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Tesla's ether theories and longitudinal waves explained in "Wardenclyffe"

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  • Ernst
    replied
    For those interested in the "ether density detector" (EDD) described on page 4 in this thread:
    Here are the KiCAD generated production files for the PCB. (see attached zip file) The PCB should be cut in 3 pieces:
    - the right side is for use as a ATMega328 programmer (1)
    - the left side is the EDD (2) with
    - below it a JTAG to ISP converter (3)
    Parts 1 and 3 are just added because I don't have those and they may come in handy at some point.
    The EDD is very basic, just a proof of concept kind of thing. Much more functionality can be added later if it produces interesting results. It is for use with a Nokia 5110 LCD display and a 9V battery.
    I also just completed a first draft of the program. It does compile clean but I have not ran any tests with it. But if you want to see its code, please refer to the attached EDD.zip file.

    Questions and suggestions are all welcome

    Ernst.

    EDIT: I just found some errors in the EDD program, so don't use it as-is. Once I have fully debugged it I will post a working version. This one is a good example of what it takes....
    Attached Files
    Last edited by Ernst; 10-20-2020, 06:18 AM.

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  • kyle_dellaquila
    replied
    I found a nice overview article on mosfet ringing:
    https://www.specterengineering.com/b...h-node-ringing

    https://rudys.typepad.com/files/snubber-e-book-complete.pdf
    Last edited by kyle_dellaquila; 10-05-2020, 05:28 AM.

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  • Ernst
    replied
    OK, here is what we have now. 150nF PP film capacitor across the power supply, 2 10nF ceramic capacitors across the diodes to the power rails.
    HBSnub.png
    With this result:
    TEK00226.PNG
    Still an almost 18V spike when switching on and about -13V when switching off, but other than that it looks decent.
    Maybe if I add a TVS, that should suppress those spikes a bit. (but I do not yet have one of the right value).

    Ernst.

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  • Ernst
    replied
    The problem is not just "suppressing the ringing", it is "suppressing the ringing while maintaining the switching speed".
    The "standard" snubbing techniques cause severe switching delays. Look for example at the circuit above, the "turn-off snubber".
    While the MOSFET is conducting there is a (near) zero potential across the snubber circuit. When the MOSFET switches off, this potential can immediately rise because of Rdb being placed in series with C. However, when the MOSFET switches on, L inhibits the immediate current flow delaying the output.
    Also, I'm using a half-bridge... Usually, when I google "half-bridge", I find circuits that don't require fast switching. But, I'll look again. You never know...

    Ernst.

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  • kyle_dellaquila
    replied
    What kind of load would the grid of the FU33C? Would that load drown the ringing?
    The art of snubber-ing! Has anyone figured a good method for damping MOSFETs?
    3-s2.0-B9781785480003500033-f03-10-9781785480003.jpg?_.jpg

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  • Ernst
    replied
    Continuing on the QCW experiments line... started here with the RF-amplifier idea... then the PWM idea here.
    As it MOSFET's do not seem to survive in my experiments I then looked at vacuum tubes. The 833 triode in particular for which there is a Chinese version: the FU33C.
    If I can somehow switch the grid voltage between +150V and -150V that could make a very powerful Tesla coil driver.
    That led me initially to the circuit shown here.
    The grid is charged (to +150V) through a resistor and discharged (to -150V) through a MOSFET. Unfortunately the charging happens too slow for the frequencies I am interested in (300KHz-500KHz). So the next attempt is a half-bridge as shown in this post.
    And that is where I am today
    HalfBridge.jpg
    The first tests were not particularly gratifying
    TEK00181.PNG
    The yellow trace is the input signal which after a small delay results in a change in the output (blue trace) accompanied by tremendous ringing.
    Through adding some capacitance I have now been able to get it tho look like this:
    TEK00216.PNG
    For the tube and the Tesla coil is is absolutely usable. The only things that worries me a bit are those voltage spikes. The negative spikes completely disappear if I add a 25 Ohm load to the circuit so that is not too bad but those positive spikes go up to 1.5 times the voltage. That is near the max of my MOSFETs.
    It looks OK-ish, but I would like to reduce the ringing a bit more. BTW, this ringing occurs only on the output of the half-bridge. The input to the half-bridge, the signal on the MOSFET gates is pretty clean:
    TEK00193 zonder.PNG
    Any ideas?

    Ernst.

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  • kyle_dellaquila
    replied
    All this ballbearing gaseous medium talk is making me think about those "leaping sundog" or "crown flash" videos:
    https://youtu.be/5mfC3-x3RKs
    One thing to keep in mind with sundog videography is the position of the sun in relation to the camera angle.
    Those illuminant artifacts I believe to be a refraction of the sun through the air.
    At scene 6:50, we see a different camera angle from an airplane. Noting the lighting of the clouds below.. the camera appears to be in between the sun and the effect. A reflective scenario.
    I imagine one would not be able to see these effects very well at all if the sun was perpendicular to the camera.

    The motion of the leaping or crown flash effects I would imagine to be an electrical effect. regions of the air will charge or discharge another. Kind of like in a plasma globe if the internal pressure was further reduced. The tendrils would still move around and snap to position.. but perhaps in a more damped fluid kind of way. Electrical displacements like that would move just enough of the free air for us to see the latent reflective/refractive effects. So... is this a way to visualize the changes in medium density? Like a different kind of "cloud chamber" detector?

    -Kyle Dell'Aquila

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  • kyle_dellaquila
    replied
    When looking at 685,954 METHOD OF UTILIZING EFFECTS TRANSMITTED THROUGH NATURAL MEDIA. :
    Tesla talks about his rotating coherer. I figure that he views the little sensitive partially conducting round grains in the coherer as an analog for what occurs in the gaseous medium.

    The tubular space between the plugs is partially filled with a conducting sensitive powder, as indicated, the proper amount of the same and the size of its grains being determined and adjusted beforehand by experiment. This tube I rotate by clockwork or other means at a uniform and suitable rate of speed, and under these conditions I find that this device behaves toward disturbances of the kind before assumed in a manner similar to that of a stationary cell of selenium toward rays of light. Its electrical resistance is diminished when it is acted upon by the disturbances and is automatically restored upon the cessation of their influence. It is of advantage to employ round grains of powder in the tube, and in any event it is important that they should be of as uniform size and shape as possible and that provision should be made for maintaining an unchanging and very dry atmosphere in the tube.

    [...]

    The electromotive force of the battery B' is so graduated by means of the adjustable resistance r'' that the dielectric layers in the sensitive device a' are strained very nearly to the point of breaking down and give way upon a slight increase of the electrical pressure on the terminals of the device.

    [...]

    The same may be said of the resistance r', which is in series with the battery B and serves to graduate the force of the latter, so that the dielectric layers of the sensitive device a are subjected to a similar strain and maintained in a state of delicate poise.
    It is interesting to consider which element truly causes the trigger within the coherer.
    Imagine ball bearings made of the appropriate material tumbling in a glass barrel with each end of the barrel representing an opposite charge. The bearings constantly cascading over one another – bearings always nesting/snapping into their respective voids/pockets. When the bearings are being tumbled, the resistance from one end to the other is highest. When an external "wave" passes through, the resistance decreases. The strength of this external wave determines the amount of conductivity raising. ONLY until the ballbearings are re-arranged by the motion of the surrounding tube (atmosphere) will the resistance drop to original levels.
    1. Will a coherer trigger with HVDC? (gradual raise, gradual decrease. No suddenness)
    2. or does a coherer only operate in the presence of suddenness. (the voltage peak in HVimpulses and HVDC are the same)
    3. Any difference between a positive ramp or a negative ramp impulse?
    I think what is fascinating here is the typical understanding of the coherer – coherer grains/filings are aligned. As if the filings mechanically interlock akin to filings surrounding a magnet. The increasing surface area of the interlocking filings produce a wire of sorts.
    Would this experiment suffer if the bearing grains are perfectly spherical?
    If these bearings were perfect conductors... they will most likely interlock easily.
    If these bearings were perfect insulators... they would most likely electrostatically repel one another
    If these bearings were some combination... they would probably be ______.

    https://youtu.be/67nIcGFX4Uc?t=125
    https://youtu.be/CLU5QmLKMBs
    Note the Conductive paint treatment.

    ​​​​​​​-Kyle Dell'Aquila

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  • Ernst
    replied
    J1 is the output of the oscillator. This should then go to some microcontroller to measure the period.
    If you choose R*C=about 0.01, then your period will be around 0.01 s (frequency about 100 Hz). With 100 measurements per second you may be able to see 11.7 Hz waves.
    I agree that a large C is preferable, but don't choose R < 1K because that may overload the gate output. So 10uF and 1K would be good values.
    I think crystals would not be affected as much as capacitors as they oscillate on different principles.
    We have seen that these waves can be guided along conductors, so I can imagine a funnel with the capacitor at the centre.

    As for the measurement with an ATmega, you would have to use the chip's builtin timer. I know it can be done in assembler which takes a little bit more than average knowledge and skill, but that should give decent results. Many arduino programmers use program loops for delay routines, that will not give accurate results. You really need to program the timer and use interrupt service routines to read and reset the timer and output the result.
    It is probably possible with an arduino but I have never done that before.
    An ATmega328 can probably relatively easy be used in a cuircuit like this. It has 3 timers and all inputs can trigger interrupts. So I imagine something like:
    1 - initialize chip
    2 - sleep
    3 - goto 2
    Then all the processing is done in the interrupt service routine which in its simplest form looks like:
    1 - read and reset timer
    2 - output timer value
    3 - return from interrupt
    Since my money is running very low, I will need to pause my experiments some day in the not too distant future and do some programming job. While I am in programming mode I may do this one as well.

    Ernst.

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  • kyle_dellaquila
    replied
    So for the above circuit test, J1 is left disconnected right?
    1. I would imagine that a capacitor of larger value would be better for increasing the accuracy of this circuit. Easier to measure the deviation. More dielectric to be effected during "density changes".
    2. Crystals have been considered as a solid reference for timekeeping.. Wouldn't variations in the medium also modify the accuracy of a quartz component?
    3. Perhaps a test that can be conducted with this comparing device – switch on and off a SSTC to emulate density changes around this RC oscillator.
    4. How would I adapt this circuit to work with a raised terminal/arial? I would imagine the effects of capacity drift will be exaggerated with a big monopole at an elevation.
    I have -1 skills with Arduino & ATmegas... I have no idea the claimed accuracy in timekeeping of such devices.
    -Kyle Dell'Aquila

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  • Ernst
    replied
    No, when I think of a capacitor based oscillator circuit, due to my background in digital electronics, I think of something like this:
    Oscillator.png
    U1G is the chip's power supply, so don't look there.
    U1A is an inverter, so when the input is low, the output will be high and vice versa. So by connecting the input to the output you would get a very fast oscillation. To slow that down you add R1 and C2. Now the output is delayed through this RC circuit and fed back to the input resulting in an oscillator whose period is determined by the values of R1 and C2.
    No HV involved here, nor any coil. Just charging and discharging a capacitor over a resistor. Easy and very reliable. That is, to make it very reliable you'd need a very constant power supply. This can be arranged through using a battery and/or a 7805 voltage regulator. The combination will give a near ripple-free 5V.
    So now you have a capacitance dependent oscillator, next thing you need is an instrument to measure the period of this signal.
    One way would be to get a HF crystal oscillator and counter and count the HF pulses that fit in one period, but then you have a number and how would you want that displayed?
    The better way to do that is by using a small micro controller. That will give you plenty of options to display, log or otherwise output your measurements.
    I have some ATmega's laying around that could be programmed to do this, or you could use an arduino.... Plenty of options there.

    Ernst.

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  • Aaron
    replied
    Originally posted by Ernst View Post
    Thanks Chet for sharing! Much appreciated! It is probably just a Malwarebytes thing. If this forum has been hacked, as you said, it may have ended up on their blacklist.
    Now that everything is fine again, Aaron may have to contact them to get off that list. To avoid Aaron getting swamped in emails, I suggest you contact Aaron about this. (maybe you already did)

    Ernst.

    EDIT ================================================== ===
    OK Chet, I have emailed Aaron to notify him.
    ================================================== =======
    Thanks Ernst, Malwarebytes is removing this site from their database on the next update.

    Leave a comment:


  • kyle_dellaquila
    replied
    I too noticed interesting page blockage yesterday... it looks good now that I can post!
    Thanks for sharing on other forums Ramset
    I am thinking, I could design&build a capacitor oscillator with a small micro controller that measures the frequency (period) and displays that in some form.
    It would compare the oscillator period against a crystal oscillator frequency.
    I figure this would be a nice circuit for a more permanent structure. One would have an oscillating coil and arial at a fixed height that would be undisturbed throughout the year. Higher the arial the better! A display/data-logger would track the resonant frequency over time. A low end version would simply read to you the resonant frequency. A luxury version would export a continuous graph showing the % of frequency deviation over time. After a year.. I should imagine that resonant frequency will drift all over the place over a year's time. It would also be nice to get weather data to overlay across the graph. (or magnetometer, solar flare data etc)

    Since HV is required in this experiment, I would imagine some FCC problems may be ran into since one would be furiously pumping a CW 24/7. A potential solution would be to isolate the circuit from ground by having the coil float and have a 2 terminal setup.. but that removes the earth's electric density variations from the picture.
    ehbInd3.jpg
    I would imagine that when lightning storms are nearby – the measured resonant frequency would dip lower dramatically before a strike in the neighborhood. For the electric density should increase as the lightning's stepped leader finds its way to ground/cloud.

    Here is a simple device for detecting electrostatic variations in the ambient medium:
    https://youtu.be/VHtYt_f6fj8
    Note the behavior of polarity before and after the strikes:
    https://youtu.be/ZH_awUu3b-c
    Schematics:
    https://youtu.be/0_JrU0kKBtE

    -Kyle Dell'Aquila

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  • Ernst
    replied
    OK continuing on the QCW experiments line... started here with the RF-amplifier idea...

    My second Idea was to use PWM. I used a dual channel DDS (UDB1300) to provide the coil's resonance frequency as a triangle waveform and a low frequency (10-1000 Hz) saw tooth.
    The signals generated by the UDB1300 are balanced around 0V, so half of the period they are negative, the other half positive. My voltage comparator+MOSFET driver only accepts positive signals so I added a buck converter to raise the (GND) voltage of the UDB1300 just enough so that the entire signal was >0V.
    The two signals were fed to a voltage comparator, producing the PWM signal. This went to a TC4422 MOSFET driver and that to a large MOSFET.
    PWM driver.jpg
    This circuit worked but I did not see the QCW effect.
    I did hear the sound of the PWM-ed signal through the (small) streamer that it produced. And, more interestingly, this small (4 cm) streamer produced copious amounts of ozone.
    So, even though I still didn't get to see the QCW effect, this kind of streamer showed a strong chemical action (that Tesla also refers to) that could be useful in charging batteries or splitting water.

    More later.

    Ernst.

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  • Ernst
    replied
    Thanks Chet for sharing! Much appreciated! It is probably just a Malwarebytes thing. If this forum has been hacked, as you said, it may have ended up on their blacklist.
    Now that everything is fine again, Aaron may have to contact them to get off that list. To avoid Aaron getting swamped in emails, I suggest you contact Aaron about this. (maybe you already did)

    Ernst.

    EDIT ================================================== ===
    OK Chet, I have emailed Aaron to notify him.
    ================================================== =======
    Last edited by Ernst; 09-24-2020, 03:26 AM.

    Leave a comment:

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