)

                                E, the electo-motive force which results from the production or consumption
                                of the total magnetic induction Phi. The unit is the “Volt”

                                I, the displacement current which results from the production or
                                consumption of total dielectric induction Psi. The unit is the “Ampere”.

                                1. Q, Planck; Psi, Coulombs; Phi, Webers
                                2. w, Jjoules; E, Volts; I, Amperes.

                                Group one consists of PRIMARY quantities, group two consists of REACTIONS by the primary quantities to their variation in quantity with respect to Time . 73 DE NGKPH

                                PHI, the total magnetic induction, or the ratio of the total electric induction, Q, to the total dielectric induction, psi, which is embodied within this electric
                                induction. This is the ”Weber” (induction)

                                E, the electo-motive force which results from the production or consumption
                                of the total magnetic induction Phi. The unit is the “Volt”

                                I, the displacement current which results from the production or
                                consumption of total dielectric induction Psi. The unit is the “Ampere”.

                                1. Q, Planck; Psi, Coulombs; Phi, Webers
                                2. w, Jjoules; E, Volts; I, Amperes.

                                Group one consists of PRIMARY quantities, group two consists of REACTIONS by the primary quantities to their variation in quantity with respect to Time .

                                73 DE N6KPH
                                SUPPORT ERIC DOLLARD'S WORK AT EPD LABORATORIES, INC.

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