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Eric Dollard

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  • Hi,

    I have added a new post to my website:

    The Wheelwork of Nature - Vibration, Frequency, and Discharge Form

    https://www.am-innovations.com/the-w...discharge-form

    In this follow up experiment in the Wheelwork of Nature series we take a look at vibration, frequency, and discharge form that results from a set of Tesla coils designed to cover an operating frequency range between 300kc and 4Mc. If you have not done so already I recommend reading or reviewing the first experiment in this series The Wheelwork of Nature – Fractal “Fern” Discharges, which will set the basis for this current experiment. In the original experiment a range of experimental variations were tested in order to identify the origin of the fractal “Fern” discharge form, which is a distinct and significant departure from the discharge form normally observed in Tesla coils constructed using a basic standard design format, and constructed with readily available materials and processes. Variations to the experiment included, changing the matching and tuning of the Tesla coil, the excited resonant mode, the generator waveform, the type of vacuum tube used as a generator, and a top-load on the Tesla coil. The only significant variation to the discharge form was noted between the upper and lower parallel resonant modes of the Tesla coil, and hence it was concluded that frequency, or more correctly vibration, of the Tesla secondary coil was key to the nature and form of the fractal “fern” discharge.

    The video experiment demonstrates and includes aspects of the following:

    1. Three secondary coils based on the same geometry, dimensions, and construction, with different wire gauge and hence wire length, producing a different fundamental series resonant frequency in each secondary coil.

    2. A standard vacuum tube Tesla coil generator (VTTC), operated in CW mode using a pair of 833C vacuum tubes (VT) arranged in parallel as a tuneable class-C Armstrong oscillator.

    3. The tube power supply (HV & Plate) configured for 2 series transformers with a nominal output of 4.2kV @ 0.8A, 3.3kVA, HV bridge rectified, and with 25nF 25kV blocking capacitor at the output, and operated up to 3kW line input power.

    4. Secondary coils with nominal fundamental series resonant frequencies of ~ 3.5Mc, 2.0Mc, and 1Mc, could be easily exchanged, tuned, and matched to the VT generator.

    5. The 3.5Mc coil operated over a range of 2.4-3.3Mc, shows the fractal “fern” discharge over the entire frequency band. A tighter and denser fractal “fern” was observed across the upper parallel mode.

    6. The 2.0Mc coil operated over a range from 1.5-2.3Mc, shows the fractal “fern” discharge at the upper parallel mode, and the “swords” discharge at the lower parallel mode.

    7. The 1.0Mc coil operated over a range from 970kc-1.4Mc, shows the “swords” discharge over the entire frequency band.

    8. The transition from fractal “fern” to “swords” occurs between 1.8-2.0Mc, where the “sword” discharge retains slight curvature until frequencies < 1.5Mc.

    9. Conjecture that the variation of discharge form may result from the changing vibrational qualities within the relationship between the dielectric and magnetic fields of induction at different frequencies, and hence part of the underlying principles and mechanisms within the Wheelwork of Nature.

    Best wishes,
    Adrian

    Comment


    • t-rex :

      aminnovations : For some reason I was not notified of your messages. Thank you for your posts, I will read them and respond soon.

      Comment


      • Hi,

        I have added a new post to my website:

        Transference of Electric Power - Single Wire vs Telluric

        https://www.am-innovations.com/trans...re-vs-telluric

        In this new experiment on transference of electric power a comparison is made between power transfer through a single wire and through a telluric transmission medium, using a cylindrical Tesla magnifying transformer (TMT) apparatus. The TMT apparatus and linear generator is the same used in the High-Efficiency Transference of Electric Power series both over 1.5m and 11m, and these new experiments are a continuation on those previously reported. This experiment is also the first in a new series on telluric transmission of electric power, and whilst I have experimented with telluric transmission over the years, none of this fascinating area of Tesla research has yet been reported here on the website. In the experiment reported in this post, the TMT transmitter and receiver are housed in different buildings of the lab, and can be connected by a 30m single wire, or a telluric channel ~18m point-to-point between the two ground systems, and 26m in total length including the cables. There is no special consideration of the ground/earth/soil between the two buildings, although the transmitter ground system used is specifically designed and constructed to provide a low impedance connection to ground.

        This experiment consists of two video experiments one based on a single-wire 30m TMT system, and the other with the same TMT system connected by a telluric channel. Telluric is often used as a description of the transmission medium in Tesla research when the ground/earth/planet is used to form the "single wire" and hence the cavity between the TX and RX. In this case the impedance of the Telluric channel is much higher than that of the single metallic wire, and hence we make a comparison as to the likely power that can be transferred through the channel, what modes of transmission are involved in the system, and what the magnitude and mechanisms of the losses are involved in the channel. The generator used in both experiments is the same linear amplifier generator featured in the High-Efficiency Transference of Electric Power series, and is explained in detail in those posts, and is used to drive the TMT system at the fundamental series resonant mode. In addition to measuring power transfer in both mediums, the small signal impedance characteristics of the TMT system are measured, and then tuning and matching the generator to the apparatus to ensure maximum power transfer to the experiment with the minimum losses.

        The first video experiment of a cylindrical TMT system with a 30m single wire demonstrates and includes aspects of the following:

        1. A Cylindrical TMT experimental apparatus using a 30m single wire transmission medium between the transmitter (TX) and receiver (RX) coils.

        2. Setup, matching and tuning, and operation of a 1kW linear amplifier generator, adjusted to drive the TMT experiment at the available series resonant modes, and further adjustment during operation to maximise the power transfer efficiency, and minimise reflected power.

        3. Small signal ac input impedance characteristics Z11 from the perspective of the generator, and showing tuning of both the series and parallel resonant modes to establish optimum experimental starting conditions.

        4. At 1.920Mc using a balun feed to the transmitter the maximum power transfer efficiency was measured at ~ 34%.

        5. At 1.890Mc without using a balun feed to the transmitter the maximum power transfer efficiency was measured at ~ 40%. This frequency and drive method produced the highest efficiency observed during the experiment.

        6. The optimum power transfer was accomplished with the maximum number of four primary coil turns, and balanced parallel modes, at both the TX and RX coil.

        7. Extension of the single wire from 30m to 40m, close to the quarter wavelength of the generator drive frequency, did not change the maximum measured power transfer efficiency of ~ 40%.

        8. It is discussed and conjectured that the TEM transmission mode is dominant in the experimental setup, and as a result large losses occur through radiation from the single wire.

        9. It is conjectured that the LMD transmission mode was not adequately established in the single wire over 30m or 40m, and hence the much lower power transfer efficiency than expected from previous experiments with 1.5m and 11m single wires. In previous experiments with an 11m single wire transfer efficiencies up to 96% were measured, and it was conjectured that the LMD mode was adequately established as the dominant transmission mode.

        The second video experiment of a cylindrical TMT system with a telluric channel demonstrates and includes aspects of the following:

        1. A custom ground system, using copper water pipes driven into the ground, and consisting of a main RF ground and a reference test ground.

        2. Signal reception tuning, using a Sony ICF-2001D radio scanner, to calibrate the proportion of signal transmitted through the radio-wave and the telluric-wave from the transmitter to the receiver.

        3. At 1.860Mc 10W of input power at the TX resulted in ~0.55mW via the radio-wave, and ~0.7mW via the telluric-wave, and a total of ~1.25mW at the RX coil, into a HP435B power meter with an 8481H 3W thermocouple power sensor.

        4. At 1.860Mc 500W of input power at the TX resulted in a total of ~80mW at the receiver through the radio-wave and telluric-wave combined.

        5. It is discussed and conjectured that almost all of the transmitter power is absorbed into the earth around the ground system, and radiated from the secondary coil in the TEM transmission mode. This diffuse absorption and radiation around the transmitter system results in very little power incident on the RX system, and hence at 1.860Mc in the 160m amateur band, radio communication appears possible through the telluric system, but significant transference of electric power does not appear possible at this frequency.

        Best wishes,
        Adrian

        Last edited by aminnovations; 11-26-2021, 11:01 AM.

        Comment


        • Hi,

          I have added a new post to my website:

          Telluric Transference of Electric Power - MF Band 2-8 Miles

          https://www.am-innovations.com/tellu...band-2-8-miles

          This experimental post is a follow-on from the Telluric experiment presented in Transference of Electric Power – Single Wire vs Telluric. In that previous experiment a Tesla Magnifying Transformer (TMT) apparatus, consisting of TX and RX cylindrical Tesla coils, were connected together via a 18m point-to-point telluric transmission medium, and with ground connection cables 26m in total between TX and RX secondary coils. In the medium-frequency band (MF) at 1.86Mc, in the mid-field region, 500W input power to the TX coil generated ~ 80mW of output power at the RX coil, from a combination of the telluric-wave and radio-wave. In this new experiment the same TMT apparatus and generator is used, and the telluric transmission medium is extended into the close far-field region at 2 and 8 mile field locations from the TX coil. In both locations natural water features were used as the telluric ground connection for the RX coil, and the transmitted signal could be clearly received, and was shown to result from the combination of a telluric-wave component through the ground, and a radio-wave component above ground. It is conjectured that at the 2 mile location the longitudinal magneto-dielectric (LMD) transmission mode was dominant in the telluric cavity between TX and RX, and the transverse electromagnetic (TEM) mode was dominant at the 8 mile location.

          The video experiment demonstrates and includes aspects of the following:

          1. Portable Tesla receiver (RX) setup and tuning, using a cylindrical coil tuned in the 160m amateur radio band, for radio-wave and telluric-wave field experiments in the close far-field region.

          2. Telluric ground connection using a submerged aluminium metal plate, firstly in a natural lake connected to a river 2 miles from the lab transmitter (TX), and secondly in a man-made reservoir 8 miles from the TX.

          3. Small signal ac impedance measurements using a vector network analyser to tune the RX Tesla coil to the series and parallel resonant modes.

          4. Fine tuning to different modes, and optimal received signal strength at 1.86Mc, using a telescopic aerial at the top-end of the RX secondary coil.

          5. Comparison of radio-wave and telluric-wave measurement by re-tuning the RX coil from the Telluric ground plate connection, to an ungrounded single wire bottom-end extension.

          6. At both 2 and 8 miles the CW audio tone could be received and heard at only 10W TX input power.

          7. At 2 miles, 6 bars of signal strength were measured at 10W TX power at 1.86Mc for the telluric-wave and radio-wave combined, and 1 bar for the radio-wave only.

          8. At 8 miles, 4 bars of signal strength were measured at 400W TX power at 1.86Mc for the telluric-wave and radio-wave combined, and 2 bars for the radio-wave only.

          9. The lower parallel resonant mode of the RX Tesla coil was found to receive the maximum signal strength at both 2 and 8 miles.

          10. The lower parallel resonant mode was found to be much more sensitive to body and object proximity than the series resonant mode.

          11. It is conjectured that at the 2 mile location the longitudinal magneto-dielectric (LMD) transmission mode was dominant in the telluric cavity between TX and RX, and the transverse electromagnetic (TEM) mode was dominant at the 8 mile location.

          Best wishes,
          Adrian

          Comment


          • Hi,

            I have added a new post to my website:

            Telluric Transference of Electric Power – Brookmans Park AM Radio Transmitter

            https://www.am-innovations.com/tellu...io-transmitter

            In this post we continue to explore telluric transference of electric power, by using a Tesla transformer receiver 300 metres from Brookmans Park AM Radio Transmitter. The radio transmitter broadcasts four stations in the medium frequency band (MF) in the south-east of England, and is one of the most powerful AM broadcast transmitters in the United Kingdom, nominally rated at 150kW @ 909kc, and 400kW @ 1089kc, along with two other higher frequencies. A specifically designed and tuned Tesla transformer receiver, which can be tuned both at 909kc and 1089kc for both the series and parallel resonant modes, is used to receive power from the transmitting station, both through the normal transverse radio-wave above the ground, and through the telluric-wave under the ground. This telluric experiment is very similar to the crystal radio initiative (CRI) originally proposed by Eric Dollard, where a Tesla transformer was to be used to power a 100W light bulb using power transferred through the ground from a broadcast AM radio transmitter. The CRI required specific design of the receiving Tesla coil and ground system, optimised for receiving power from the telluric wave. In this experiment we demonstrate a Tesla transformer that receives ~55mW of power combined in the radio and telluric wave, using a very good ground system, and in very close proximity, around one wavelength, to the radio transmitter.

            The video experiment demonstrates and includes aspects of the following:

            1. An introduction to Brookmans Park AM Radio Transmitter Station, broadcasting 150kW @ 909kc, and 400kW @ 1089kc, along with two other additional AM frequencies.

            2. The configuration of the vertical mast and T-antenna monopole antennas on the site, and optimised for ground-wave transmission of the transverse electromagnetic mode (TEM).

            3. A brief introduction to Eric Dollard’s crystal radio initiative (CRI), the challenge to power a 100W incandescent lamp using a Tesla coil transformer, and using an AM Broadcast radio station as the generator.

            4. A modular Tesla coil transformer receiver (RX) designed to tune both the parallel and series resonant modes to 909kc and 1089kc, corresponding with two of the station’s transmitting frequencies, and optimised for the longitudinal magneto-dielectric (LMD) transmission mode.

            6. At 300m from the transmitting station antenna, in the near-field and within the induction field of the TX, a maximum of ~55mW of power could be measured using an HP435B with HP8481H thermocouple sensor, and with RX tuned to the parallel mode at 909kc, and using a tested good ground connection.

            7. The telluric wave was measured to contribute ~39mW to the total received power, and the radio wave ~16mW of power, showing that more power was received directly through the telluric channel between TX and RX.

            8. The received power was sufficient only to power an LED, and no significant voltage tension was measured across the secondary coil terminals. A 0.5W and 3W neon lamp, along with a 5W incandescent lamp could not be illuminated.

            9. It is conjectured that the very low received power of ~55mW from a transmitter output of up to 150kW only 300m distant, results from a combination of the following:

            a. The mismatch between TX (TEM) and RX (LMD) transformer modes.

            b. High absorption of power by the earth close to the TX ground system at 909kc.

            c. Inadequate electrical tension developed across the secondary coil of the Tesla transformer receiver, which suggests no LMD mode is developed between TX and RX transformers.

            Best wishes,
            Adrian

            Comment


            • Hi,

              I have added a new post to my website:

              Telluric Transference of Electric Power – MF Band 27-70 Miles

              https://www.am-innovations.com/tellu...nd-27-70-miles

              This experimental post is a follow on from the field-work reported so far in Telluric Transference of Electric Power – MF Band 2-8 Miles and Transference of Electric Power – Single Wire vs Telluric. In this new experiment the same TMT apparatus and generator is used at 1.86 Mc and 400W of transmit power, and the telluric transmission medium is extended into the far-field region at 27 and 70 mile field locations from the TX coil. At the 27 mile location a natural lake was used as the telluric ground connection for the RX coil, and the transmitted signal could just be received, and was shown to result from the combination of a telluric-wave component through the ground, and a radio-wave component above ground. At the 70 mile location the sea was used as the telluric ground connection, but despite many different combinations of configuration, tuning, measurements, and instruments, the transmitted signal could not be received either through the telluric-wave or the radio-wave. The dominant transmission mode in these experiments appears to be Transverse Electromagnetic (TEM), and it is conjectured that in the more distant far-field a three coil TMT arrangement using Tesla’s extra coil may be necessary to “pull” or “draw” the transmitted signal through a coherent cavity via the Longitudinal Magneto-Dielectric (LMD) transmission mode.

              The video experiment demonstrates and includes aspects of the following:

              1. Portable Tesla receiver (RX) setup and tuning, using a cylindrical coil tuned in the 160m amateur radio band, for radio-wave and telluric-wave field experiments in the far-field region.

              2. Telluric ground connection using a submerged aluminium metal plate, firstly in a natural lake 27 miles from the lab transmitter (TX), and secondly in the sea at 8 miles from the TX.

              3. Small signal ac impedance measurements using a vector network analyser, to tune the RX Tesla coil to the series and parallel resonant modes.

              4. Fine tuning to different modes, and optimal received signal strength at 1.86Mc, using a telescopic aerial at the top-end of the RX secondary coil.

              5. Comparison of radio-wave and telluric-wave measurement by re-tuning the RX coil from the Telluric ground plate connection, to an ungrounded single wire bottom-end extension.

              6. At 27 miles the TX signal could be received and was just audible with a TX input power in the range 20-400W. At 70 miles no audible tone could be detected at either the parallel or serial modes.

              7. The lower parallel resonant mode of the RX Tesla coil was found to receive the maximum signal strength at 27 miles.

              Best wishes,
              Adrian

              Comment

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