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  • Hi,

    I have added a new post to my website:

    http://www.am-innovations.com/teslas...-matter-part-1

    This is the first post in a sequence where I take a look at Tesla's Radiant Energy and Matter, introducing suitable apparatus, experiments, and phenomena that are usually attributed to this fascinating area. The post includes an hour long video on the experiments and phenomena, along with a consideration and discussion of the observed phenomena, and possible interpretations as to their origin and cause.

    The experimental work investigates aspects of the following:

    1. The difference in powering a load with a conventional closed-circuit from the primary coil of a spark gap generator, and a single wire from the Tesla coil secondary.

    2. The change in properties observed in the load in a single wire with load position, generator matching, and changes in the single wire cavity length.

    3. The force exerted on different materials as a result of radiant energy/matter emanating from an incandescent lamp emitter in the single wire load.

    4. The different responses of materials to radiant energy emanating from the lamp emitter.

    5. The radiant matter pressure wave emanating from the lamp emitter, as experienced by the human hand.

    6. Discharge “plasma-like” emanations directly from the lamp emitter to the surrounding medium.

    7. Vibration and physical movement stimulated in the lamp filaments when radiant energy interacts with another object in the surrounding medium.

    8. Cool lamp glass temperature when emanating considerable light from the lamp emitter, a so-called “cold” electricity phenomenon.

    9. Radiant energy charging of a capacitor, accompanied by subsequent discharge in a neon lamp load, showing a “cool” white-bluish discharge, and a violent snapping sound.

    10. An initial consideration of the inter-relationship between the longitudinal and transverse modes of electricity in the single wire load.

    11. The transformation of energy from the longitudinal mode to the transverse, and the dissipation of this energy as power in the single wire load.

    Best wishes,
    Adrian

    Comment


    • Magnetic Boundary Condition

      Chapter 1

      I
      front.jpg



      figure-1.jpg




      Shown in the cover photo, Figure 1, is an open wire telephone transmission pair, this being isolated at face level during a crossarm replacement procedure. While it is invisible to human sensibilities, 16 simultaneous telephone conversations are active within the space bounded by this transmission pair [1].

      This photo presents the fundamental archform of electromagnetic transmission in its three principal elements:
      1. Line Conductors; Consisting of a closed boundary of metallic copper, this being reflective to the bound electromagnetic induction.
      2. Line Insulators; Consisting of a spaced pair of dielectric glass supports, these being transparent to the bound electromagnetic induction.
      3. Electric Medium; Consisting of an electric fluid in which the transmission pair is immersed. This medium supports the establishment of the electromagnetic induction. This is represented by the blue sky.
      Hence the electromagnetic transmission process is facilitated by the elementals of reflection, transparency, and inductivity.



      References

      [1] Principles Of Electricity As Applied To Telephone & Telegraph Work, AT&T, 1953, pages 175-178.
      Last edited by t-rex; 04-12-2020, 07:57 PM.
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      • II
        figure-1a.jpg




        Figure 1a depicts the electric medium bound by the line conductors when this medium is in an electro-tonic state [2]. In this condition the electric medium, μη, has become polarized into what have become known as “lines of force” [3].

        This portrayal is based upon the conception, introduced by Faraday, of tubes of electro-static induction. This provides a language in which to express the phenomena of the electromagnetic field of induction. It is by their tendency to contract, and the lateral repulsion which similar tubes exert on each other, which explains the forces between electrified bodies. Such tubes can be hereby called “Faraday Tubes” [4].

        It has come to pass that there exists two entirely different viewpoints in considering the pondermotive forces acting upon the line conductors. One is that adopted by the mathematical physicist, this analogous to Newton’s way of expressing the fact of gravitation. The other way is that the Newtonian conception of forces acting at a distance, through vacuous space, are mathematical fictions only, and have no real existence. What is real are the manifest stresses existing in the electromagnetic field of induction [5].

        The electromagnetic field of induction divides into a pair of constituents exhibiting a conjugate inter-relation, and thus everywhere establish themselves into a right angle relation in space with respect to each other.

        The primary constituent is the electrification of the electric medium. Shown in green, these lines of force, ψ, present themselves as radial lines which exist in attachment to the bounding line conductors. These lines of force, so-called because the force manifests along their path in space, exists in a state of tension which act to draw the conductors together as a contractive force.

        The secondary constituent is the magnetization of the electric medium. Shown in red, these lines of force, φ, present themselves as circumferal lines which surround the bounding line conductors. These lines exert an inward broadside pressure which acts to push the pair of conductors as an expansive force [6].

        It is evident that, while this pair of distinct lines of force exists in a condition of space quadrature, the acting forces they exert upon the line conductors present themselves in space opposition. It is a characteristic of the Faraday tubes in general that whatever tension exists within these tubes, it is matched by an equal broadside pressure between the individual tubes against each other [7].



        References

        [2] Electricity & Matter, J. J. Thomson, pages 1-35.
        [2] A History Of The Theories Of Aether & Electricity, From The Age Of Descartes To The Close Of The 19th Century, 1910, E. T. Whittaker, pages 212 & 272.
        [3] A History Of The Theories Of Aether & Electricity, From The Age Of Descartes To The Close Of The 19th Century, 1910, E. T. Whittaker, page 190.
        [4] Recent Researches In Electricity And Magnetism, J. J. Thompson, page 3.
        [5] Electromagnetic Theory, Oliver Heaviside, Art 86 page 109, Art 176 page 307.
        [5] Transient Electric Phenomena, C. P. Steinmetz, pages 4-5.
        [6] Recent Researches In Electricity And Magnetism, J. J. Thompson, page 14.
        [6] Electric Discharges, Waves And Impulses, C. P. Steinmetz, pages 10-18.
        [6] Electromagnetic Theory, Oliver Heaviside, Art 74 pages 89-90, Art 78-81 pages 95-100, Art 82a page 102.
        [7] Electricity & Matter, J. J. Thomson, page 16.
        [7] A History Of The Theories Of Aether & Electricity, From The Age Of Descartes To The Close Of The 19th Century, 1910, E. T. Whittaker, page 301.
        Last edited by t-rex; 04-12-2020, 07:58 PM.
        SUPPORT ERIC DOLLARD'S WORK AT EPD LABORATORIES, INC.

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        Comment


        • RECORDING OF ERIC DOLLARD'S LIVE CALL FROM APRIL 4 ON YOUTUBE

          A high school student demonstrates electrodynamic seismic forecasting that gives results better than what the government has - he shares his work on the live call with Eric Dollard - you can see the charts and diagram of simple setup - http://ericpdollard.com/2020/04/20/2...ard-live-call/



          Sincerely,
          Aaron Murakami

          Books & Videos https://emediapress.com
          Conference http://energyscienceconference.com
          RPX & MWO http://vril.io

          Comment


          • III

            Consider the hypothetical situation where the open wire line is terminated at one end by a telephone central office (C.O.) and at the other end by a telephone subset. Initially the subset is “on hook”, or in an open circuit condition, which accordingly draws no current. The C.O. end of the line supplies a 48 volt direct current potential, through its line coil, and the line is thus in a steady state of i1 equals zero and e1 equals 48 volts. No power flow exists in the line, this P1 equals zero [8].

            At the start time, t equals zero, the subset is lifted “off hook”, closing the circuit through its network, which begins to draw a current, reaching a steady state of 20 milliamperes over time interval, τ. Because the subset is now consuming electric power, P0, this engenders an electro-motive force of 6 volts. Accordingly a line potential of 6 volts is established giving the power, P0, as 120 milliwatts at the subset end of the line.

            The network response to its connection to the “charged” line establishes a transient of time span, τ, seconds, and this transient immediately begins its propagation toward the C.O. end of the line. This condition is portrayed by the Time-Distance diagram, Figure 1b.
            figure-1b.jpg


            The duration and wave-shape of the network transient is preserved in the course of its propagation along the length of open wire line, and accordingly represents an impulse if electromagnetic induction, ρ, propagating in an electric medium, μη, which is bound between the line conductors. Its field of force has been portrayed by Figure 1a [9].

            Because of the finite propagation time of this impulse, initially the C.O. still sees an open circuit and its power, P1, remains zero. The power, P0, is initially supplied to the subset solely by the discharge of the line potential, e1, effected by the travelling impulse, ρ. Hence, on either side of this impulse, exists a pair of steady states, P1, on the C.O. side of the impulse, and, P0, on the subset side of the impulse. This electromagnetic impulse, ρ, thus serves as an intermediary between the two steady states, converting one steady state, P1, into another steady state, P0, this acting within the time interval, τ, seconds, and spanning length of line, λ, centimetres [10].



            References

            [8] Transmission Systems For Communications, Bell Labs, 1970, pages 68-74.
            [9] Electromagnetic Theory, Oliver Heaviside, Art 177-178 pages 307-313, Art 190 page 342.
            [10] Electromagnetic Theory, Oliver Heaviside, Art 176-177.
            [10] Theory Of Electricity And Magnetism, Max Planck, pages 1-3.
            [10] Communications Networks, Ernst Guillemin, pages 48-50.
            SUPPORT ERIC DOLLARD'S WORK AT EPD LABORATORIES, INC.

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            Comment


            • TODAY - STARTS IN 1 HOUR 10 MINUTES

              SATURDAY, MAY 2, NOON PACIFIC TIME - LIVE CALL WITH ERIC DOLLARD

              This Saturday, we're having another live call with Eric Dollard - he wants to discuss the current situation with the sun, it's connection to Earthquakes and it's possible influence on some societal events. Just call this number in the United States: +1 (857) 232-0155 and enter this code: 582590
              Sincerely,
              Aaron Murakami

              Books & Videos https://emediapress.com
              Conference http://energyscienceconference.com
              RPX & MWO http://vril.io

              Comment


              • In the recent live call with you and Eric, I discussed sharing some circuital schematics for an instrument to measure "sidereal radiation" and extraterrestrial electrical phenomena as they related to our electrical environment. It has occured to me before writing this even that you have a lot more time and experience accumulated into investigating electrical phenomena and the like, so if this is once again a repeat of information here or that you've already read, I am sorry. I had read about the electrometer originally in the book "Defying Gravity: The Parallel Universe of T. Townsend Brown", referring to scholastic, naval and federal funding for experiments such as to retry the Trouton-Noble experiment supervised by Dr William Francis Gray Swann through the Franklin Institute Laboratories for Research and Development, and it was described as one of the first stations to measure, from my understanding, dielectric constant and resistance variations (of copper for instance) within our environment. The book is quite lengthy roughly 500 pages and speculates quite a bit from a similarly uneducated view of what potentially he could have been working towards.

                Upon further research, the building in which the aforementioned electrometer was located was the Banks-Huntley located is currently occupied by the "mexican american legal defense and educational fund". From my investigations as to why, the second basement where it was reportedly located had 20 foot thick concrete walls acting as an insulation towards electrical activity, making it an ideal environment to study the phenomena. In 1996 the Southern California Edison company donated $250,000 towards the renovation of the building for MALDEF.
                https://www.latimes.com/archives/la-...496-story.html

                I unfortunately am still not educated nor experienced enough to understand the totality of what's available online for the diagrams, but rather than waste Eric's time mailing him a large packet of information to pilfer through, I figured I'd post what materials were available here and directly link the page information. Unfortunately, most of the content is pertaining to electrogravitic propulsion instead of detection of cosmic rays and electrical environments. That being said, there are tidbits.

                Electrometer Studies:
                http://www.rexresearch.com/brown1/brown1.htm starting at Page 15, (5). "Shift of Capacitance Mid-Point" describes a primitive measurement device with circuit diagram. The discussion continues at Page 90, (51.) Shift of Capacitance Mid-Point in relation to measuring said phenomena with a circuit diagram.
                http://www.rexresearch.com/brown2/brown2.htm starting at page 46 (Entry 97) he begins discussion of both the rotary and a linear electrometer in regards to detecting the 'radiation' and begins discussion relating the Miller ether drift experiments to the data he has collected, denouncing the narrative of standard relativitists in regards to the experiment.

                http://www.thomastownsendbrown.com/stress/egdonr.htm Here starting from 2.4) is discussion relating to a proposed communications device with schematic. The information here pertaining to the electrometer starts at 5)

                Communications device:
                https://starburstfound.org/aerospace...interhaven.pdf On Page 10 (pdf page 18/66) A reference is made "induction between systems of capacitors involving propagation and reception of gravitational waves" describing what my naive/untrained mind is what Eric refers to as longitudinal magneto-dielectric waves.
                --- "Radiation is more penetrating than radio (has been observed to pass readily through steel shielding and more than 15 feet of concrete), In 1952 a short-range transmitting and receiving system was completed and demonstrated in Los Angeles. Transmission of an actual message was obtained between two rooms - a distance of approximately 35 feet. Transmission was easily obtained through what was believed to be adequate electromagnetic shielding, but this test must bear repeating under more rigorous control."
                The discussion as to communications continues through page 15.
                Pages marked 23-25 further discuss possible implementation of the communications. I am unsure of what Thomas Townsend Brown's idea of gravitational waves were, I'm only confident that he expressed their reality through networks of dielectrics and or capacitors.
                http://www.thomastownsendbrown.com/ecomm/ecomm.htm I do not believe that there was a patent granted, if there was I can not find it, nor the patent art.
                http://www.thomastownsendbrown.com/t...rown_11-55.pdf Page 3 starts to further discuss the ideology behind the creation and implementation/experimentation with the electrometer.

                Comment


                • 3 quick questions
                  1) Has Eric ever considered completely eliminating fractions and decimals from all of his math? It would greatly simplify the mathematics. The golden ratio is 1 without fractions and decimals. Two quantities are in the golden ratio if their ratio is the same as the ratio of their sum to the larger of the two quantities. This is not the case when using fractional/decimal math. Modern math claims the golden ratio is 1.618. The golden ratio is when a (largenumber+smallnumber) / largenumber = largenumber / smallnumber and with fractions and decimals it is never once equal to 1.61803398875, you can test this with a simple computer program script and the only time it happens is when the significant figures (precision) are very low, without low precision it never happens. I wrote a post about it. This means 7 and 4 are in golden ratio, 7 and 5, 7 and 6. 11/7=1 7/4=1 11/7=7/4, 12/7=1 7/5=1 12/7=7/5, 13/7=1 7/6=1 13/7=7/6 This is where the variation in nature comes from, not from fractions but from the golden ratio 1, because we are all 1 universal being, everything is rooted in 1. I am still working my way thru fleshing this concept out. Many old computers like the apple 2 and old calculators would do all of its math without fractions and decimals (without floating point). The algorithms were faster than when using fractions and decimals. Its how alot of calculators handle high precision calculations. They seem to be using log 2 not ln to do the calculations. Natural logarithm is 2.718, but logarithm related to nature wouldn't need to specifically point out the word 'natural' in its name. Logarithm is 2 and its implied that its natural because the Greeks related their math to reality. I am in the process of trying to prove log2 is the actual natural logarithm, and that pi is 4 without fractions and decimals. Its not the ratio of the circumference to the diameter but the ratio of the perimeter of the enclosing square around the circle to the diameter. Perhaps this could help simplify Erics versor algebra. Instead of using E= (1+1/n)^n instead use E=(1+n)^n and then its a series of factorials not inverse factorials, instead of E=1/0!+1/1!+1/2!+1/3!...infinity it becomes E=1!+2!+3!...infinity. Both methods do the same thing, except the method without fractions and decimals greatly reduces the complexity and is lightning fast to calculate on computers, its related to how calculators can perform high precision math(they convert it back to decimals after doing the calculation in nondecimals).

                  2) Has Eric ever considered flipping the name of his counterspace idea to 'spacecounter'? Applying mathematics without fractions and decimals, Erics 'counterspace' simply becomes 'spacecounter'. Space is the number of spacecounters, space counters are the smallest unit of measurement(aka what your counting with, your space counter). Space counters are the smallest unit of measurement. In counterspace there is span, density, and concentration iirc. Those three concepts are essentially the smallest unit of measurement for calculating their respective spaces(distance,area,volume). Space counters makes counterspace less complex and very intuitive, This would simplify Erics equations greatly. Everything hinges on the mind parasite of fractions and decimals, they are completely unnecessary, so much math, engineering, and science is unnecessarily complex because of fractions and decimals(also 0, 0 is only useful as a placeholder, there are no numbers in between 0 and 1).

                  3) Has Eric ever heard of the engineer John Worrell Keely from the late 1800s? He too based his machines on music, but his machines were based on the principal of vibrations within the ether not electricity. I suspect electricity is created from vibrations in the ether, just like everything in existence, with everything being rooted in the one universal being. Keely was like Walter Russel if walter russel actually built stuff. Russels drawings are interesting and fun to look at and most of his theories are correct but that dude rambles on and on endlessly repeating himself in different ways. Keely actually made stuff using something akin to russels ideas, russel didnt make much. Keely is the only person in recent history that seemed to use a system of math without fractions and decimals (unconfirmed but I heavily suspect it from what I read so far). The ancient greeks did as well but most of that info is heavily suppressed.

                  Comment


                  • If you have questions for Eric, please ask on the live call tomorrow:


                    ​​​​​
                    NEW CALL SCHEDULED FOR SATURDAY, MAY 30, NOON PACIFIC TIME: Just call this number in the United States: +1 (857) 232-0155 and enter this code: 582590



                    Sincerely,
                    Aaron Murakami

                    Books & Videos https://emediapress.com
                    Conference http://energyscienceconference.com
                    RPX & MWO http://vril.io

                    Comment


                    • I will not be able to join the call, but I would be interested in hearing Eric's thoughts on the Goliath system, because it is said to be a more advanced form of the Alexanderson design, and because it is still currently in use as a proper radio station (not a museum):

                      Originally posted by https://www.nonstopsystems.com/radio/hellschreiber-mil-tx-rx.htm#goliath
                      The Kriegsmarine used the Hell-system with an LF/VLF transmitter that was absolutely gigantic, both in terms of size of the antenna system and output power. It was appropriately named Goliath, and was used for world-wide broadcast to (submerged) submarines. In its time, it was by far (!) the world's most powerful vacuum tube transmitter with tunable frequency: up to 1 Megawatt at 15-60 kHz. Ref. 24A-1/2/3/4/5/6/7/8/9/10. There were 12 crystal-controlled frequencies ( = very stable), in addition to the freely tunable frequency range. Below 19 kHz, the output power had to be reduced, as the narrow bandwidth of the antenna system ( = high Q-factor) caused excessive voltages.

                      [..]

                      The Goliath antenna and transmitter installations were located just outside the town of Calbe-an-der-Milde (Calbe on the river Milde), about 135 km (≈85 mi) west-northwest of Berlin, and ca. 65 km (≈40 mi) north of Magdeburg. In 1952, Calbe was renamed to "Kalbe", to avoid confusion with the town of Calbe-an-der-Saale (Calbe on the river Saale), ca. 30 km south of Magdeburg. The location was primarily selected because of the properties of the local soil being unusually conducive to VLF propagation. Construction of Goliath took 27 months, and was completed during the spring of 1943. Allegedly, construction of the installation (terrain, buildings, antennas, etc.) may have cost as much as 15 million Reichsmark. The transmitter was developed and constructed by C. Lorenz A.G. of Berlin-Tempelhof. Lorenz became part of the American company International Telephone and Telegraph (I.T.T.) in 1930. In 1948, the name was changed to Standard Elektrik Lorenz (SEL). Goliath was never the target of Allied bombing raids - very likely because the Allies enjoyed eavesdropping on the (encrypted) messages of the Kriegsmarine.

                      [..]

                      The 15-60 kHz operating frequency range of Goliath is equivalent to a wavelength range of 5-20 km (≈3-12 mi). This implies very large antennas. The Goliath "antenna farm" comprised three top-loaded monopole antennas (TLMAs), spaced 800 m (½ mi). They are sometimes referred to as a new variation on the 1920s Alexanderson-antenna (ref. 24D-2). The standard Alexanderson configuration with a straight line of T-antennas (as installed at, e.g., Nauen and Grimeton) had been found to be much too inefficient (only 10%) at the desired operating frequencies.

                      The monopole antennas of Goliath were 204 m tall (≈670 ft), about 2/3 the height of the Eiffel tower. Each of these antennas was a zinc-plated steel tube-mast ("Stahlrohrmast") with a diameter of 1.7 m (≈6 ft). The base of each tube-mast was insulated from ground with two large porcelain insulators, each with a large metal collar. This provided 300 kV isolation even during rain. This approach was patented (ref. 24D-7) by Hein, Lehman & Co., Eisenkonstruktionen, Brücken- und Signalbau of Berlin-Reinickendorf, incorporated in 1888 (sheet metal, steel constructions, bridges, railway signals, hangars for "Zeppelin" dirigibles). Ref. 24D-4. This company had a department ("Abt. Funkbau") that constructed and installed (very) large antenna masts and towers ("Funkmaste", "Funktürme"), primarily for Telefunken. E.g., the Funkturm (radio tower) in Berlin-Charlottenburg (1926), the antennas for the Langwellensender at Lahti/Finland (1928), at Nauen/Germany, Kootwijk/The Netherlands, and Sidney/Australia.

                      [..]

                      The Goliath antenna radiator of 204 m is quite large compared to human scale, but extremely small (≈1%) with respect to the wavelength of Goliath transmissions (5-20 km!). This gives the antenna a large capacitive reactance at the feed point. To counteract this, and increase antenna efficiency, the antennas were equipped with an enormous top-loading "hat" ("Dachkapazität") at the top, and a very extensive ground system. Each radiator had a hexagonal "hat" comprising six sets of six radial wires. The radial wires of the Goliath "hats" were aluminium cables (2.5 cm (1 inch) diameter), strengthened with a steel cable at the core. Combined length of the radials was about 50 km (≈31 mi). These wires look like the ribs of an umbrella. Hence this type of antenna is also called an umbrella-antenna ("Schirmantenne").

                      Each of the the antenna radiators had a variable tuning coil. These vertically installed coils were enormous variometers. They comprised a fixed coil with a diameter of 3.5 m (≈11½ft). A slightly smaller coil (3.2 m diameter) could be inserted hydraulically into this stationary, with a precision of 0.1 mm! The coils were 5 m tall (16 ft) and weighed about 5000 kg (11k lbs). The winding of the fixed coil was made of 7x50 mm2 Litz wire, whereas the movable coil had 42 turns of of 7x50 mm2 Litz wire. The main tuning coil, similarly massive, was housed in the transmitter building. A frequency change was a two-man job, and took about 5 minutes. The building with the tuning coils was fully screened with aluminium sheet metal. The losses induced by Eddy currents amounted to 50 kW (much more than coil lossses!). An automatic ventilation system was used to remove the heat.

                      To support the radials of the top-loading "hat", there were six truss-masts (lattice masts, "Gittermast") for each of the three radiator masts. By sharing support masts, their total number was reduced from 18 to 15. The truss-masts were 170 m (558 ft) tall, and had a triangular cross-section with sides of 3 m (≈10 ft). These masts were grounded and had no RF function. The radials were also insulated from these masts. All tube- and truss-masts were stayed with guy wires at three heights and in three directions. This type of antenna was later also used for VLF long-distance radio navigation systems such as OMEGA and LORAN-C.

                      The antenna system included an extensive of system of buried ground radials. There were four sections of 204 radials each. According to the Lorenz company, the total length of the radials was at least 350 km (≈220 mi; ref. 45). Other sources mention as much as 465 km (according to the construction supervisor, architect R. Breither, the latter may have included the feed lines; ref. 24A-1). The radials were made of zinc-plated steel bands (20 cm x 2 mm and 30 cm x 2 mm), at a depth of 30-40 cm. At this point in the war, copper had become scarce. Solder joints were zinc-plated with a mobile galvanizing unit. To increase the effectiveness of the ground radials, the soil was kept moist. There were ditches and a dozen ponds that served as water reservoirs for irrigation. Ref. 45.

                      The complete antenna system had a very (!) impressive efficiency: 47% on15 kHz, and as much as 90% on 60 kHz.

                      [..]

                      The US army reached the Goliath site on 11 April 1945. They used it as a prisoner-of-war (POW) camp (ref. 24A-8, 24A-10). Towards the end of May 1945, it was handed off to the British. Based on the Yalta Treaty, the area was in the Soviet-controlled zone, and the Soviets took over at the beginning of July 1945. The POW-camp was dissolved at the end of that same month. The Soviets had the Goliath installation repaired and tested. It was fully dismantled by April 1947 and shipped to Russia in over 3000 (!) rail wagons. The equipment sat in storage depots near Leningrad (renamed back to its original name St. Petersburg in1991) for several years (ref. 24A-16). By 1952, it was rebuilt near Druzhnyy, about 18 km south of Gorky (some 150 km east of Moscow, and renamed Nizhny Novgorod (= "Nizhny Newtown") in 1990). The Druzhnyy area presumably has similar soil conditions as at Calbe. It is still operated to this day (2016) by the Russian navy, who use it for communication with submarines (surprise!) and to transmit time signals (station RJH99).


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