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  • Originally posted by 7imix View Post
    Of course it feels real within the system of constraints we call physical reality. The point is that it is an epiphenomenon; it emerges as a result of change over time of other parameters within a certain system of constraints.
    OK, lets clean the toilet with water an not mud.

    1 - The epiphenomenon is the primary energy and not the other way around correct?.

    2 - And what is the parameters required to manifest the primary force, the Q sum of electrical quantity of magnetic induction?.

    Comment


    • Originally posted by 7imix View Post
      I think it is possible to reproduce the phenomena with solid-state components, but with much lower efficiency. Most solid state components will immediately be fried (I've fried tons) when switching an inductor with the change in voltage over time (dv/dt) required to produce the "opposite of dc" waveform, sharp impulses with a duty cycle as close to zero as practical. Components that are able to withstand the voltages required may not have the switching speeds needed to get close to the resonant frequency, much less the quarter wave. However components are continuing to improve and there may be a sweet spot of components -- a microcontroller, optocouplers or digital isolators, mosfet drivers and mosfets or IGBTs -- that will demonstrate the phenomena with less magnifying than the extremely high voltage spark gap setups.
      I'm way out of my depth here but I'll have a stab. They say that the effect can be produced with either a periodic parametric change of inductance or capacitance. They used inductance in the experiment and tuned the circuit with a fixed capacity. They also state that the opposite is possible where periodic change in capacity holding the inductance steady will work (perhaps they hold one steady for simplification of analysis). Maybe this is the direction to move toward. What your describing they also describe in the article, the oscillations built up until the components of the circuit failed. All this without any "obvious" source of voltage or current?

      Here's something interesting Eric Dollard brought up in his SBARC presentation,

      Eric: Tesla was involved in a court case where he was fighting for the survival of his Wardenclyffe tower. The details of that court case were recently published by a person by the name of Leyland Anderson who apparently is a competent electrical engineer. And when you read through this you see Tesla say over, and over, and over again that his radio was "non-electromagnetic”.... Repeatedly ... but it all fell on deaf ears. Once physicists grabbed hold of electricity, all knowledge of it ceased. Electrons have nothing to do with the flow of electricity; electrons are the rate at which electricity is destroyed. Electrons are the resistance. The waveform of electron flow is the same waveform produced when you slam on the brakes and hear that horrible screeching sound. It’s not a nice harmonic sine wave it’s a very bitter horrible sound of energy dissipation and material flying everywhere. Electricity flows in the space between the wires. This has always been known by Electrical engineers. For example you short out a major electrical circuit you will see the cables violently repel each other as the electromagnetic force tries to escape from the boundaries in which they are contained between the so called bounding conductors. But most people are not electrical engineers and don’t deal with the situation. I have to deal with it every day, I had a welder run away on me at work a couple of days ago every wire and every conduit tried to escape the conduit. The noise was horrible everything repelled everything rattled all the lights flashed and all the computers failed … I love it! ....... I have a little device in my car where I operate my 24v military field radios off 12v. A very crude device, it consists of a vibrator which charges two 12v capacitors in parallel at 12v and discharges them in series on 24v. If the dwell angle on the contacts in the vibrator get screwy, when you turn the switch off the thing just sits there and keeps humming, powering the 327 pilot lamp for a period of about 2 minutes. But of course, that’s impossible, it’s like all Tesla's work, it’s all impossible. It's like the transformer; it’s why the lights should go out right now but their still humming away.

      Comment


      • MJL,

        I believe the book Eric was talking about is "Tesla on his work with Alternating Currents". Of all the Tesla material I have read, I find it to be the best, because it is Tesla's own words and he describes phenomena very accurately.

        Nikola Tesla On His Work With Alternating Currents | ISBN-13: 978-1-893817-01-2 | ISBN-10: 1-893817-01-6

        Comment


        • Originally posted by MJL View Post
          http://www.energeticforum.com/renewa...ranslated.html

          Raui, I've started a thread for this recently translated article which Eric felt was important simply from analysis of the maths. Some of the explanations give wonderful insights if your familiar with Eric's work. Case in point, from the article, this might answer your previous question

          "Let us briefly remind this argument for the case of self-induction change. Suppose there is current i in the oscillatory system having capacity C, ohmic resistance R and induction L at a period of time taken as the initial one. Let us change self-induction to the magnitude dL at this moment, which is equivalent to energy increase equal to 1/2 dL i(squared). Now we leave the system to itself. In a period of time equal to ¼ of the system proper oscillations period, the entire system energy will transform from magnetic into electrostatic. At this moment, when the current = zero, we return the self-induction to its initial magnitude, which obviously can be performed without an effort, and then leave the system to itself again. In the next ¼ of the proper oscillation period the electrostatic energy will entirely transform into the magnetic one again, and then we can start a new cycle of induction change."


          Considering they are doing these experiments with "no obvious sources of electric or magnetic forces" they seem to be creating energy by periodic change of circuit parameters. The key they say, based on their mathematical analysis, is that the frequency of parameter change must be a harmonic of the "proper frequency of the system" . Outside these frequency bands, the oscillations cease. So we have an energy phenomenon that only manifests under precise conditions and seems to be the effect of parameter change. I would love to get my hands on some of the references in this article but I suppose their all in Russian. Translation is expensive

          I can't see why a solid state device based on these principles can't be devised. This research was 1930's so something with transistors seems feasible. Ideas? This work reminds me somewhat of Teslas work with mechanical oscillators and a certain high rise building. I guess he considered mechanical and electrical systems as analogous in function as this article contends. That would seem discredit any notion of a single velocity of propagation of electric waves because like a mechanical system it all depends on system parameters and not some immutable dictum.

          Very interesting article, hope you get something from it

          Matt
          Thanks heaps Matt! That paragraph definitley highlights the reciprocal nature of electrostatic and magnetic fields. Also if your after a solid state device based on parameter variation I'm not sure if your familiar with this thread; http://www.energeticforum.com/renewa...ead.php?t=6557 but it's a system I've done limited experimenting on and so far like what I see.

          Raui
          Scribd account; http://www.scribd.com/raui

          Comment


          • Originally posted by MJL View Post
            Electrons have nothing to do with the flow of electricity; electrons are the rate at which electricity is destroyed. Electrons are the resistance. The waveform of electron flow is the same waveform produced when you slam on the brakes and hear that horrible screeching sound. It’s not a nice harmonic sine wave it’s a very bitter horrible sound of energy dissipation and material flying everywhere. Electricity flows in the space between the wires. This has always been known by Electrical engineers. For example you short out a major electrical circuit you will see the cables violently repel each other as the electromagnetic force tries to escape from the boundaries in which they are contained between the so called bounding conductors. But most people are not electrical engineers and don’t deal with the situation. I have to deal with it every day, I had a welder run away on me at work a couple of days ago every wire and every conduit tried to escape the conduit. The noise was horrible everything repelled everything rattled all the lights flashed and all the computers failed … I love it! ....... I have a little device in my car where I operate my 24v military field radios off 12v. A very crude device, it consists of a vibrator which charges two 12v capacitors in parallel at 12v and discharges them in series on 24v. If the dwell angle on the contacts in the vibrator get screwy, when you turn the switch off the thing just sits there and keeps humming, powering the 327 pilot lamp for a period of about 2 minutes. But of course, that’s impossible, it’s like all Tesla's work, it’s all impossible. It's like the transformer; it’s why the lights should go out right now but their still humming away.


            You’re story is an archaic notion of Heavyside’s journals and Eric’s last lecture. We are told that all magnetic field lines closes by induction of “so called” conductors at relative time second as observed in natural time Plank in absolute state (vacuum medium at speed of light velocity)
            1. The quantity of magnetic line force (length of each wave) is Q
            2. The dimension of magnetic line force (number of units per relative time) is W

            Taking Eric’s foot of lamp cord that holds 1 million Planks energy/ second. By conventional knowledge, this is impossible and a crackpot conception given the Watt laws, limitation and breakdown properties of lamp cord dielectric and conductor.

            If we can produce the require parameters in real life, we can observe the “epiphenomenon” first hand. Drive a car at 600 mph, apply brake and come to complete stop in 1 second time, speed of light velocity. The Ghost will fly out of you and expose the real Primary Energy. If you Drive/Brake every 1 second interval, the Ghost will always be visible.

            NOW, lets demonstrate his in a more practical way. If we employ your vibrator apparatus, then the Primary Force can be manifested and exposed in a more practical manner.

            1. What is the input dimensional energy, Watt/ second?.
            2. What is the Dielectrical capacity of the capacitors?.
            3. What is the make/ brake or disruptive discharge rate of vibrator?.
            4. What is the dimensional energy Wattage consumed by light, 3 minutes after?.
            5. What is the quantity of electricity that was produced.

            Can we Define the required criteria to manifest Primary Energy, Dielectricity, Plank energy or whatever one wish to call it.

            Comment


            • Originally posted by MJL View Post
              A very crude device, it consists of a vibrator which charges two 12v capacitors in parallel at 12v and discharges them in series on 24v. If the dwell angle on the contacts in the vibrator get screwy, when you turn the switch off the thing just sits there and keeps humming, powering the 327 pilot lamp for a period of about 2 minutes. But of course, that’s impossible, it’s like all Tesla's work, it’s all impossible. It's like the transformer; it’s why the lights should go out right now but their still humming away.
              Could you provide more specifications on your vibrator device?.

              What is a 327 pilot lamp, can you provide detail description, model number etc. I believe that the 2 minutes of extended energy is a result of the Q dielectric energy that was stored in counterspace being converted into magnetic current by the vibrator. It only manifest when there's a change in ratio of velocity to time.

              We should do more than sitting idle, who knows how long Eric will be around, let's get the ball rolling and get to the bottom of this.

              Comment


              • Not sure if you were asking me or Eric, the device and the speech before it are all Eric Dollards I'll link the video if your interested, its posted elsewhere as well. He talks about it at the end in Q&A

                http://research.borderlands.com/wiki...y_(SBARC_video)

                Comment


                • I have some old radio gear laying around. Been 40 years since I worked with some of it. I believe, that I came across the piece that Eric is talking about. It is just as simple - as he says it is, And looking at some 50 yr old relays and such, I do understand how they can get messed on dwell and just plain crap.

                  It is the dwell angle - that sets the timing. This is similar to the things you might recall - if you had every worked on manual distributors - or old mech - advance distributors.

                  regards

                  Comment


                  • I just wanted to say that I am honored to be a part of this group, as I find Eric's work fascinating, but also some of his statements meant a lot to me, especially two of them:
                    1. Eric advised everyone to eat 'live' food. I understand this as a mostly vegan diet, consisting of fresh fruit and veggies. I have been doing this for a little over a year, helped a lot with my health.
                    2. Eric also said that the music of S. Bach contains clues about electricity and that it is very important for understanding the science of electricity. I still don't know what he meant exactly, but I have found lately that only Baroque music is acceptable in larger quantities for me, everything else has too much emotion (including the rest of classic music) at the expense of spirit. I know he meant this probably in a different way, so I will try to study Bach more.

                    Therefore, Eric Dollard is a unique, original thinker, who actually owes the rest of us peasants a book on the topic of "nature of electricity". Our poor brains need healing from the wrong concepts, so we actually need a fresh start to learn electricity and nature once again. This should go hand in hand with the "Electric Universe" theory of "electricuniverse.info", but I find Eric to be the one with more authority simply because he has true experimental evidence, rather than just theoretical.

                    Also, I am not very much fond of Yahoo as it is a mean corporation, just like any other, but I will still enjoy being a part of this fascinating group of researchers.

                    Comment


                    • my compliments to peter for his lecture at the conference

                      hi Peter,

                      I wanted to thank you for your battery lecture at cour de lane. it explained so much about lead acid battery phenomena. I know it was recorded, when it is released it needs to be purchased by anyone who uses LAB's.

                      I could have sworn Eric Dollard was there. the gentlemen was a spitting image of him, albeit a bit older than I remember him looking. Peter, was that him? John B semed to think so. I asked him if he was, he said no..... and smiled
                      Tom C
                      http://www.teslagenx.com

                      Comment


                      • Syncronous Parameter Variation of Inductance L

                        Originally posted by 7imix View Post

                        I think it is possible to reproduce the phenomena with solid-state components, but with much lower efficiency. Most solid state components will immediately be fried (I've fried tons) when switching an inductor with the change in voltage over time (dv/dt) required to produce the "opposite of dc" waveform, sharp impulses with a duty cycle as close to zero as practical. Components that are able to withstand the voltages required may not have the switching speeds needed to get close to the resonant frequency, much less the quarter wave. However components are continuing to improve and there may be a sweet spot of components -- a microcontroller, optocouplers or digital isolators, mosfet drivers and mosfets or IGBTs -- that will demonstrate the phenomena with less magnifying than the extremely high voltage spark gap setups.
                        I have personally gotten a crude model of a synchronous parameter variation machine to work built using solid-state parts in a parallel capacitor/inductor configuration. I'll give more details in a bit, but first I want to talk about the problems encountered, why they happen and what to do about them.

                        From an engineering point-of-view you never want to commutate an inductance because as you have stated above the magnitude of differential voltage per differential time is outside of the specifications of any and all solid-state parts.

                        To help those who don't know why this takes place I have copied some more of my notes below on the subject:

                        ... A constant quantity of current will hold a loop of force at a constant distance from the conductor passing the current, thus, no energy movement from expansion or contraction of the loop takes place. If the flow of current increases, energy is absorbed and stored by the field as the loops now push outward at a corresponding velocity. Because the energy is in motion an EMF must accompany the current flow in order for it to represent power or work. The magnitude of this EMF corresponds directly to the velocity of the field or the time-rate of expansion or collapse of the loops. If the current ceases to change in magnitude thereby becoming constant, no EMF accompanies it, as no power is being absorbed by the field or work being done. If the current decreases, this represents a negative velocity or collapse of the field whereby the loops contract. Because the EMF corresponds directly to the velocity of the magnetic-field, it reverses polarity, and thereby reverses power, whereby the stored energy now moves from the collapsing field back into the conducting wire by the action of “cutting”. Since no power is required to maintain a field, only current, the static or stationary field represents stored energy and an expansion or contraction of the field or loops can be seen as power or work...

                        Note that in the most basic sense, inductors take a current and produce a voltage, so a rapidly collapsing magnetic-field converts the energy stored (((n*Phi*10^-8)/i)i^2)f/2 into a voltage to over come any resistance present so as to release its stored energy. If an "infinite resistance" is "seen" which happens during commutation be it mechanical or transistorized, huge transients of voltage occur from the very nature of the beast... the faster the flux lines "cut" the conducting wire the greater the voltage produced as per the law of electromagnetic induction.

                        The point you will come to realize is that commutation is bad for transistors and also makes a lot of "electromagnetic noise" if mechanically done.

                        The Solution to the problem of "well how do I change the total in circuit value of inductance dynamically" would be to actually look at what constitutes an inductance and change that instead of commutating two inductors or the number of windings on an inductor. So for all those who don't know what actually comprises inductance of an inductor, the most quintessential form of inductance is in the form of:
                        L=(n*phi*10^-8)/i
                        (10^-8 is to give volts from flux lines one line is one maxwell and one hundred million or 10^8 lines is a weber, one weber per second is one volt)
                        where phi is composed of:
                        phi=uHA
                        u= permeability of A
                        H= magnetic-field intensity
                        A= Cross-Section Area of the magnetic-field

                        Or we now have:
                        (n*(uHA)*10^-8)/i

                        This formula can be arranged in many different forms, one of which, you will find of interest is the one, used by the Russians in their mechanical parametric apparatus and is of the form:

                        L=(n^2/R)10^-8
                        where n is uniform number of turns and R is reluctance which is formulated as:
                        R= l/uA
                        where
                        l= length of magnetic path
                        u= permeability of magnetic path
                        A= cross-section area of magnetic path

                        If you read what they wrote, the Russians found that in their rotary device that if permeability was used as the parameter for changing inductance that the device would not work, when they used iron to complete the magnetic path (magnetic path length remained the same). They then tested an aluminum disk having 7 blades and found the device would work. The reason I say they used reluctance is from the fact that, eddy currents generated by flux lines cutting the aluminum repelled the magnetic field making the magnetic path longer and shorter as it rotated in and out of the field, thus changing its inductance periodically.

                        For those who don't believe that the aluminum disk changed the parameter of reluctance take into consideration that:

                        No mutual attraction or repulsion between two bodies can result from flux lines of a magnetic-field unless each body has an independent magnetic-field. In other words, a magnetic field can only produce a force against another magnetic-field or a “magnetized body” can only exert force against another “magnetized body”. Therefore any interaction a non-magnetized body displays in a magnetic-field is from an induced magnetic-field around the body. The Induced magnetic-field is caused by two distinct phenomena, one from the magnetic lines of force “cutting” all conducting surfaces in the field, indirectly causing electric currents, the other, by the magnetic lines of force passing through all materials in the field, causing polarization of the materials (magnetization).

                        Thus the flux lines of the magnetic-field were repelled by the induced field of the aluminum and pass around rather than through, thereby changing the length of the magnetic path. Here, a diamagnetic material such as pyrolitic-graphite or bismuth would be a better choice for the bladed disc used by the Russians. In theory, a non conductive or dielectric material that has diamagnetic properties or very very low permeability (lower than that of air) would be needed for maximum efficiency of design.

                        As to the static approach of changing the magnitude of inductance without changing the number of wires or number of inductors or even the physical dimensions of the core. We have learned that inductance is a compound entity, we can change notably the length of its magnetic path, the permeability of the area enclosed by the magnetic field or our applied magnetomotive force or displacement current, the latter not so useful for these kind of devices.

                        The solution is seen by changing only its internal factors rather than physical ones. One solution to the problem can be seen in the form of controlling the properties of the area in which the the magnetic-field encloses, thus the shape of the iron core and the use of its shape to control the length of the magnetic path or alternatively the overall storage capacity or relative permeability. If we follow what the Russians did, we would change the length of the path periodically. A common core design that uses changing lengths of a magnetic path is that of a ferro-resonant transformer, an "off the shelf" part that can easily be put to use. The use of a control winding that you short-out periodically is one way to use the ferro-resonant core design. Note, there are many draw backs to using a ferro-resonant transformer core but I won't get into them right now. A method of changing the relative permeability and not the length of the magnetic path, can be seen as an embodiment of the "magnetic amplifier" (amplifier as in a small force controlling a larger one) where you control the relative permeability or "inductive capacity" by its overall state of magnetization (or saturation) with a control winding. In this case you would apply power to the control winding periodically to control the over all inductance. The shape of a simple "magamp" is that of the "E-Core" where the control winding is wound around the center leg and the inductor windings go around the outer two legs. The specific details of its implementation are subject to personal choice, i.e. use of diodes and dc control or no diodes and ac control ect.

                        The assumption of the above design, is that you are "modulating" a "carrier wave", or more simply you have power flowing though the variable inductors and are indirectly controlling the inductance at specific times (2x frequency of carrier wave) along the current and voltage quadrature-wave-forms, as apposed to directly switching the inductance.

                        In closing, you don't have to commutate to change the in circuit inductance value. The information above is by no means complete or through and is just a rough place to start for those who would like to build a solid state variable inductor that doesn't destroy the control circuit.

                        Please read my earlier post on permeability and what it does, this may assist in the understanding of the above work.

                        Good luck,

                        Garrett M
                        Last edited by garrettm4; 02-22-2012, 05:01 AM.

                        Comment


                        • For those who don't believe that the aluminum disk changed the parameter of reluctance take into consideration that:

                          No mutual attraction or repulsion between two bodies can result from flux lines of a magnetic-field unless each body has an independent magnetic-field. In other words, a magnetic field can only produce a force against another magnetic-field or a “magnetized body” can only exert force against another “magnetized body”. Therefore any interaction a non-magnetized body displays in a magnetic-field is from an induced magnetic-field around the body. The Induced magnetic-field is caused by two distinct phenomena, one from the magnetic lines of force “cutting” all conducting surfaces in the field, indirectly causing electric currents, the other, by the magnetic lines of force passing through all materials in the field, causing polarization of the materials (magnetization).

                          Thus the flux lines of the magnetic-field were repelled by the induced field of the aluminum and pass around rather than through, thereby changing the length of the magnetic path.

                          Back to the topic of how to change the inductance of an inductor by changing only its internal factors rather than physical ones. A possible solution to the problem can be seen in the form of controlling the properties of the area in which the the magnetic-field encloses. Thus the shape of the iron core and the use of its shape to control the length of the magnetic path or alternatively the overall storage capacity or relative permeability. If we follow what the Russians did, we would change the length of the path periodically. A common core design that uses changing lengths of a magnetic path is that of a ferro-resonant transformer, an "off the shelf" part that can easily be put to use. The use of a control winding that you short-out periodically is one way to use the ferro-resonant core design. Note, there are many draw backs to using a ferro-resonant transformer core but I won't get into them right now. A method of changing the relative permeability and not the length of the magnetic path, can be seen as an embodiment of the "magnetic amplifier" (amplifier as in a small force controlling a larger one) where you control the relative permeability or capacity by its overall state of magnetization (or saturation) with a control winding. In this case you would apply power to the control winding periodically to control the over all inductance. The shape of a simple "magamp" is that of the EI core were the control winding is wound around the center leg and the inductor winding go around the outer two legs. The specific details of its implementation are subject to personal choice, i.e. use of diodes and dc control or no diodes and ac control ect.

                          The assumption, of the above designs, is that you are "modulating" a "carrier wave", or more simply you have power flowing though the variable inductors and are indirectly controlling the inductance at specific times (2x frequency of carrier wave) along the current and voltage quadrature-wave-forms, as apposed to directly switching the inductance.

                          The point being that you don't have to commutate to change the in circuit inductance value. The information above is by no means complete or through and is just a rough place to start for those who would like to build a solid state variable inductor that doesn't destroy the control circuit.

                          Comment


                          • garrettm4, thank you for those posts. Lots of extremely good information in there, especially about changing the permeability of a core with a control winding. I will have to think long and hard about that.

                            Ras, about Bach, here is a quote from "Symbolic Representation of the Generalized Electric Wave" which may be helpful, from page 52:

                            This multiplication, or modulation, of one wave by another wave of the same number of divisions produces what may be called canonic electric waves, after the process in music where one melody is combined with itself delayed by a given number of divisions of the measure, producing harmony by interference with itself.
                            Canon (music) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
                            Last edited by 7imix; 08-21-2011, 07:28 AM. Reason: add link to wikipedia page

                            Comment


                            • If anybody is interested in the document I believe Eric is talking about when he talks about Oliver Heaviside's "Electromagnetic Induction" you can find it in Electrical Papers vol 1 and 2 which are available freely here;
                              Electrical papers : Heaviside, Oliver, 1850-1925 : Free Download & Streaming : Internet Archive
                              Electrical papers : Heaviside, Oliver, 1850-1925 : Free Download & Streaming : Internet Archive

                              I am in the process of splitting the documents and combining all the Electromagnetic Induction papers into one file. At the moment though it's 110mb so when I find a way to shrink it substantially I'll upload it.

                              Raui
                              Scribd account; http://www.scribd.com/raui

                              Comment


                              • Solid-State SPV Generator Design

                                For those who would like to know how I constructed my solid-state SPV generator take a glance at the circuit diagram:



                                While there are many improvement to make, the basic design does work, although it is a bit complex to control all the switching elements.

                                Some insight into how and when the switching should take place consider the diagram below:


                                This was graphed with Microsoft Mathematics for help on graphing this problem see "Graphing Syntax of Sine Waves"

                                The, 2x frequency, Blue-square-wave shown is one of the control signals for the circuit, it controls the operation of the Magnetic Amplifier (MagAMP) in the above circuit diagram. The Green-sine-wave is that of Voltage and is in a quadrature relation with the Purple-sine-wave of Current, this quadrature relation is the natural result (waveform) of circuits with large amounts of SELF-INDUCTION (L & C). The 2x frequency Black-sine-wave, is that of Power, something of interest, is that if the Power-waveform goes into both the top and bottom half of the graph, this represents Reactive Power or a surging to and fro of stored and returned energy. Something to take note of, is if, the Black-waveform is on one side or the other, top or bottom of graph with respect to the x axis, this would mean a unidirectional transfer of Power is taking place, or simply Active Power dissipating into a Load or Power transferred via Mutual-Induction. Dependent upon the actions taking place in the circuit, the Power-waveform can be any place along the y axis with respect to the x axis, the specific placement of this waveform dictates the magnitudes of the Active, Reactive, & Vector Power of the circuit. Thus you could see in a device that returns more Power than it consumes, such as in the circuit above, that the Power-waveform will be smaller on top and bigger down below where it is situated on the x axis. Thus the Source input becomes a quasi-load and the Load now a quasi-source. The understanding that Power is a product of Voltage & Current (with their phase angle taken into account) and the direction of its flow is fundamental in making one of these devices work. Back to the Blue control waveform, as seen above, the Current pulsed into the control winding of the MagAMP controls the relative-saturation or "inductive capacity" at any one moment in time. Thus you would saturate the core during the zero-crossing & rise-to-peak portion of the Purple-sine-wave and desaturate during the peak-to-fall & zero-crossing portion. Thus the inductance changed from L0 (low inductance) to L1 (high inductance) at the proper times. As for the switched capacitor, as can be seen in the circuit above, you would have a separate control signal that would be out-of-phase with the one controlling the inductance. Thus the capacitance would be C0 (large capacity) from zero-crossing & rise-to-peak and change to C1 (small capacity) during the peak-to-fall & zero-crossing.

                                An excellent resource for more study on this topic:
                                E. P. Dollard - Symbolic Representation of Alternating Electric Waves [1985]

                                What you will notice is that there will be two resonant frequencies C1 & L0 and L1 & C0. Caused from C1 discharging into L0 and L1 discharging into C0.

                                Take into consideration the following equations:

                                Correction: The big E, electromotive force, should be shown as little e, electrostatic potential!



                                The first one shows the discharge of C1 into L0 with currentA and voltageB and the other shows L1 discharge into C0 at currentA and voltageA, this is caused from the fact that current remained the same during the point of parameter change for inductance but voltage changes at parameter change because both capacitors are either in series, voltageB or in parallel, voltageA. With the law of conservation of energy taken into mind, these equations state, that the maximum energy stored could only be that of the source energy, or L1 for C0 and C1 for L0. Thus excess energy can only come from the parameter change of inductance, for the above circuit, and nothing else, seeing as how a "normal switched capacitor" doesn't have useful parameter change values, C0 & C1, for production of extra work. For further discussion on this issue read the references listed at the bottom.

                                Note that if you can get one of these devices to work, they simply self destruct within a few seconds of operation, if you loop the two equations above you will see a exponential rise in oscillatory energy. Thus you need to properly load the circuit to remove the excess energy from the oscillatory system. The concept of positive feedback to build the oscillations and a negative feedback mechanism to control the magnitude of the output comes to mind. The best method would be to alter the phase angles of the control circuits and not their frequency so as to slightly alter where on the curves of the voltage and current you choose to change your parameter. So a microcontroller could, with some hard work, tame the circuit, at least in principle.

                                Errata present in the above, PLEASE READ:

                                "Switched Capacitor"

                                and

                                "Correction on Design and Use of a Switched Capacitor"


                                These are posted below as updates, with some corrections, to this topic.

                                Garrett M
                                Last edited by garrettm4; 01-12-2012, 07:53 PM.

                                Comment

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