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Re-Inventing The Wheel-Part1-Clemente_Figuera

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  • Bi-Directional MOSFET configuration can be found in SSR (Solid State Relay) google it up to see a schematic. There is a way to make one on your own.
    Basically it is a fast AC switch. It is made out of two mosfets connected in series: Source-to-Source. This way they can switch AC. A mosfet from a positive side conducts, the mirrored one doesn't but it's intrinsic diode conducts backwards so the signal goes through both of them in both ways when you apply a potential to their gates. I use extra, fast quality diodes in parallel with each transistor as those inside the mosfet's body are inferior in performance.
    But it requires separate 'floating powersupply' for every switch so it might be to complex to build all of those on your own.

    Recently I came up with a different approach to achieve alternating magnetic flux in the center output coil, using resonances on primaries without capacitor switching.

    The idea is to add one more primary and drive 3 LC tanks 120 degrees out of phase !

    Anybody thinking FLUX CAPACITOR?
    “ THE PERSON WHO SAYS IT CANNOT BE DONE SHOULD NOT INTERRUPT THE PERSON DOING IT ! ”

    Comment


    • Figuera patent No. 30378 (1902) - Electrical Generator

      Hi all,

      This is the patent filed by Clemente Figuera in 1902 about his electrical generator (Spanish patent number 30378). In the pdf file I have included the spanish and english versions. It has a drawing so you need to see the attached pdf file.

      ---------------------

      Spanish Patent No. 30378 (1902) - Electrical Generator Figuera-Blasberg

      Since 1833, when, in France, Pixii built the first magneto-electric machine, to the present time, all machines magneto and dynamo-electric that inventors’ knowledge has materialized in the industry are based on the law of induction that says "all magnet which approaches or moves away from a close circuit, produces in it induced currents" In Gramme ring and in the current dynamos, current is produced by induction exerted on the wire of the induced circuits as its coils cut the lines of force created by the excitatory electromagnets, this is, as the induced circuit moves, quickly, inside the magnetic atmosphere which exists between the pole faces of the excitatory electromagnets and the soft iron core of the induced. In order to produce this movement, mechanical force need to be employed in large quantity, because it is necessary to overcome the magnetic attraction between the core and the excitatory electromagnets, attraction which opposes the motion, so the current dynamos are true machines for transforming mechanical work into electricity.

      The undersigned, believe that is exactly the same as the coils in the induced cut the lines of force, or that these lines of force cross the induced wire, because not changing xxxx?, by rotation, the arrangement of the magnetic fields, there is no necessity to move the core, for induction to occur. Leaving still both the induced circuit and the core, it is essential that lines of forces to be born and die, or being removed, which is achieved by making the excitatory current intermittent or alternating in sign.

      The current dynamos, come from groups of Clarke machines, and our generator recalls, in its fundamental principle, the Ruhmkorff induction coil. In that machine the induction machine is created by movement of the induced circuit: in the generator, induction occurs because of the intermittences of the current which magnetize the electromagnets, and in order to achieve these intermittences or changes in sign, only is required a very small quantity or almost negligible force, we, with our generator, produce the same effects of current dynamos without using any driving force at all.

      In the arrangement of the excitatory magnets and the induced, our generator has some analogy with dynamos, but completely differs from them in that, not requiring the use of motive power, is not a transforming apparatus. As much as we take, as a starting point, the fundamental principle that supports the construction of the Ruhmkorff induction coil, our generator is not a cluster of these coils which differs completely. It has the advantage that the soft iron core can be constructed with complete indifference of the induced circuit, allowing the core to be a real group of electromagnets, like the exciters, and covered with a proper wire in order that these electromagnets may develop the biggest attractive force possible, without worrying at all about the conditions that the induced wire must have for the voltage and amperage that is desired. In the winding of this induced wire, within the magnetic fields, are followed the requirements and practices known today in the construction of dynamos, and we refrain from going into further detail, believing it unnecessary.

      The inventors, who subscribe, constitute their generator, as follows: Several electromagnets are arranged opposing each other, and their opposite pole faces separated by a small distance. The cores of all these electromagnets are formed in such a way that they will magnetize and demagnetize quickly and not retain any residual magnetism. In the empty space remaining between the pole faces of the electromagnets of these two series, the induced wire passes in one piece, or several, or many. A excitatory current, intermittent, or alternating, actuates all the electromagnets, which are attached or in series, or in parallel, or as required, and in the induced circuit will arise currents comprising, together, the total generator current. That allows suppressing the mechanical force, since there is nothing which needs to be moved. The driving current, or is an independent current, which, if direct, must be interrupted or changed in sign alternately by any known method, or is a part of the total current of the generator, as it is done today in the current dynamos.

      Founded on these considerations, Mr. Clemente Figuera and Mr. Pedro Blasberg, in the name and on behalf of the society "Figuera-Blasberg" respectfully requests to be granted final patent of invention for this generator whose form and arrangement are shown in the attached drawings, warning that, in them, and for clarity are sketched only eight electromagnets, or two sets of four excitatory electromagnets in each, and the induced circuit is marked by a thick line of reddish ink, being this way the general arrangement of the appliance, but meaning that you can put more or less electromagnets and in another form or grouping.

      The invention for which a patent is applied consists in following note.

      Note

      Invention of an electric generator without using mechanical force, since nothing moves, which produces the same effects of current dynamo-electric machines thanks to several fixed electromagnets, excited by a discontinuous or alternating current which creates an induction in the motionless induced circuit, placed within the magnetic fields of the excitatory electromagnets.

      Barcelona, the 5th of September of 1902

      Signed: Clemente Figuera and Pedro Blasberg

      External link to download the patent

      Attached Files
      Last edited by hanon1492; 10-09-2013, 09:03 PM. Reason: Included an external link for downloading. The rest is not changed.

      Comment


      • Hanon your doing lots of spade work I'm sure we all thank you ...

        I have had a PM from a member who does not wish to post on forum, I have removed the identity and also the reason for wishing to remain anonymous, however the bulk of this message I post for your consideration I'm not sure I would have posted it if the guy said I was a nit wit still either way don’t shoot the messenger.

        It is amazing to me that so many people look at something, and without understanding what they are looking at, do everything except what the inventor has shown. However, it is true that serendipity is the best inventor so; who knows what is best to do.

        I think you are spot on with this device in relation to phase angle. I believe he used seven primary segments for a reason and the effect will not be seen playing with one segment only.

        As you know; the L/R + frequency creates a phase shift. If at a given, L, R, and F, the phase shift divided by seven equals 360 degrees and all of these phases are impressed onto the secondary; a condition exists where there is a voltage peak that coincides with a peak in current at the same moment. One segment providing the voltage peak and the adjacent segment providing the current peak. So within an inductor you have synthetically created a Power Factor of 1.0 and thus a standing wave.

        The commutator, being used as a resistor ladder network for creating AC also changes the phase angle so you now you have a swept phase angle wave being impressed onto the secondary. Perhaps that is inconsequential but I believe the proper inductance, resistance of inductors, resistance of ladder network, and commutator rotation speed all feed together to make this thing work, that is, if it ever did work as reported.
        Whatever you can do,or dream you can,begin it.Boldness has genius,power and magic in it.Begin it now.

        Comment


        • Originally posted by Duncan View Post
          I notice in the comments section of the web page linked to from the web page you have indicated this ...

          "I am a direct descendant of Clement Figuera! Grandson, actually. And I remember that my grandparents had a shed closed always called "the grandfather of the engine room." They never paid the electric bill ... OS would have more but lose all my grants for renewable energy production ... Well come on, the procedure is very simple. It basically involves connecting two alt"

          posted by Nicholas Alet .. wonder if he'd come on thread if asked
          Hi all

          @Duncan
          I understand this comment as sarcastic, as a joke by Nicholas Alet. Not true,
          It is incomplete, "... dos alt" I think refers to "two speakers"

          @hanon1492
          Good documentary collection


          Regards
          http://Cacharreo.com.es/foro

          Comment


          • The stepped resistors

            Originally posted by Duncan View Post
            Hanon your doing lots of spade work I'm sure we all thank you ...

            I have had a PM from a member who does not wish to post on forum, I have removed the identity and also the reason for wishing to remain anonymous, however the bulk of this message I post for your consideration I'm not sure I would have posted it if the guy said I was a nit wit still either way don’t shoot the messenger.

            It is amazing to me that so many people look at something, and without understanding what they are looking at, do everything except what the inventor has shown. However, it is true that serendipity is the best inventor so; who knows what is best to do.

            I think you are spot on with this device in relation to phase angle. I believe he used seven primary segments for a reason and the effect will not be seen playing with one segment only.

            As you know; the L/R + frequency creates a phase shift. If at a given, L, R, and F, the phase shift divided by seven equals 360 degrees and all of these phases are impressed onto the secondary; a condition exists where there is a voltage peak that coincides with a peak in current at the same moment. One segment providing the voltage peak and the adjacent segment providing the current peak. So within an inductor you have synthetically created a Power Factor of 1.0 and thus a standing wave.

            The commutator, being used as a resistor ladder network for creating AC also changes the phase angle so you now you have a swept phase angle wave being impressed onto the secondary. Perhaps that is inconsequential but I believe the proper inductance, resistance of inductors, resistance of ladder network, and commutator rotation speed all feed together to make this thing work, that is, if it ever did work as reported.
            Hi Duncan,

            Thank you for passing on those interesting comments. I find it somewhat odd that the resistor section of the original diagram has survived with much greater clarity than the remainder of the diagram on both side of it. However, nobody seems to remark on the fact that the final resistor on the right is only half the size of the other resistors, which would alter the waveform.

            I am also bothered by the statement in the patent that the rotor contact "O" connects with two stator segments. If that means two adjacent stator segments at all times, then it alters the circuit operation considerably from the concept of just Make-Before-Break at the boundaries of the stator segments.

            Any comments anyone?

            Patrick

            Comment


            • Hi,
              I see some differences in both patents:

              -While in 1908 patent a direct current (modulated) is used , in the 1902 an intermitent or alternating current is used

              - While in 1908 patent the current to each opposite excitatory coil is complementary for a constant total current, in the 1902 patent it seems (if I´ve understood well) that both coils are fed with the same current at the same time, so both get magnetized or demagnetized at the same time.

              - In 1902 patent is stated that the separation between both excitatory coils must be minimun, and the induced wire is suppossed to cross perpendicularly to the axis of both coils (I suppose, because I don´t know what happened to the mentioned reddish line to mark the induced path but it doesn´t appear in the drawing. Maybe the reddish ink has disappear during all those years??)

              - The shape(wiring) of the induced coil is different. In 1908 a nomal wiring seems to be used, while in 1902 the wire seems to revolve around all the internal coils, so the same wire pass through 4 different coils and goes back again to the first one in the next turn.

              -In 1902 is mentioned that the cores must be mangnetized and demagnetized quickly and they must not retain any remanent magnetism, which is not metioned at all in 1908 patent.

              Do you have any comments about all these differences?. I have noted an strange mention to the Ruhmkorff coil in the text of the patent: something like: it´s similar in construction but different... A kind of clue?

              Comment


              • Just started testing with rotary commutator. The main thing I wanted was the scope shot of the voltage on the primary. That same waveform cleaned up is available from a center tapped transformer and two diodes except the frequency is not variable as easily as with the commutator.
                Garry
                Attached Files

                Comment


                • Hi guys,

                  I just finished winding the secondary coil, 219 turns of #14 AWG. I wanted to share with you my observations about the calculations for this device.

                  First, because the air gap has a much higher reluctance than any ferromagnetic material, it does not matter what type of iron core you use. A low cost sweet iron core is as good as a Silicone sheet steel core. The situation is analogous to having a series connection of two resistors, 1KΩ and 1MΩ. The current would basically stay the same if a 1K, 2K or 5K resistors are used.

                  Second, when doing the calculations for the primary coils, I found that it is almost impossible to obtain 120Vac with a single core set. My calculations showed that 5.6T approximately was required. I derated the secondary voltage to 20vac and the result was 0.8T approximately. So, Mr. Figuera got it right! To have a system with rated voltage, it may be required to add multiple secondary coils.

                  Please, note that I used 1mm for the calculations. If possible, it is recommended to use even smaller gaps.

                  Thanks,
                  Wonju.



                  See a progress of my work here:
                  Re-Inventing The Wheel-Part1-Clemente_Figuera-THE INFINITE ENERGY MACHINE
                  Last edited by wonju; 11-23-2012, 12:25 PM.

                  Comment


                  • Originally posted by torpex View Post
                    Hi all

                    @Duncan
                    I understand this comment as sarcastic, as a joke by Nicholas Alet. Not true,
                    It is incomplete, "... dos alt" I think refers to "two speakers"

                    @hanon1492
                    Good documentary collection


                    Do you really torpex?
                    I'm not prepared to shut the door that quickly. If I had the nous to do it I would like to be able to dig out the family tree of Clemente and find out if he was indeed married and had children.
                    If Nicolas Alet actually exists in the family tree that would be better still. after all with Clemente we are considering someone who's almost in living memory. Following a family tree in the Spanish dominions seems a little complex as the names seem to follow the maternal line and I'm struggling to grasp the MO still the population of Tenerife even now is less than 900,000 and I think that’s the biggest of the canary islands.
                    To be honest with you if (and its a big if) the theory we are putting together along with the sketch and assuming Nicholas exsists (another big if) what flashed into my mind as I read that passage was … It basically involves connecting two alternators together .. which certainly puts grist to the mill.
                    Last edited by Duncan; 11-23-2012, 04:27 AM.
                    Whatever you can do,or dream you can,begin it.Boldness has genius,power and magic in it.Begin it now.

                    Comment


                    • Originally posted by kEhYo77 View Post
                      Alrightythen...

                      I have found a simple way to do the coil driving with Arduino!

                      All you need is:
                      1. ONE 10k/100k Ohm potentiometer. Connect the middle leg to Arduino's "A0" analog input. The other two legs of the pot goes to +5V and GND on Arduino.
                      2. TWO Logic Level MOSFET transistors to do the switching (Logic level - like in IRL series - means that a mosfet is in a conduction saturation state at just +5V put to its gate). Connect the Gate of one mosfet to "Pin 3" and the others' gate to "Pin 11". Sources go to the "GND" of the Arduino board.
                      3. Connect +(positive) from a battery to both "North" & "South" coils and their ends to both drains in the two mosfets and -(negative) to the Arduino's "GND" close to the Source legs of mosfets.
                      4. Connect fast shottky diodes across each coil to do the freewheeling of current.

                      Program description:
                      Arduino is generating a digital signal at 32 kHz frequency using 2 PWM outputs. The value for each "sample" is taken from the sine table. There are 256 values of resolution for the "shape" of the sine wave and 256 values of amplitude. You can change phase shift by changing "offset" variable. Potentiometer allows to set the analog frequency from 0 to 1023 Hz at 1 Hz resolution...


                      NOW copy the code below to Arduino IDE window and save it to the microconroller and HERE YOU GO!

                      Code:
                      /* CLEMENTE FIGUERAS GENERADOR DRIVER
                       * modification by kEhYo77
                       *
                       * Thanks must be given to Martin Nawrath for the developement of the original code to generate a sine wave using PWM and a LPF.
                       * http://interface.khm.de/index.php/lab/experiments/arduino-dds-sinewave-generator/
                      */
                      
                      #include "avr/pgmspace.h" //Store data in flash (program) memory instead of SRAM
                      
                      // Look Up table of a single sine period divied up into 256 values. Refer to PWM to sine.xls on how the values was calculated
                      PROGMEM  prog_uchar sine256[]  = {
                        127,130,133,136,139,143,146,149,152,155,158,161,164,167,170,173,176,178,181,184,187,190,192,195,198,200,203,205,208,210,212,215,217,219,221,223,225,227,229,231,233,234,236,238,239,240,
                        242,243,244,245,247,248,249,249,250,251,252,252,253,253,253,254,254,254,254,254,254,254,253,253,253,252,252,251,250,249,249,248,247,245,244,243,242,240,239,238,236,234,233,231,229,227,225,223,
                        221,219,217,215,212,210,208,205,203,200,198,195,192,190,187,184,181,178,176,173,170,167,164,161,158,155,152,149,146,143,139,136,133,130,127,124,121,118,115,111,108,105,102,99,96,93,90,87,84,81,78,
                        76,73,70,67,64,62,59,56,54,51,49,46,44,42,39,37,35,33,31,29,27,25,23,21,20,18,16,15,14,12,11,10,9,7,6,5,5,4,3,2,2,1,1,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1,1,1,2,2,3,4,5,5,6,7,9,10,11,12,14,15,16,18,20,21,23,25,27,29,31,
                        33,35,37,39,42,44,46,49,51,54,56,59,62,64,67,70,73,76,78,81,84,87,90,93,96,99,102,105,108,111,115,118,121,124
                      
                      };
                      #define cbi(sfr, bit) (_SFR_BYTE(sfr) &= ~_BV(bit)) //define a bit to have the properties of a clear bit operator
                      #define sbi(sfr, bit) (_SFR_BYTE(sfr) |= _BV(bit))//define a bit to have the properties of a set bit operator
                      
                      int PWM1 = 11; //PWM1 output, phase 1
                      int PWM2 = 3; //PWM2 ouput, phase 2
                      int offset = 127; //offset is 180 degrees out of phase with the other phase
                      
                      double dfreq;
                      const double refclk=31376.6;      // measured output frequency
                      int apin0 = 10;
                      
                      // variables used inside interrupt service declared as voilatile
                      volatile byte current_count;              // Keep track of where the current count is in sine 256 array
                      volatile unsigned long phase_accumulator;   // pahse accumulator
                      volatile unsigned long tword_m;  // dds tuning word m, refer to DDS_calculator (from Martin Nawrath) for explination.
                      
                      void setup()
                      {
                        pinMode(PWM1, OUTPUT);      //sets the digital pin as output
                        pinMode(PWM2, OUTPUT);      //sets the digital pin as output
                        Setup_timer2();
                        
                        //Disable Timer 1 interrupt to avoid any timing delays
                        cbi (TIMSK0,TOIE0);              //disable Timer0 !!! delay() is now not available
                        sbi (TIMSK2,TOIE2);              //enable Timer2 Interrupt
                      
                        dfreq=10.0;                    //initial output frequency = 1000.o Hz
                        tword_m=pow(2,32)*dfreq/refclk;  //calulate DDS new tuning word 
                        
                        // running analog pot input with high speed clock (set prescale to 16)
                        bitClear(ADCSRA,ADPS0);
                        bitClear(ADCSRA,ADPS1);
                        bitSet(ADCSRA,ADPS2);
                      
                      }
                      void loop()
                      {
                              apin0=analogRead(0);             //Read voltage on analog 1 to see desired output frequency, 0V = 0Hz, 5V = 1.023kHz
                              if(dfreq != apin0){
                                tword_m=pow(2,32)*dfreq/refclk;  //Calulate DDS new tuning word
                                dfreq=apin0;
                              }
                      }
                      
                      //Timer 2 setup
                      //Set prscaler to 1, PWM mode to phase correct PWM,  16000000/510 = 31372.55 Hz clock
                      void Setup_timer2() 
                      {
                        // Timer2 Clock Prescaler to : 1
                        sbi (TCCR2B, CS20);
                        cbi (TCCR2B, CS21);
                        cbi (TCCR2B, CS22);
                      
                        // Timer2 PWM Mode set to Phase Correct PWM
                        cbi (TCCR2A, COM2A0);  // clear Compare Match
                        sbi (TCCR2A, COM2A1);
                        cbi (TCCR2A, COM2B0); 
                        sbi (TCCR2A, COM2B1);
                        
                        // Mode 1  / Phase Correct PWM
                        sbi (TCCR2B, WGM20);  
                        cbi (TCCR2B, WGM21);
                        cbi (TCCR2B, WGM22);
                      }
                      
                      
                      //Timer2 Interrupt Service at 31372,550 KHz = 32uSec
                      //This is the timebase REFCLOCK for the DDS generator
                      //FOUT = (M (REFCLK)) / (2 exp 32)
                      //Runtime : 8 microseconds
                      ISR(TIMER2_OVF_vect)
                      {
                        phase_accumulator=phase_accumulator+tword_m; //Adds tuning M word to previoud phase accumulator. refer to DDS_calculator (from Martin Nawrath) for explination.
                        current_count=phase_accumulator >> 24;     // use upper 8 bits of phase_accumulator as frequency information                      
                        
                        OCR2A = pgm_read_byte_near(sine256 + current_count); // read value fron ROM sine table and send to PWM
                        OCR2B = pgm_read_byte_near(sine256 + (uint8_t)(current_count + offset)); // read value fron ROM sine table and send to PWM, 180 Degree out of phase of PWM1
                      }

                      Hi all! . Nice thread

                      Boguslaw

                      Am not too familiar with arduino but answer me this, what is phase difference between two sine pwm generated signal that gates of those mosfets get?
                      Phase difference should be 90 degree NOT 180 degree !!!

                      when one msfet get maximum duty cycle (peak of sinus) other gets zero. when one gets half of sine voltage other gets half also ...
                      can you scope or draw signal that gates of those mosfets get ?
                      Last edited by grizli; 11-23-2012, 09:33 AM.

                      Comment


                      • Originally posted by grizli View Post
                        Hi all! . Nice thread

                        Am not too familiar with arduino but answer me this, what is phase difference between two sine pwm generated signal that gates of those mosfets get?
                        Phase difference should be 90 degree NOT 180 degree !!!
                        Well, You're wrong on this and in my video you can see, that this 180 degree shift is working as it should.

                        I have to point out here, that the sine shape is DC offset (all positive, so no negative half cycle) it is my approximation to the original 'shape' of rising/falling current relationship between two primary coils, please see the current charts I posted earlier in this thread.

                        Clemente Figuera Generator part 1
                        “ THE PERSON WHO SAYS IT CANNOT BE DONE SHOULD NOT INTERRUPT THE PERSON DOING IT ! ”

                        Comment


                        • Originally posted by kEhYo77 View Post
                          Well, You're wrong on this and in my video you can see, that this 180 degree shift is working as it should.

                          I have to point out here, that the sine shape is DC offset (all positive, so no negative half cycle) it is my approximation to the original 'shape' of rising/falling current relationship between two primary coils, please see the current charts I posted earlier in this thread.

                          Clemente Figuera Generator part 1
                          let me explain to rule out mistakes :

                          In reality we have resistor slider (rotary) ...

                          1) when slider is at left side one coil gets maximum current(resistance iz sero) other gets minimum current (resistance iz maximum)
                          2) when slider is 1/4 from left side : one coil gets 3/4 of current (coil sees 1/4 of resistance) other coil gets 1/4 of current and (coil sees 3/4 of resistance)
                          3) central tap : both coils get same current
                          4).. analogue to 2 and opposite
                          5) analogue to 1) and opposite..

                          SO when you have those mosfets connected the way you have, you use pwm generated sine , you have to have those sine gate signals 90 degree analogue to 1-5 above!!

                          Do gate signalsshould look like this, do you have this? I just want to pouint this out , because we all want to replicate the panet right way.

                          Well, because I am not too familiar with arduino I am asking all this

                          So gate signal should look like this : I will draw sinuses, but it is actually pwm represeted
                          Last edited by grizli; 11-23-2012, 09:55 AM.

                          Comment


                          • The lower 'dip' of the sine shaped CURRENT trace indicates the required conditions for the device to work.



                            Look closely and tell me I'm wrong, again...

                            The trace you posted doesn't fulfill the condition, where the amount of current at the crossing is 1/2 of the maximum current.
                            Last edited by kEhYo77; 11-23-2012, 10:38 AM.
                            “ THE PERSON WHO SAYS IT CANNOT BE DONE SHOULD NOT INTERRUPT THE PERSON DOING IT ! ”

                            Comment


                            • You are right!, Yes my signal is wrong, there is no 1/2 of maximum current.

                              I did not say you are wrong, but wanted to see what signals do you get acording to that source code..

                              But short circuit of the coil does not show anything.. use resistive load use resistor as load, try to measure output power, and imput power, do you have 2 channel scope ?
                              Last edited by grizli; 11-23-2012, 11:27 AM.

                              Comment


                              • Unfortunately I do not have a two channel scope :/ I am saving money for that...
                                I think I know how to improve this setup because as it is now, it is not very efficient. But it would be having LC tanks in resonance on primaries...
                                But the problem then is that when they would be changing poles we would have NNSSNNSS instead of NSNS, so I want to add one more primary and implement 120 degree phase shift.
                                Then the polarities would change in the right order. Soon I'll find out if it is working the way I imagine.
                                Last edited by kEhYo77; 11-23-2012, 04:08 PM.
                                “ THE PERSON WHO SAYS IT CANNOT BE DONE SHOULD NOT INTERRUPT THE PERSON DOING IT ! ”

                                Comment

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