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Tesla's ether theories and longitudinal waves explained in "Wardenclyffe"

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  • Ernst
    replied
    I need to find some coax cable. That would probably significantly reduce the unwanted signal measured above. I should have some but I haven't found it yet.
    Maybe I can also make some sort of funnel to increase the effect at the point of the capacitor.
    I forgot to explain that I used a high value (10uF/16V) SMD capacitor because I wanted the physical size of the capacitor to be as small as possible because the wavelength that we are measuring could be small. Just like the filings in a coherer the measuring device should be small compared to this wavelength.
    The thing that may be reducing the effect that I want to see is the insulating material in the capacitor.
    I'll try again as soon as I can spare some time.

    Meanwhile, I am also working on a Tesla coil driver that can be driven with TTL or CMOS logic.
    I have tried this circuit:
    FU33C labelled.jpg which works fine at low frequencies (<100KHz) but at the frequencies I need, it isn't fast enough.
    So I will change the single MOSFET into a half bridge which can switch the grid of the FU33C much faster.
    Currently working on that. (new PCB's and parts should be arriving soon)


    Ernst.

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  • Ernst
    replied
    After many tries, I think that the wire loop contributes the most to what we see on the scope. But it is still possible that there is some effect. It looks as if it is easier to get a > 1V pulse when there is charge on the capacitor. But to be honest the results are not convincing.
    Here some more scope shots:
    Best result with half a volt on the capacitor (note that the vertical scale is adjusted)
    TEK00162.PNG
    Best result with the capacitor shorted:
    TEK00164.PNG
    The result is almost identical.

    So, we need more ideas!


    Ernst.

    Leave a comment:


  • Ernst
    replied
    In the above experiment I was trying to get the amplitude a bit better visible on the scope, but I didn't give much attention to the time axis. So here is a better scope shot:
    TEK00156.PNG
    Now, indeed, it would be interesting to see what would happen if I started out with an uncharged capacitor.
    Excellent point!
    Will try that at once.


    Ernst.

    Leave a comment:


  • kyle_dellaquila
    replied
    This brings into question the mysterious nature of the piezo crystal. I figure that most of the radiation from a piezo would be magnetic oriented in the path of the arc flow. Is there directionality in which the measurements are different? (keeping the distance of the main radiation point at a exact and fixed position) Really want to assure that the waves being emanated are in the most longitudinal orientation... but in the name of Tesla.. it all may be oriented longitudinally.

    What if there was no battery present? Would the measured pulse be significantly weaker?

    What if a different component is used? Like a resistor? I bet less effective by a great margin based on your description above.

    It would seem to me that it doesn't matter how the capacitor is made. (axial spiral vs plate stack) I figure that there is no physical flexing.. it is the density of this medium varying the capacity in between the physical makeup of the capacitor.

    -Kyle Dell'Aquila

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  • Ernst
    replied
    OK, Capacitor-as-Cohere Test #1
    Setup_
    IMG_20200918_104545.jpg
    Result:
    TEK00151.PNG
    We see a very short pulse of about 0.75V which is about 8% of the voltage on the capacitor.
    It's not conclusive evidence, but it is at least supporting evidence....
    It would be interesting to see what we can see during a lightning storm...


    Ernst.

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  • Ernst
    replied
    kyle_dellaquila In the experiment with the RF-amps the AM got completely lost, so no sword-like streamers, no QCW effect. And no point changing the input wave form.

    As for the coherer, My idea is something like this:
    First one has to remember that the wave does not necessarily have an electric component. It is a density wave in a neutral gaseous medium which is responsible for electric effects.
    Let's consider a charged capacitor. When such a density wave passes, for a short moment the pressure of the medium between the plates increases. (as a result of the increased density)
    From the perspective of the capacitor plates this is the same as increasing the distance between the plates, as more matter now is between the plates.
    This results in a short moment of decreased capacitance, which with the same charge being present will result in a higher voltage.
    Withe the grains in the coherer it is much the same, but as the coherer is already pushed to its (voltage) limit, the increase of voltage will bridge the gap between a few grains, thus putting more stress on the remaining un-bridged grains and thus causing an avalanche. Once a current flows, so called micro welding occurs.

    Now that I write this down, I think a capacitor could be used as well... in a similar set-up as in an electret microphone. No need to de-cohere...
    Worth an experiment...

    Ernst.

    Leave a comment:


  • lamare
    replied
    Found some literature on coherers. First, a short video with a demonstration:




    Then, a blog post about possible connections with the E-cat:

    https://stretchingtheboundaries.blog...atalyzers.html

    The device described by Sanford is a radio signal detector used in the receivers of wireless telegraphy at the beginning of the twentieth century. The coherer was invented, around 1890, by Édouard Branly [5]. As described by Sanford, it consisted of a tube or capsule containing two electrodes spaced a small distance apart, with metal filings in the space between them. To have the Branly effect, it is necessary a thin resistive layer between the grains, to have an initial high resistance. The effect is not observed with noble metal grains, cleaned from any surface contaminant. The coherer works because the metal particles cling together, that is cohere after being subjected to the radio frequency electricity. This provokes a reduction in the coherer's electrical resistance, which is persistent after the radio signal.
    This refers a/o to an old book, with an illustration:

    https://archive.org/details/elements.../2up?q=coherer

    Also, some references to scientific papers:

    https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/52331544.pdf

    We report on observations of the electrical transport within a chain of metallic beads (slightlyoxidised) under an applied stress. A transition from an insulating to a conductive state is observed asthe applied current is increased. The voltage-current (U–I) characteristics are nonlinear and hysteretic,and saturate to a low voltage per contact (0.4 V). Our 1D experiment allows us to understand phenomena(such as the “Branly effect”) related to this conduction transition by focusing on the nature of the contactsinstead of the structure of the granular network. We show that this transition comes from an electro-thermalcoupling in the vicinity of the microcontacts between each bead – the current flowing through these contactpoints generates their local heating which leads to an increase of their contact areas, and thus enhancestheir conduction. This current-induced temperature rise (up to 1050oC) results in the microsoldering ofthe contact points (even for voltages as low as 0.4 V).

    https://arxiv.org/ftp/cond-mat/papers/0703/0703495.pdf

    Understanding the Branly effect.


    At the end of the nineteenth century Édouard Branly discovered that the electrical resistance of a granular metallic conductor could drop by several orders of magnitude when excited by the electromagnetic field emitted by an electrical spark[1]. Despite the fact that this effect has been used to detect radio waves in the early times of wireless telegraphy and more recently studied in the field of granular materials, no satisfactory explanation of the physical origin of the effect has been given yet. In this contribution we propose to relate the Branly effect to the induced tunnelling effect first described by François Bardou and Dominique Boosé [2].

    https://www.sarganserland-walensee.c...a_Castaing.pdf

    We show how a simple laboratory experiment can illustrate certain electrical transport properties ofmetallic granular media. At a low critical external voltage, a transition from an insulating to aconductive state is observed. This transition comes from an electro-thermal coupling in the vicinityof the microcontacts between grains where microwelding occurs. Our apparatus allows us to obtainan implicit determination of the microcontact temperature, which is analogous to the use of aresistive thermometer. The experiment also helps us explain an old problem, Branly’s coherer effect,which was used as a radio wave detector for the first wireless radio transmission, and is based onthe sensitivity of the conductivity of metal filings to an electromagnetic wave.

    https://scienceblog.com/31887/cold-f...branly-effect/

    A few years before 1900, the scientist Branly has discovered a phenomenon that has been used sometimes in radio communications. This phenomenon is the change of electric conductivity of a metallic powder by an electric current or an electromagnetic wave. The effect is reversible: a shock on the tube containing the powder restores the initial conductivity.

    During a long time, the explanation of this effect has been controversial. But recently some experiments give a complete explanation of the phenomenon (see E. Falcon, B. Castaing, Electrical conductivity in granular media and Branly’s coherer: a simple experiment, in American Journal of Physics, vol. 73, pp. 302-307, 2005).

    The modern vision of this phenomenon is now:
    – the pellicular layer of oxide on each grain of the metallic powder gives an high electric resistance to the material,
    – the electric current flows through very small contacts between the grains,
    – the high density of current on resistive oxide layer melts the material by Joule effect and creates tiny metallic gates,
    – when the metallic gates are established, the resistance of the powder decreases considerably,
    – the resistive initial state of the powder can be retrieved by a shock on the tube containing the powder: the shock breaks all the tiny metallic gates between the grains.

    The Branly effect shows the possibility to concentrate easily the electric energy in a very small amount of matter.
    https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/st...number=5277448


    Several explanations have been sug-gested to explain the Branly effect [7],first at the microscopic scale: electro-static attraction of the grains, electricalbreakdown of the metallic oxide layers,the tunnel effect, and, finally, localwelding of the grains through electro-thermal coupling and melting of microcontacts between grain surfaces. Macro-scopic phenomena were also invoked,such as electrical percolation. New char-acterization methods, such as 1/f elec-trical noise evaluation or infraredobservation of conduction paths, wereused, suggesting new theories [7]. How-ever, difficulties due to the quantitative-ly weak reproducibility of thephenomenon together with the highnumber of influencing parameters suchas aging, temperature, and grain mate-rials and size explain why, at the end ofthe 20th century, the theory of theBranly effect was still to be established[14].

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  • kyle_dellaquila
    replied
    The trailing edge wave form produces sword like spikes and the illumination of the bulb as shown in your photograph.
    It would be useful to show the same exact camera angle & exposure of the wave inverted. What would the discharge look like? Would the bulb be lit any differently?
    KGXvNe1.jpg
    -Kyle Dell'Aquila

    Leave a comment:


  • kyle_dellaquila
    replied
    A redrawn schematic of Tesla's rotating coherer used to detect lightning standing waves:
    OsjTC6w.jpg
    Iron and nickel filings (fig.A) being aligned by longitudinal waves (fig.B) to where electric current from a battery can flow (fig. C):
    bLbmzww.jpg
    It would be interesting to isolate and discern the difference between fig.B & fig.C.
    I would imagine that a better conducting path is aided with the presence of voltage between the two terminals of the coherer.
    I would also imagine that a conducting path will occur regardless of the presence of applied DC voltage at the terminals of the coherer.
    How would one measure the resistance without the presence of voltage? How would one observe the particles? A microscope? (fig. D):
    calAIXc.jpg
    The presence of earth longitudinal standing waves would result in the filling & un-filling of the antenna capacity which would appear as micro currents across all the filings – resulting in some alignment of some sort. The presence of a battery voltage would further assist the alignment process.

    How would a coherer be any different than a transistor in detecting standing waves in a similar arrangement?
    For instance – Steve McGreevy's receiver? From my observation, the conducting path is through the body to the tip of the antenna (small capacity/reservoir). The antenna being nowhere near as long as the wave being received. For I hear unmodulated amplified waves in the audio spectrum through the ear piece.

    -Kyle Dell'Aquila

    Leave a comment:


  • lamare
    replied
    Originally posted by Ernst View Post
    One of the things I would like to explore here with the help of anyone who is interested, is how to detect these longitudinal waves in the medium.
    I have an idea that Tesla did this with a coherer and that that is actually how a coherer works. Today you can obtain very fine nickel powder, made in some chemical process, and I think with that one could make a new generation of coherers. I did some tests with filings from various metals and found that nickel works the best by far.
    But so far I have used filings. Now I have this very fine nickel powder, so I will make and test a coherer with that.
    Interesting stuff. It seems even today it is not well understood how coherers actually work:

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coherer

    Coherence of particles by radio waves is an obscure phenomenon that is not well understood even today. Recent experiments with particle coherers seem to have confirmed the hypothesis that the particles cohere by a micro-weld phenomenon caused by radio frequency electricity flowing across the small contact area between particles.[9][10] The underlying principle of so-called "imperfect contact" coherers is also not well understood, but may involve a kind of tunneling of charge carriers across an imperfect junction between conductors.

    The big problem with building antenna's (or probes) for Tesla waves is that these waves have no current density and capacitive coupling is required. I've tried building an antenna with a coaxial impedance matching section and a trimmer capacitor to a 1/2 wave longitudinal wavelength whip designed for 1.3 GHz, which didn't work. I measured the emitted wavelength and that turned out to be the normal 23 cm. See attached pdf, which also contains some measurements of the reactance of a number of coils. At the points where you get a sudden drop in reactance from positive (inductive) to negative (capacitive) you have a high impedance and that's where the Tesla resonances are, which we normally don't use. The interesting thing about these areas where a coil has a negative reactance is that it behaves like a capacitor at those frequencies and it appears that is the key to solving the coupling problem.

    For detection, a so-called Avramenko-plug is interesting. Dr. Stiffler used that in his experiments as well, using an LED for C1 and a short wire as antenna/probe:

    Avramenko_plug.png

    Instead of a short wire as Stiffler used, a capacitive probe can be expected to work better.

    Eric Dollard used a beercan as probe in his experiments, but his meter requires grounding, while the AV plug does not:


    Dollard_beer_can_field_meter.jpg


    It seems a typical satfinder circuit can be modified to build a meter with an amplifier to make it more sensitive:

    Satellite_Finder.gif

    Power supply to such a meter comes from a sattelite receiver through L1. At that point, an 18V DC power supply can be connected, so you don't need a receiver for powering the meter. L1 can then go.

    The input circuitry already contains an AV plug and so it seems this circuit can detect both an EM surface wave as well as a FTL Tesla surface wave, although it would probably not be a good idea to use coaxial connectors and/or coax cable feedlines when intending to detect Tesla waves.

    The problem is that this circuit can detect the presence of an E-field, which is present in both types of waves. When really wanting to detect Tesla waves to a large degree only, one would need a resonant probe (antenna) which would thus have to be tuned for a certain frequency band.
    Attached Files
    Last edited by lamare; 09-16-2020, 08:36 AM.

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  • Ernst
    replied
    Previous experiments with the saw-tooth wave form:
    Bought an AM transmitter with a digital tuner, something like this. Today you can buy something simlar with a 20W RF-amplifier included.
    I added two amplifiers to get the power up to 120W and fed that into a small Tesla coil, designed for about 1MHz.
    I have a couple of these signal generators, they come in a large variety. I used one to generate the saw tooth and fed that signal to the audio input of the AM-transmitter.
    Here is the set-up in action:
    RF-Amp test.jpg
    Result:
    Although the coil worked fine, as you can see by the lit fluorescent tube, the AM-modulation disappeared in the amplifiers. I don't remember hearing the low frequency noise that it should have generated and the spark on top of the Tesla coil is only very small. Not at all a QCW effect.

    Now that I have a good scope I could revisit this project but I have, I think, a better idea.
    I think if someone would like to explore this, it would be best to just buy the module with the 20W amplifier included and connect that to the Tesla coil. It is a low power system but it may actually work.

    Ernst.

    PS. I can see the image in this post let me know if others can see it as well.

    Leave a comment:


  • Ernst
    replied
    Maxwell's work is a little bit difficult to read and immediately understand. In his first treatise on the subject, he uses quaternions; a kind of imaginary vector calculus that is no longer taught at schools. Luckily in his later work (1864), he uses a more familiar notation and summarizes the main points of his earlier work into 20 equations. Using modern notation (vector calculus) 18 of these (1-dimensional) equations can be rewritten as 6 (3 dimensional) equations, thus giving us 8 equations.
    This makes it all even easier to grasp, and from that moment things get fuzzy again (because people don't like the implications?)
    So, start with those 8 equations and then work your way back to see where it came from.
    Luckily, we are not the first ones with the desire to do this. In 2011 Frederick David Tombe wrote a paper that does exactly that and if you use his paper as a reading guide through Maxwell's original work things will quickly fall in place. His paper, although I do not agree with all of his conclusions, has been an excellent help to me in my exploration of Maxwell's work.
    (together with many, many video chats with Koen van Vlaenderen who has made Maxwell his life work)
    So, why this intro?
    ε-naught refers to electric permittivity. Agreed.
    μ-naught refers to magnetic permeability. Agreed.
    BUT...
    ε-naught comes from Maxwell's elasticity and μ-naught comes from ether density (momentum/inertia).
    I'll attach Frederick's paper but I think, knowing you as a collector of these things, you already have it. In that case it is for forum readers.
    Perhaps people will also appreciate André Waser's paper that deals with the different notations Maxwell used and the modern notation.


    Ernst.
    Original Equations.pdf Maxwell equations notation.pdf

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  • lamare
    replied
    Originally posted by Ernst View Post
    If you look at Maxwell's work where the ε-naught comes from, you'll find it is from -1/k where k is a spring-constant representing the elasticity of a solid medium. To equal that to the viscosity of a liquid is a bit of a stretch in my opinion.

    ε-naught describes the permittivity:

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Permittivity

    That's the one related to mass density of the aether denoted by ρ, which is strongly related to pressure for gases, so it is akin to the elasticity of a solid medium:

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Densit...ges_of_density

    [T]he density of gases is strongly affected by pressure. The density of an ideal gas is

    where M is the molar mass, P is the pressure, R is the universal gas constant, and T is the absolute temperature. This means that the density of an ideal gas can be doubled by doubling the pressure, or by halving the absolute temperature.


    The relation to viscosity is with the magnetic permeability, which is denoted by μ, as is viscosity:

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Permea...ctromagnetism)


    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viscosity
    Use of the Greek letter mu (μ) for the viscosity is common among mechanical and chemical engineers, as well as physicists.
    Last edited by lamare; 09-15-2020, 10:49 AM.

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  • Ernst
    replied
    One of the things I would like to explore here with the help of anyone who is interested, is how to detect these longitudinal waves in the medium.
    I have an idea that Tesla did this with a coherer and that that is actually how a coherer works. Today you can obtain very fine nickel powder, made in some chemical process, and I think with that one could make a new generation of coherers. I did some tests with filings from various metals and found that nickel works the best by far.
    But so far I have used filings. Now I have this very fine nickel powder, so I will make and test a coherer with that.

    I have also been contacted by soundiceuk as he plans to replicate the rotating brush experiments. That would also be fantastic!
    But from what I read I get the impression that this rotating brush responds to magnetic effects and not so much Tesla's longitudinal waves.
    Nevertheless, it would be very exciting to play with this for a while and see what it does!


    Ernst.

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  • Ernst
    replied
    I cannot say more about the exact nature of electrical charge than
    - it is an effect in the medium (electricity) surrounding a particle caused by an interaction between this medium and the particle
    what the exact nature of this interaction is I have not yet been able to figure out.
    But I do subscribe to the idea that charge comes in two polarities, positive and negative. If that weren't the case, two highly positively charged conductors, one slightly higher than the other should attract, because the lower charged one could be seen as negative with respect to the higher charged one. We know that that doesn't happen.
    Similarly, two equally charged objects should neither attract or repel each other since one has a zero potential with respect to the other.

    The videos that you posted showing how objects can be held in fixed positions, do not explain attraction or a repelling action. Only fixation. Therefore, in my opinion, the Stowe wave theory doesn't work.
    But the universal resonance theory does have a certain attractiveness, I must admit.

    Yes, there is a tricky thing going on with the "gaseous medium particles" and other particles. These are fundamentally different things. But the particle-wave duality is not really a thing. Particles are like whirls in the fluid ether, so they are an effect, much like charge. Let's look at an electron. It is a tiny particle surrounded by a giant electric field. This electric field stretches miles, light years even. In the case of a single electron the strength of the field gets immeasurably small over some macroscopic distance, but put a few trillion-trillion electrons together and it becomes measurable.
    This electric field has a strong interaction with a particle, but not necessarily the entire time with the same particle. (Tesla writes that he does not believe in what we today call "an electron") Likewise, an electric current does not involve tiny particles moving through a wire. It is the surrounding effect that moves along the wire. In a double-slit experiment the effect moves through both slits and "re-attaches" to a particle later on (collapse of the wave function).
    This is a very "hairy" subject that could fill an entire thread with 100's of posts. I don't want to stray too far from the subject and purpose of this thread. But one more thing to ponder about:
    The fact that every material no matter its composition or structure radiates the same black body radiation only dependent on its temperature is a sign that this must originate from a very fundamental level. There is an explanation involving photon-gas. My IR-thermometer experiment above appears to link "the medium" to this photon gas.

    In Tesla's lecture of February 1892 "Experiments with Alternate Currents of High Potential and High Frequency" Tesla explains how he came to the conclusion that electricity must be a gaseous medium. You probably have the text of that lecture but just to bring some variety to your wish list; there is a beautifully illustrated version of that lecture available.

    My birthday is coming up at the end of the month. Usually, I don't have a wish list since I don't know what to ask. This year, I've got three books on my wish list, all by the same author.
    Mmm, it sounds like that maybe an author very familiar to me... perhaps even close... Perhaps even very close... If so, I can get you a discount on all three of them...

    If you look at Maxwell's work where the ε-naught comes from, you'll find it is from -1/k where k is a spring-constant representing the elasticity of a solid medium. To equal that to the viscosity of a liquid is a bit of a stretch in my opinion.


    Ernst.

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