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Tesla's ether theories and longitudinal waves explained in "Wardenclyffe"

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  • Aaron
    replied
    Originally posted by Ernst View Post
    Thanks Chet for sharing! Much appreciated! It is probably just a Malwarebytes thing. If this forum has been hacked, as you said, it may have ended up on their blacklist.
    Now that everything is fine again, Aaron may have to contact them to get off that list. To avoid Aaron getting swamped in emails, I suggest you contact Aaron about this. (maybe you already did)

    Ernst.

    EDIT ================================================== ===
    OK Chet, I have emailed Aaron to notify him.
    ================================================== =======
    Thanks Ernst, Malwarebytes is removing this site from their database on the next update.

    Leave a comment:


  • kyle_dellaquila
    replied
    I too noticed interesting page blockage yesterday... it looks good now that I can post!
    Thanks for sharing on other forums Ramset
    I am thinking, I could design&build a capacitor oscillator with a small micro controller that measures the frequency (period) and displays that in some form.
    It would compare the oscillator period against a crystal oscillator frequency.
    I figure this would be a nice circuit for a more permanent structure. One would have an oscillating coil and arial at a fixed height that would be undisturbed throughout the year. Higher the arial the better! A display/data-logger would track the resonant frequency over time. A low end version would simply read to you the resonant frequency. A luxury version would export a continuous graph showing the % of frequency deviation over time. After a year.. I should imagine that resonant frequency will drift all over the place over a year's time. It would also be nice to get weather data to overlay across the graph. (or magnetometer, solar flare data etc)

    Since HV is required in this experiment, I would imagine some FCC problems may be ran into since one would be furiously pumping a CW 24/7. A potential solution would be to isolate the circuit from ground by having the coil float and have a 2 terminal setup.. but that removes the earth's electric density variations from the picture.
    ehbInd3.jpg
    I would imagine that when lightning storms are nearby – the measured resonant frequency would dip lower dramatically before a strike in the neighborhood. For the electric density should increase as the lightning's stepped leader finds its way to ground/cloud.

    Here is a simple device for detecting electrostatic variations in the ambient medium:
    https://youtu.be/VHtYt_f6fj8
    Note the behavior of polarity before and after the strikes:
    https://youtu.be/ZH_awUu3b-c
    Schematics:
    https://youtu.be/0_JrU0kKBtE

    -Kyle Dell'Aquila

    Leave a comment:


  • Ernst
    replied
    OK continuing on the QCW experiments line... started here with the RF-amplifier idea...

    My second Idea was to use PWM. I used a dual channel DDS (UDB1300) to provide the coil's resonance frequency as a triangle waveform and a low frequency (10-1000 Hz) saw tooth.
    The signals generated by the UDB1300 are balanced around 0V, so half of the period they are negative, the other half positive. My voltage comparator+MOSFET driver only accepts positive signals so I added a buck converter to raise the (GND) voltage of the UDB1300 just enough so that the entire signal was >0V.
    The two signals were fed to a voltage comparator, producing the PWM signal. This went to a TC4422 MOSFET driver and that to a large MOSFET.
    PWM driver.jpg
    This circuit worked but I did not see the QCW effect.
    I did hear the sound of the PWM-ed signal through the (small) streamer that it produced. And, more interestingly, this small (4 cm) streamer produced copious amounts of ozone.
    So, even though I still didn't get to see the QCW effect, this kind of streamer showed a strong chemical action (that Tesla also refers to) that could be useful in charging batteries or splitting water.

    More later.

    Ernst.

    Leave a comment:


  • Ernst
    replied
    Thanks Chet for sharing! Much appreciated! It is probably just a Malwarebytes thing. If this forum has been hacked, as you said, it may have ended up on their blacklist.
    Now that everything is fine again, Aaron may have to contact them to get off that list. To avoid Aaron getting swamped in emails, I suggest you contact Aaron about this. (maybe you already did)

    Ernst.

    EDIT ================================================== ===
    OK Chet, I have emailed Aaron to notify him.
    ================================================== =======
    Last edited by Ernst; 09-24-2020, 03:26 AM.

    Leave a comment:


  • RAMSET
    replied
    Gentlemen as always I share Ernst work at different venues [open source venues]
    recently one member from UK wrote of access issues when trying to open link from
    this forum...perhaps you can ask admin why ?

    sorry to post in topic here however others may not have access ?[warned off ??]

    see here post 59 from member AlienGrey [in UK]
    ..https://overunity.com/13698/ernst-sa...d-a-patent/45/

    I have no such warning when opening link to this forum.

    thx
    Chet

    EDIT FOR COMMENT BELOW

    Ernst
    there were access issues here where forum was down a few times
    recently.
    I believe was some nefarious issue mentioned ?

    updates were done [was written here in some topic I believe ?]
    perhaps you as host of this Topic could pass a note to Aaron ?

    I will also try to get more info from member in UK about this malware Phishing warning he is getting [in link above]
    Last edited by RAMSET; 09-23-2020, 02:42 PM.

    Leave a comment:


  • Ernst
    replied
    Interesting! I do not remember having read that. But I do know that to get large streamers on your Tesla coil you need some sort of feedback from the coil to the driver. People say that this is because those streamers add to the capacitance of the top-load and thus de-tune the system. But it definitely makes sense that there is something else going on here (as well).
    As I already showed with the IR-thermometer experiment, there is compression of electricity around the top-load of a working coil. This higher density should influence the capacitance.
    I am thinking, I could design&build a capacitor oscillator with a small micro controller that measures the frequency (period) and displays that in some form.
    It would compare the oscillator period against a crystal oscillator frequency.
    That may be a fun gadget, if it works...
    It may be able to show the 11.7 Hz signal during a lightning storm, or the difference between day and night and summer and winter as Tesla claims.
    Doesn't sound like a very difficult thing to build.
    I need a couple of extra hours per day...


    Ernst.

    Leave a comment:


  • kyle_dellaquila
    replied
    I may remember wrong, but I felt like I read somewhere from Tesla that the presence of high voltage (oscillations?) increase the capacity of an elevated terminal. (I'm having a hard time tracing where I read that)
    It would seem that Tesla's method for measuring oscillations of a given circuit always rely on the presence of high voltage. (can not measure without "activating" the terminal)
    I would imagine that the presence of sunlight/heat raise the conductivity of the surrounding air around the terminal and/or increasing the mean free distance between molecules – effectively increasing the "size" or "reach" of the terminal.. i.e. increase of capacitance.
    Raising the terminal up into the air will expose the terminal to reduced air-pressure/medium-density... which increases the terminal's "reach" as well.
    0XiMKo3.png
    qpEa8gI.png
    6MsIeMj.jpg
    6pTZcA8.jpg
    -Kyle Dell'Aquila
    Last edited by kyle_dellaquila; 09-23-2020, 04:20 AM.

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  • Ernst
    replied
    Yes, it is an odd article, a bit unlike Tesla's usual thorough work.
    If you dissect it you'll get:
    1 - Capacity increase as height increases -> slower oscillations at a height
    2 - Capacity increases near large structures -- quicker oscillations near large structures
    3 - Capacity increases in the summer -> slower oscillations during summer
    4 - Capacity increases in the night -- quicker oscillations at night
    5 - Capacity increases in Sun light -> slower oscillations in the Sun light
    The bold statements seem to contradict what has been said earlier.

    What evidence do we have?
    - in astronomy we see light bending near massive objects. This means that closer to the object light travels slower. This means that closer to the object the electric permittivity must be greater. This means that, contrary to what Tesla says, one would expect the capacitance to decrease with height.
    Merging this with Tesla's theories we get:
    As electricity clings to matter, near massive objects we should expect to see more electricity, so a denser medium increases the electric permittivity. (this is contrary to what I initially assumed).
    So statement #1 above must be false. This matches Kyle's suspicion. Also, as I have repeated his experiment and found a different cause this could explain Tesla's erroneous conclusion.
    The first half of statement #2 could be true, but I don't expect the effect will be measurable.
    In the summer (northern hemisphere) the Earth is closer to the Sun and will therefore see a denser medium. So statement #3 can be true.
    As stated earlier in this thread, the pressure of the solar radiation pushes the Earth's electricity to the night side, So, the first half of statement 4 can be true.
    There is reason to believe that Tesla's primary cosmic rays (PCR) consist of the same particles that make up electricity, so this could be explaining statement #5 if it wasn't for the fact that these rays are "immensely penetrative" so they wouldn't be stopped by clouds or anything. It wouldn't even matter much if you are on the night side or day side of the planet. So it is not PCR... but then how would light influence the capacitance?

    As this is a very strange article I'd like to verify its source. This is what I found:
    The original article in the Sun is barely readable. But as newspapers often did in those times there are a few copies in other newspapers:
    The Daily Morning Journal and Courier
    Davenport Morning Star
    Notice the differences.
    It is possible that the reporter made some mistakes here. It could also be that Tesla was very excited about his accomplishments in Colorado Springs and then quickly did a few more experiments along this line, not giving it due attention.
    I reckon both these are likely to be true.


    Ernst.

    Leave a comment:


  • kyle_dellaquila
    replied
    From the 1901-01-30 "Tesla's New Discovery" article:
    "
    Continuing the investigation of this astonishing phenomenon I observed that the capacity varied with the elevation of the conducting surface above the ground and I soon ascertained the law of this variation. The capacity increased as the conducting surface was elevated, in open space, from one-half to three-quarters of 1 percent per foot of elevation. In buildings, however, or near large structures, this increase often amounted to 50 percent per foot of elevation, and this alone will show to what extent many of the scientific experiments recorded in technical literature are erroneous. In determining the length of the coils or conductors such as I employ in my system of wireless telegraphy, for instance, the rule which I have given is, in view of the above, important to observe."

    "Far more interesting, however, for men of science is the fact I observed later, that the capacity undergoes an annual variation with a maximum in summer, and a minimum in winter. In Colorado, where I continued with improved methods of investigations begun in New York, and where I found the rate of increase slightly greater, I furthermore observed that there was a diurnal variation with a maximum during the night. Further, I found that sunlight causes a slight increase in capacity. The moon also produces an effect, but I do not attribute it to its light."
    o5jvOL8.jpg
    But in the same article, I got confused with the following paragraph:
    "The importance of these observations will be better appreciated when it is stated that owing to these changes of a quantity supposed to be constant an electrical circuit does not vibrate at a uniform rate, but its rate is modified in accordance with the modifications of the capacity. Thus a circuit vibrates a little slower at an elevation than when at a lower level. An oscillating system, as used in telegraphy without wires, vibrates a little quicker when the ship gets into the harbour than when on open sea. Such a circuit oscillates quicker in the winter than in the summer, though it be at the same temperature, and a trifle quicker at night than in daytime, particularly if the sun is shining."
    I bolded the sentence that threw me off. Wouldn't the tall buildings increase the capacity causing the ship to vibrate a little slower?

    Looking at CSN – Oct. 23, 1899, we can see his method for determining the increase or decrease of the elevated capacity. I have redrawn it for slightly improved clarity:
    HftZIH3.jpg
    As far as this one entry goes, this looks like the method in which Tesla deduced the increase or decrease in resonant frequency – by observing the adjusted spark gap of the secondary coil. As to how Tesla eventually back-calculated the capacity of these elevated terminals (in Farads), I am curious to know how he was able to be so confident in the precision of his measured picoFarads.

    Something curious to note here... In a closed circuit, the closer the wires or components are to one another, the greater the stray capacitance will be. In a raised monopole arial, the opposite seems to hold true. One would think that the higher the insulated capacity is from the ground it is opposing – the smaller the capacitance would be between the ground and the plate/object... but Tesla measures the opposite. The higher the insulated object, the lower the resonant frequency.

    rRVDc1R.jpg
    -Kyle Dell'Aquila

    Attached Files
    Last edited by kyle_dellaquila; 09-20-2020, 10:24 PM.

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  • Ernst
    replied
    Here is the diagram of the half-bridge driver that I am currently working on:
    HalfBridge SCH.jpg Here is what happens (if all goes as planned):
    A 300-400 KHz input signal is supplied at the "input"-connector.
    U7a and U7b, together with the 820+var resistor and 120pF capacitor form a delay circuit of about 100 ns. This is done to create some "dead-time" for the MOSFETs.
    When the input signal and the delayed signal are both low, the output of U6a will be high which will drive the low-side MOSFET into a conducting state and thus the output connector low (GND).
    When the input signal switches high, the input and the delayed input will be unequal for about 100 ns and both MOSFETs will be switched off.
    When the input signal and the delayed signal are both high, the output of U7d will be low and since we are using an inverting driver for the high-side MOSFET, this will drive that MOSFET into a conducting state and thus the output connector high (300V).
    When the input signal switches low, the input and the delayed input will be unequal for about 100 ns and both MOSFETs will be switched off.
    The U2 and U3 together with the many 10uF caps and the SiC diode take care of the level switching which is needed because we use 2 N-channel MOSFETs.
    All components are selected on speed, as I want a minimum delay.
    Initially I had a diagram with GaN MOSFETs which are even faster, but that came with some SMD components that were so small that I cannot solder them.
    This diagram is fast and can be hand soldered.
    The GND of this circuit will be held at -150V for the FU33C tube, so the output will switch the grid of that tube between -150V and +150V.
    If this circuit works, I can design any digital circuit to drive this tube and through that a Tesla coil up to 5KW.


    Ernst.

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  • Ernst
    replied
    kyle_dellaquila
    Yes, using a resonant circuit also is an option. But I fear that a spectrum analyzer is way too slow to detect the effects. Also introducing a coil (inductance may also be affected) may also interfere. Suppose if I have a circuit that counts the nano seconds of a period and reports if it is off by more than xx%, that could work. But if the increase and decrease fall within the same period, the overall period duration may average out as if nothing happened. So the resonance frequency of the circuit must be much higher than the frequency of the wave that you're trying to detect.
    If we focus on 11.7 Hz waves, that should be no problem though... But for a quick test with a piezo sparker, a tazer module or ignition coil it complicates matters.

    BTW in 30 Jan 1901 Tesla talks about his experiments in this area. But I think the introduction of a coil has led him to erroneous conclusions. It is not often that I would disagree with Tesla but I have repeated this experiment and I have ascertained that by raising the top-load more of the coil gets used as inductor and for that reason the inductance of the circuit increases and the frequency drops.

    ,
    Ernst.

    Leave a comment:


  • Ernst
    replied
    Hi sparky53,
    I can understand what you are thinking and it makes sense. The word condenser comes from a time when people thought that "electricity", whatever that was "condensed" into a more dense form inside of a capacitor. The word coherer however, refers to the filings in the tube that "cohere" or lump together when a certain wave passes through it.
    When we think of a fluid, we think of a very dense gas in which molecules start having inter-molecular attraction/bounds. The strange thing is that Tesla does not think in that way, especially when it comes to the ether. Tesla and other early scientists think of the ether as a homogeneous substance, that is not made up of smaller particles.
    As such it is also very difficult to say whether it is in (linear un-accelerated) motion or not and because of that it is not a problem in Special Relativity (as is generally believed).
    Tesla says (lecture May 1891):
    But of all the views on nature, the one which assumes one matter and one force, and a perfect uniformity throughout, is the most scientific and most likely to be true.
    This one matter is the fluid ether and on it acts this one force.
    Then in April 1908:
    According to an adopted theory, every ponderable atom is differentiated from a tenuous fluid, filling all space merely by spinning motion, as a whirl of water in a calm lake. By being set in movement this fluid, the ether, becomes gross matter. Its movement arrested, the primary substance reverts to its normal state.
    This matches an old theory on the 4 elements; here we see two elements, a fluid (element water) and a force (element fire) and through their interaction two other elements are created; a solid (element earth) and a gas (element air).
    Adding this all up we get something very similar to Maxwell's ether model, in which we find ether vortex cells making up a solid and particles moving between those cells. Although Maxwell doesn't say it with so many words, those particles would make up a gaseous medium.
    Maxwell then shows how these vortex cells can explain magnetism and those particles electrical effects.
    That then brings us back to Tesla who says that immersed in the fluid ether there HAS to be a gaseous medium that is responsible for electrical effects. (lecture Feb, 1892)
    But he must remain in doubt as to whether the effects observed are due wholly to the molecules, or atoms, of the gas which chemical analysis discloses to us, or whether there enters into play another medium of a gaseous nature, comprising atoms, or molecules, immersed in a fluid pervading the space. Such a medium, surely must exist,...
    (All of this you can find in much more detail in The Science of Tesla's Magic)
    Gentile enough?


    Ernst.

    Leave a comment:


  • sparky53
    replied
    Hello Ernst and Kyle,

    please forgive me as I am writing this now, I am too late for that in the discussion, but maybe it is a thing worth to think about :

    As I am a process engineer , the presumed "duality in character" of the ether of having both the qualities of a gas and at the same time of a liquid reminds me strongly
    of a "supercritical fluid".

    A "supercritical fluid" posesses both the qualities of a gas (like elasticity or better compressibility and also high permeability, low viscosity) and the qualities of a liquid (like high density, high capacity to work as a solvent) at the same time.

    The needed "heat of evaporation" for a "supercritical fluid" to make the transition (="phase change") from "liquid state" to the "gaseous state" is ZERO.

    Words like "CONDENSER" or "coherer" sound to me as if the people back in the day were seeing the ether like a "supercritical fluid", like something that can be condensed to have more of a liquid quality (store "energy" in a capacitor; ether in liquified form)
    and like something that could be "evaporated" with no effort to create something like a magnetic field (a vapour cloud of ether particles..)

    ERNST, please don't be too harsh on me ...


    sparky53

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  • kyle_dellaquila
    replied
    And for everyone's understanding of this compressible behavior, see this diagram:
    1htUrsA.png
    -Kyle Dell'Aquila

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  • kyle_dellaquila
    replied
    I fear that the scope probe represents it's own capacitance that may be interfering with the experiment.
    The hypothesis is that the "acoustic" longitudinal waves passing by will increase/decrease the capacitance of a capacitor.
    I prose an alternative for measuring variations in capacity by measuring the resonant frequency of an isolated tank circuit (fig.e):
    bNBp09W.jpg
    The moment of compression of the neighborhood should momentarily increase the density of the capacitor &/or inductor – one would see a momentary f-res drop and vis versa if the neighborhood density decreases.
    This way we will be able to assure the tank capacitance/inductance will swamp the inductive/capacitive properties of any external probe.
    It will be difficult to isolate the tank circuit components entirely from the passing wave. The speed in which the spectrum analyzer could sample may not be fast enough...
    Unless the components are far removed from one another (fig. f), one may detect the increase in medium-gas density of both the capacitor and inductor.
    wmsKfJC.jpg
    So assuming that the tank capacitor network as a whole will experience an increase of density: the f-res should drop. A spectrum analyzer should show the peak jag towards the left.

    Thoughts?

    -Kyle Dell'Aquila
    Last edited by kyle_dellaquila; 09-19-2020, 05:34 PM.

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