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#961
02-09-2012, 06:16 AM
 t-rex Senior Member Join Date: Aug 2011 Location: In the bushes Posts: 422
The Four Quadrant Theory of Electrical Activity, Part Two, or more? (1 of 7)

In part one the energy transfer was one only of two forms, the transfer of Magnetic Energy, or the transfer of Dielectric Energy. Only one form of Inductive Energy exists. It is a single energy, and accordingly it is called a Single Energy Transient. Only one form of stored energy is active in a Single Energy Transient.

This stored energy can exist in one of two distinct forms,

The Magnetic Energy,

(1) , Ampere-Weber

The Dielectric Energy,

(2) , Volt-Coulomb

Because these stored energies are static quantities, they are time invariant. The dimension of time has no role in their existence. It is however that time is a necessary dimensional requirement for the existence of energy. So where then is the energy?

These dimensional expressions for stored energy represent only the Potential for Energy Existence. It is that the expressions given for the energy stored by a field of induction are no more than expressions for the magnitude, and quantity, of the magnetic induction, and dielectric induction, themselves. No union of the two inductions exist to form the product, Electrification, Q, and its time rate, Energy, W.

The single energy transient is a Magnetic Energy Transient, a transient of Electro-Motive Force, E, or it is a Dielectric Energy Transient, a transient of Displacement Current, I. These two reactive transients give rise to products, these with their respective potentials, the electro-static potential, e, and the magneto-motive force, i. M.M.F. is also considered a potential in that it is static. These products of reaction and potential represent The Electrical Activity of their respective Single Energy Transients. Thus a pair of Products, one for each field,

The Magnetic Activity

(3) , Watt

The Dielectric Activity

(4) , Watt.

Each Versor Activity, or , represents one form of energy only, magnetic or dielectric, not both.

Also shown in part one was the magnification factor is a negative numeric. This magnification factor, n, is the ratio of two time spans, the time span for charge, to the time span for discharge. For the numeric ratio to be negative, one time span must also be negative. Hence the magnification factor is the ratio of a negative time span, the charge time, to a positive time span, the discharge time. The magnification factor is given as

(5) , Numeric

By the Law of Energy Conservation for the stored inductive energy, the amount of energy given to the field must equal the amount of energy that the field can give back. This is to say the energy sent into a field of induction is the same energy sent out of the field of induction. Hence the two energies are in opposition with regard to the flow of power, the power in, and the power out, this resulting in a negative transfer constant, the magnification factor, n.

This results in the expressions for power flow containing a negative dimension, now exists one power flow forward in time, and another power flow, reverse in time. Power can now flow in both directions with regard to the dimension of time. Hence Power is free to move about in the dimension of Time, that is, it is a Versor Power Flow.

Here exists an analog of power flow in space along the length of a transmission line, where power is free to move along the length of the line in either direction. Thus the analog of a “Length of Time”. Here then the existence of forward and reflected waves in time, just as was seen for waves on a transmission line. Hereby a composite transient, the superposition of a wave moving forward in time and a wave moving backward in time, can be developed for any instant in time. One wave travels from the past to the future, the other wave travels from the future to the past, a pair of traveling waves in time, traveling in opposite directions. The superposition of the opposing waves is the Present, or Now, t equals zero.

The versor of Electrical Activity hence resides in the metrical dimension of Time, giving the relation as

(6) , Seconds.

Time is now a bi-valent dimension, two values of time,

+ t , real time, seconds,

- t , imaginary time, seconds.

It is then given by the Law of Energy Conservation,

(7) , Watt-Second

Imaginary Time can be called “Counter – Time”, this in analog to “Counter – Space”. There is however an important difference between the two. The expression for Counter-Space is given by

(8) , Per Centimeter

Where h = -1

However, the expression for Counter-Time is given by

(9) , Negative Second

Space is given here in terms of algebraic products, whereas Time is given here in terms of algebraic sums. This suggests a relation between Time and Space, or Time – Space where it is

(10) , Versor

(10a) , Unit Versor

A similar condition can be found for the versor condition

(11) , Versor

Reducing this to a base two versor, , gives the pair of projections,
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#962
02-09-2012, 06:18 AM
 t-rex Senior Member Join Date: Aug 2011 Location: In the bushes Posts: 422
The Four Quadrant Theory of Electrical Activity, Part Two, or more? (2 of 7)

(12) , Numeric

This resulting in a pair of ratios

(13) , Numeric

(14) , Numeric.

Little theoretical knowledge exists on this subject. It is of interest to note here the relations,

(15) , Numeric
And
(16) , Numeric
Thus
(17) , Numeric

In part one the unique condition of a disruptive discharge was given. In the disruptive discharge of a magnetic field of induction, or a dielectric field of induction, the discharged energy is confined within the metallic-dielectric geometry. No external energy transfer exists. In this condition the given field, the magnetic, or the dielectric, exchanges its energy with its Conjugate Form, the dielectric, or the magnetic. This is to say that Every Condenser has a bit of Inductance, it is the very nature of an aether filled metallic-dielectric geometry.

Because this “parasitic” capacitance or inductance has a very small value as a coefficient of energy storage, the Disruptive Discharge Develops Transients of great intensity and of Very Short Duration in Time. For the discharging inductor the intensity is given by

(18) , Volts

Where

And C is the Parasitic Capacitance

And for the Discharging Condenser,

(20) , Ampere

Where

And L is the Parasitic Inductance.

Because one form of energy storage is the denial of the other form of energy storage, in the disruptive discharge, no steady state condition is possible. The energy has nowhere to roost, it is continuously thrown back and forth, remaining within the metallic-dielectric geometry. Here the stored energy is continuously exchanged between spatial and counter-spatial forms of energy storage, this continuously moving back and forth thru time and counter time. Because the Inductance in the steady state is a short circuit, it cannot maintain a potential, e, and because the Capacitance in the steady state is an open circuit, it cannot maintain a current, i. Thus a potential, e, can only exist as a time variant E.M.F., E, and likewise a current, i, can only exist as a time variant displacement, I.

No energy is transferred into, or out of, the metallic-dielectric geometry, it is only exchanged between denials of form. It is then given

(22) Ei = -Ie , Volt-Ampere

-Ei = Ie , Volt-Ampere

Substituting the following

(23) E = e , Volt

I = i , Ampere

Gives the expression for the electrical activity of the disruptive discharge as

(24) , Volt-Ampere

Instead of allowing the disrupted Field of Induction to discharge back into its conjugate form within the metallic-dielectric geometry, an external conjugate form can be utilized. That is to say, an External Condenser, or an External Inductor. Equations (19) and (21) now apply to the external energy storage element rather that the internal parasitic values. These represent the natural impedance of the pair of energy storages. The metallic-dielectric geometry now is reduced to a magnetic inductance connected with an external condenser, or it is reduced to a dielectric capacitance connected with an external inductor. This is given in a sequence of diagrams, Fig 1.

(1) Fig 1A. A discharging Magnetic Inductance transfers its energy into a Charging Dielectric Capacitance.

(2) Fig 1B, A discharging Dielectric Capacitance transfers its energy into a Charging Magnetic Inductance.

(3) Fig 1C, A charging Magnetic Inductance transfers its energy out of the Discharging Dielectric Capacitance.

(4) Fig 1D, A charging Dielectric Capacitance transfers its energy out of the Discharging Magnetic Inductance.

Here given are the four quadrants of energy exchange between a pair of mutually conjugate forms of energy storage, the inductor and the condenser. The stored energy is being continuously transformed from one form into its conjugate form in an endless cyclic rate. The time rate of this energy exchange is the electric activity, , in volt-amperes. This activity represents the flow of power between the Inductor and the Condenser. Rather than a single energy transfer, it is now a pair of energy transfers. This is now a double energy transfer, or a Double Energy Transient.

In the double energy transient the stored energy is trapped with no escape. Thus this energy remains stored energy in an alternating current form, stored A.C. energy. The activity, or the flow of power is a continuous cyclic energy exchange, an opposing pair of energy transfers each moving in opposite directions in time. One energy transfer travels forward in time, the conjugate energy travels backward in time. The superposition of this opposing pair of traveling waves in time gives rise to a stationary wave in time. This is an analog to the standing wave on the length of a transmission line.

Because the inductor is charging while the condenser is discharging, or the condenser is charging while the inductor is discharging, the relations for power flow are given by

(25) , watt-second

And rearranging gives the relation

(26) , watt-second

The expression of the Law of Energy Conservation.

For the condition of oscillatory energy exchange the time relations are given by

(27) , seconds
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#963
02-09-2012, 06:18 AM
 t-rex Senior Member Join Date: Aug 2011 Location: In the bushes Posts: 422
The Four Quadrant Theory of Electrical Activity, Part Two, or more? (3 of 7)

The two time spans, the charge time span, , and the discharge time span, , are now equal and opposite. Hence a single time span can represent both and .

(28) , seconds.

This time span is the one quarter period of a complete cycle of Energy Exchange, T. In the condition of cyclic energy exchange the magnification factor is expressed by the relation

(29) , versor.

Hence the magnification factor is always unity. The Magnetic Power, Pm, is equal to the Dielectric Power, Pd. This is to say the Charge Power Flow is equal to the Discharge Power Flow. No charge-discharge magnification exists here. This magnification factor is now just a versor operator establishing the Law of Energy Conservation.

For the condition of energy transfer, the single energy transient, the transfer of energy is into, or out of the single stored energy. It is a one way flow, backward flow, or forward flow. It is uni-directional like a direct current. However, for the condition of the double energy transient the energy is reflected back upon itself between an opposing pair of energy storages. The double energy transient is a bi-directional power flow like an alternating current.

The single energy transient can be considered a traveling wave in time, the double energy transient can be considered a standing wave in time. This is in analogy to traveling and standing waves on a transmission line. Here time is an analog of length in the movement of electric energy.

The activity of the oscillatory energy exchange is given by the product of the Electro-Motive Force, E, and the Displacement Current, I. The four quadrantal activities are thus given by,

Fig, 1A, -EI

Fig, 1B, -IE

Fig, 1C, +EI

Fig, 1D, +IE

Each of the above activities exist in their respective quadrant in the cycle of energy exchange. It is given algebraically that,

(30) -EI = -IE

+EI = +IE

No energy is gained or lost, thus the activity is identical for each quadrant in the time cycle of energy exchange. Hereby a single effective activity exists for the double energy transient in its exchange of energy between Magnetic Form and Dielectric Form. This is given as in equation (24)

(24a) Po = EI volt-ampere

This is the electric activity of the oscillatory energy exchange between the Inductor and the Condenser. This is not an actual power in watts, but an electric activity in volt-amperes.

For the condition of energy transfer, the single energy transient, a pair of electrical activities exist,

eI , iE , watts.

Each represents the flow of power in the Dielectric, or Magnetic Energy Transfer. Here the charge time span and the discharge time span are independent time frames. An indefinite static time interval can exist between these two time frames. However, the double energy transient of oscillatory energy exchange has no possible static time interval, no possible steady state. Also the charge time span is identical to the discharge time span. One is the mirror image of the other, both of equal length in time. The two opposing energy transfers cancel out, just as do two opposing traveling waves. This leads to a stationary wave and one resultant electric activity only, that of the Cyclic Energy Exchange. No energy is gained or lost, it is confined to the oscillating system. This represents a stored alternating current and as such must posses an angular velocity of energy exchange since A.C. is a circular function. Hence it is,

Where T is the time span of one cycle of energy exchange.

This exchange is then in the form of a perpetual motion which gradually weakens due to energy leakage, that is, the losses in the metallic-dielectric geometries where the energy exchange takes place.

Power magnification in the oscillating energy transfer takes on a different form in the oscillating energy exchange. No magnification is possible between the charge and discharge portions of the cycle of energy exchange, they are equal and opposite time spans. It is however that a finite quantity of stored energy exists, and its activity is the time rate of energy exchange between magnetic and dielectric forms. A definite time cycle exists, where the transfer time, to, is one fourth the time span of a complete cycle of energy exchange, T. The transfer time defines the rate at which the stored energy is transferred back and forth, that is, the rate at which it is exchanged. Thus the relations for power and energy are given by

(32) watt-second

(33) watt, or volt-ampere.

Where to is one fourth period T. The Time Period, T, and thus the angular velocity of energy exchange can be derived from the Laws of Induction, these for an alternating current form. Thus given

The Law of Magnetic Induction,

(34) , weber per second

The Law of Dielectric Induction,

(35) , coulomb per second

Rearranging (34) and (35) gives

(36) , and , radians per second

And substituting the relations

(37) , and , Induction
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#964
02-09-2012, 06:19 AM
 t-rex Senior Member Join Date: Aug 2011 Location: In the bushes Posts: 422
The Four Quadrant Theory of Electrical Activity, Part Two, or more? (4 of 7)

Into the relations of (36) gives

(38) , and , radians per second

It is however,

(39) , and siemens, ohm

Thus the relations (38) become,

(40) , and , radians per second

Substituting the defining ratios,

(41) , and , siemens – ohm

Into relations (40) gives the expressions for the angular velocity of energy exchange

(42) , and , radian per second

Hence (42a) , by definition.

The expressions (42) for the angular velocity of energy exchange represent a pair of velocities, one forward in time, one reverse in time. The time period of one cycle of energy exchange is therefore given by the expression,

(43) , seconds

And thus the time span of energy transfer is given by

(44) , seconds

Substituting these relations into the expression for power, equation (33), where it is,

(43a) , per second
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#965
02-09-2012, 06:19 AM
 t-rex Senior Member Join Date: Aug 2011 Location: In the bushes Posts: 422
The Four Quadrant Theory of Electrical Activity, Part Two, or more? (5 of 7)

(45) , volt – amperes

Where, F, is the frequency of oscillation, in cycles ( radian) per second. Hence the magnification of activity for a given quantity of energy in the oscillating energy exchange is not a function of the ratio of charge to discharge times, since they are now equal. The magnification is here given as a function of the rate of energy exchange, the Frequency of Oscillation, F, in cycles per second. The more rapid the energy exchange, the higher the frequency and thus the larger the magnitude of the resulting electric activity. Power is directly proportional to frequency.

In the above condition of energy exchange the charge time span is equal in length to the discharge time span. No charge/discharge magnification is possible. It is however that the energy storage coefficients, the Inductance L, and the Capacitance, C, can be altered between charge and discharge intervals, Fig 3. This alteration can be done in two ways. One method is to use separate inductive elements in the charge/discharge cycle. For example, an inductance can take energy from one capacitance on charge and deliver this energy to another capacitance on discharge, or alternately a capacitance can take energy from one inductance on charge and deliver this energy to another inductance on discharge. Energy exchange has now reverted to a pair of energy transfers, and an indefinite static interval. The frequency of oscillation is according different for the different charge or discharge intervals. Hence the magnification factor is given by the relation

(46) , numeric

Where is the angular time rate of charge and is the angular time rate of discharge. This magnification was utilized by Nikola Tesla for the purpose of Power Amplification with no electronic elements.

The other method of altering the charge/discharge cycles is thru synchronous Parameter Variation. Rather than switching the energy storage elements, the co-efficients of energy storage, L, and, C, can be made variable throughout the cycle of Alternating Energy Exchange. Hereby the capacitance can vary between charge and discharge intervals, or the inductance can vary between charge and discharge intervals, and both can be varied throughout the cycle of alternating energy exchange. The magnification factor is now a complex quantity, or versor expression. Little theoretical knowledge exists on this subject.

The relations for electric activity for differing charge and discharge frequencies are hereby the same expressions as those for single energy transfer,

(47) , volt-ampere

(48) , volt-ampere

(49) , volt-ampere-second

Equation (49) states the Law of Energy Conservation, this for the condition of switching energy storage elements. Since the magnification factor is a complex quantity for the condition of Synchronous Parameter Variation, the Law of Energy Conservation is indeterminate.

In all that has been covered thus far the Metrical Dimension of Time has been the primary consideration. Energy and Power are Products of Time. This is expressed in the relation

(50) , joule per watt

The relationship between Energy and Power is Time. The energy has been a stored energy, and the power has been the time rate of the stored energy movement.

What has not been considered thus far is the condition of an actual Direct Current, a Time Invariant Condition, nor the condition of negligible co-efficients of energy storage, very insignificant values of inductance or capacitance. These are conditions of Zero Energy Storage. The dimension of time has no role in these conditions. This is the “Time Scalar” condition. Here is the fourth and final condition in the Flow of Electric Power.

In the scalar condition the transfer of energy exists with no form of energy storage, there is no charge or discharge interval. The transfer is constant. As it was in the beginning, so it shall be for now and ever more, the continuous, or Direct Current. Even with the application of an alternating current, the energy transfer is still direct, it following exactly the cycle of the applied alternating current. Hence the scalar condition is FREQUENCY INDEPENDENT, as would be expected for a time invariant condition. Thus the transfer can be instantaneous. Time does not exist in the scalar condition. The notions of constant, cyclic, or instantaneous, play no part in this condition. They can only arise from external causes.

The scalar condition is then the result of one of two distinct conditions,

1) No time variation of the fields of induction, as with direct current,

2) Negligible energy storage so as not to react with time variant currents, as with transient current.

In both conditions the Electro-Motive Force, E, and the Displacement Current, I, are zero. Hence no energy exchange or transfer exists with any field of induction.

Because the dimension of time in the scalar condition is indeterminate the dimensional relation of energy is also indeterminate, since energy is a product of time. It is however that power flow actually takes place as a product of the potential, eo, and the current, io, that is,

(51) , watt

It is however

(52) , per second

This is to say that the time span is indefinite. Hence energy can only be expressed as power in the time scalar condition.

Also, in the absence of an electric field of induction both phi and psi are non-existant, thus the product, Q, is non-existant,

(53) , planck.

Therefore the energy is non existent

(54) , joule

So where then is the energy? In the scalar condition all energy is created and dissipated in the same instant, no intermediary energy exists. It is “on demand”. Obviously, as with the similar situation of the disruptive discharge condition, there is always a bit of something somewhere that leads to a determinate solution, such as the connecting wires. The actual scalar condition can only exist within inter-molecular dimensions.

The scalar condition can be derived by the interconnection of resistances and conductances. Resistance, R, in Ohms, and Conductance, G, in Siemens. No energy storage is possible in these elements and thus they are Time Invariant quantities. There is no energy, what ever energy is given here instantly vanishes, appearing as a source of heat. This scalar condition thus contains no electricity, it simply eliminates it. The rate at which energy is eliminated is given as a flow of power, P, in watts, this as a product of a dissipative E.M.F. and a dissipative displacement.

-e, , E.M.F.

-i , Displacement

Because of the scalar condition it is the E.M.F. is also the Potential, and the displacement also the current. No electric field exists. Thus the power is given by

(55) , watt.

In a manner similar to the condition for oscillating energy exchange, no cross product exists between a reaction and a potential, as it is with the relation

(24) , volt-ampere
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#966
02-09-2012, 09:51 AM
 gnino Member Join Date: Aug 2008 Posts: 47
a question is good way to tune tesla coil put a lamp between secondary and ground and see the intensity of the light?
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#967
02-09-2012, 12:44 PM
 Nhopa Senior Member Join Date: Nov 2011 Posts: 134
Quote:
 Originally Posted by madhatter Wire length, the eq l=c/w would be for a straight horizontal length. However in a coil the inductance and capacitance would change that as Tesla notes in the use of inductance and distributed capacitance equations to calculate the free resonance of the coil. The frequency of charge impressed into the primary was 1600Hz per the notes and the resonance was based on inductance and capacitance at that fq in the length of the primary, it was then calculated to have the length of the secondary match that resonant wavelength based again on the inductance and capacitance. I have another question, in previous posts you mention the wavelengths of the primary,2nd and extra as: Primary: 1/2 Secondary: 3/4 Extra: 1/4 The notes have these relations: Primary: 1/4 or 1/2 depending on series of both turns Secondary: Sep 4th 1/4 Extra: Sep 4th 1/16 ; Sep 19th 1/2 per diagram #4
Furthermore on Sept 19th Tesla also states for "obvious" reasons 3/4 wave lenght for extra coil and 1/4 wave length for secondary coil for figures 5 & 6.
May be for starter we should just follow Eric's recommendation, since he has decades of on-hand experience and knows best what was probably Tesla's most successful arrangement. After that anyone is free to experiment different coil lengths wrt wave length.
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#968
02-09-2012, 03:15 PM
 t-rex Senior Member Join Date: Aug 2011 Location: In the bushes Posts: 422
The Four Quadrant Theory of Electrical Activity, Part Two, or more? (6 of 7)

Thus the relations exist for the scalar condition as analogs to the exchange condition. This gives,

(56) , ohm per siemens

(57) , siemens per ohm

And

(58) , scalar numeric.

Where

Rc , the natural resistance

Gc , the natural conductance

, the propagation constant.

The scalar condition can also exist for the interconnection of receptances and acceptances, receptance, H, in Ohm, and Acceptance, S, in Siemens. Here the energy is instantly produced, drawn out of the inter-molecular dimensions of the receptances and acceptances. With the resistance-conductance configuration the energy is instantly destroyed, pulled into the intermolecular dimensions of the resistances and conductances. Both are instant, no lag time is involved.

These conditions can be established with a pair of unit drycells. This condition involves time invariant energy transfer. It is instantaneous. When a charged unit drycell is connected with a discharged unit drycell a constant unidirectional transfer of energy takes place. This transfer is in space, not in time. This transfer takes place from the charged drycell to the discharge drycell, a one way trip.

As with the prior conditions of energy movement four relations exist with regard to the flow of power. These are shown in the diagrams of Fig 4. Hence the four relations,

Fig, 4A, -ei , watts

Fig, 4B, -ie , watts

Fig, 4C, +ei , watts

Fig, 4D, +ie , watts

And algebraically it is given

(58) -ei = -ie , watts

+ei = +ie , watts

The transfer of energy and thus the flow of power is bi-directional, any drycell can charge any other drycell, that is,

-ei & +ei.

And hereby the flow of power is given as

(59) , watts

In the scalar condition there is no electrical activity because of the time invariant nature of this condition. Likewise, in the exchange condition there is no electrical power because of the time variant nature of this condition. One is NOT the other. Thus the relations are,

(60) , volt-amperes,

, watts.

Both are real quantities and thus algebraically additive. The volt-amperes represents the complete storage of energy with no leakage whereas the watts represents the complete absence of energy storage with the complete leakage of energy. Here “leakage” is defined as leakage into, or out of, the metallic-dielectric geometry.

Here in final form are thus the four distinct conditions for the flow of power in an electrical configuration:

0) The Scalar, or Anti-Electric, Product;

(61) , watt

1) The Forward Cross, or Magnetic, Product;

(62) , joule per second

2) The Axial, or Magneto-Dielectric, Product

(63) , volt-ampere

3) The Reverse Cross, or Dielectric, Product

(64) , joule per second

Hereby the Heaviside Expression for the Movement of Energy as a flow of power can be assembled, giving the general form as,

(65)

, versor watt

The apparent power flow is given as the square root of the sum of the squares,

(66) , watt

Where , watt
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Last edited by t-rex; 02-11-2012 at 04:23 PM.
#969
02-09-2012, 03:16 PM
 t-rex Senior Member Join Date: Aug 2011 Location: In the bushes Posts: 422
The Four Quadrant Theory of Electrical Activity, Part Two, or more? (7 of 7)

The versor operators are tentative, however they can be derived from “Symbolic Representation of The Generalized Electric Wave”, E.P. Dollard. One such versor form is given as

(67) , versor

(67a) , versor

The Three Fundamental Factors can now be derived for the electrical configuration, utilizing equations (65) and (67), hence given are,

(68a) , Power Factor, percent

(68b) , Induction Factor, percent

(68c) , Magnification Factor, numeric

Where it is,

, numeric

For the condition of equation (66) it is a circular function and

(69) , unity

And the general versor expression is given as,

(70) , versor

Taking equation (66) as

(66a) , watt

As the condition of a hyperbolic function fives the relation

(71) , unity

And the general versor expression is given as

(72) , versor

It can be seen that each quadrant is in itself another four quadrant relation. One relation is compounded with another. The versors are inordinately complex, back to the J. S. Bach. These relations given are found in “The POWER of Music, Alexander’s Feast”, by G.F. Handel, The Final Choral Movement. Consider this required listening.

73 DE N6KPH SK.

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#970
02-09-2012, 04:48 PM
 madhatter Senior Member Join Date: Nov 2010 Posts: 457
what's going on with the post order?
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#971
02-09-2012, 06:14 PM
 Web000x Silver Member Join Date: Apr 2009 Posts: 547
Quote:
 Originally Posted by madhatter what's going on with the post order?
Part 6 of 7 didn't make into the sequence of posts. I hadn't noticed until Eric pointed out the missing pages. I had to delete 7 of 7 and repost it after adding part 6 of 7. I apologize about the screw up. The original scans for part one and two can be found here:

Index of /David/Four Quadrant Energy Exchange in Magnetic and Dielectric Fields of Induction, Part One

Index of /David/The Four Quadrant Theory of Electrical Activity, Part Two

When I spoke to Eric, he told me to let everybody know that he has finally grown sick of interacting with society. His driveshaft is still missing after many email attempts of getting a hold of the individual that supposedly has it. On top of that, the car parts that were promised to him have still not manifested. It seems like it is just easier for some people not to help Mr. Dollard rather than sacrifice a little time and effort...

He told me that he will be cutting ties with society as much as possible. He may write another book just for the sake of boredom as he doesn't see a laboratory becoming a reality at this rate. If there is anybody out there that can possibly do some fundraising for Eric or get in touch with him about investing in furthering his research, there is a load of equipment at a scrapyard in Morro Bay that has most everything that he would need to build a lab. Estimated cost is a couple of thousand U.S. Dollars. It would be a shame to see Mr. Dollard share the same fate as Dr. Nikola Tesla, broke and homeless (lab-less).

Eric, I just wanted to say thank you for everything that you have presented. I can guarantee that your efforts will bear fruit. It will just take longer than expected since none of us are properly funded for R&D. Don't lose hope yet.

Dave
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#972
02-09-2012, 06:46 PM
 madhatter Senior Member Join Date: Nov 2010 Posts: 457
Quote:
 Originally Posted by Web000x Part 6 of 7 didn't make into the sequence of posts. I hadn't noticed until Eric pointed out the missing pages. I had to delete 7 of 7 and repost it after adding part 6 of 7. I apologize about the screw up. The original scans for part one and two can be found here: Index of /David/Four Quadrant Energy Exchange in Magnetic and Dielectric Fields of Induction, Part One Index of /David/The Four Quadrant Theory of Electrical Activity, Part Two When I spoke to Eric, he told me to let everybody know that he has finally grown sick of interacting with society. His driveshaft is still missing after many email attempts of getting a hold of the individual that supposedly has it. On top of that, the car parts that were promised to him have still not manifested. It seems like it is just easier for some people not to help Mr. Dollard rather than sacrifice a little time and effort... He told me that he will be cutting ties with society as much as possible. He may write another book just for the sake of boredom as he doesn't see a laboratory becoming a reality at this rate. If there is anybody out there that can possibly do some fundraising for Eric or get in touch with him about investing in furthering his research, there is a load of equipment at a scrapyard in Morro Bay that has most everything that he would need to build a lab. Estimated cost is a couple of thousand U.S. Dollars. It would be a shame to see Mr. Dollard share the same fate as Dr. Nikola Tesla, broke and homeless (lab-less). Eric, I just wanted to say thank you for everything that you have presented. I can guarantee that your efforts will bear fruit. It will just take longer than expected since none of us are properly funded for R&D. Don't lose hope yet. Dave
Thanks.

I'm still trying to resolve the discrepancies of the Colorado notes, any ideas on where to obtain an accurate account?

Disappointing to hear about Erics decision, what happened with the temp coastal residence he was at?

I don't expect Eric to hand hold anyone. I've been going over the reference material Eric suggests, and so far the only sticking point is the tesla notes. Eric mentions that the design requirements are there, however I can not find the same. This is most frustrating.
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#973
02-09-2012, 08:35 PM
 everyidea Senior Member Join Date: Oct 2010 Posts: 135
Quote:
 Originally Posted by Web000x It would be a shame to see Mr. Dollard share the same fate as Dr. Nikola Tesla, broke and homeless (lab-less).
Even though I have not heard from Eric regarding my offer to turn on a marketing machine, I think I'll go ahead and do it without his permission.

I will set up a consumer cooperative, website, funding channel, funding transparency, voting board, banner ads and much, much more. As with many people, I don't have spare cash, but I do have spare time. As a marketer, I can use that to generate a cash flow for him and his projects.

Proof is in the pudding, time to start baking.

rw
__________________
My Calloway V Gate Motor Video
#974
02-09-2012, 10:28 PM
 Nhopa Senior Member Join Date: Nov 2011 Posts: 134
Morro Bay

Quote:
 Originally Posted by Web000x Part Two[/url] He told me that he will be cutting ties with society as much as possible. He may write another book just for the sake of boredom as he doesn't see a laboratory becoming a reality at this rate. If there is anybody out there that can possibly do some fundraising for Eric or get in touch with him about investing in furthering his research, there is a load of equipment at a scrapyard in Morro Bay that has most everything that he would need to build a lab. Estimated cost is a couple of thousand U.S. Dollars. It would be a shame to see Mr. Dollard share the same fate as Dr. Nikola Tesla, broke and homeless (lab-less). Eric, I just wanted to say thank you for everything that you have presented. I can guarantee that your efforts will bear fruit. It will just take longer than expected since none of us are properly funded for R&D. Don't lose hope yet. Dave
Let suppose with the effort of everyone on this forum we could get the required money together to by that Morro Bay stuff. But I think first we have to find out if Eric would be interested. If he is interested then a suitable lab site must be found and that will also cost money. Also the Morro Bay equipment should be checked by Eric and an accurate cost of the useful equipment be determined. Any thoughts on this matter?
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#975
02-10-2012, 04:32 AM
 SuperCaviTationIstic Senior Member Join Date: Jan 2010 Posts: 339
I believe 1/4 for the secondary and 3/4 for the extra. Take a pipe and pinch it and strike one end. Now move the pinch point up and down. The loudest spot to hold it with the most constructive interference is at the 1/4 3/4 point, while striking it on the 1/4 end.
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#976
02-10-2012, 09:03 AM
 Nhopa Senior Member Join Date: Nov 2011 Posts: 134
Wire length

It is well worth the effort to build two extra coils and see how the 3/4 wave length coil interacts with the secondary. Anyone reading the "Notes" can see that throughout the book Tesla was experimenting sometime just taking off wire one turn at the time. With respect to the extra coil on page 80 of the notes he states "....the actual length of wire being always smaller than the theoretical length,...", so I do not think we are going to be so lucky as to hit the proper resonance condition using the calculated length(s).
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#977
02-10-2012, 04:01 PM
 t-rex Senior Member Join Date: Aug 2011 Location: In the bushes Posts: 422
@All struggling with 1/4 and 3/4

There is no inductance, capacitance, or wavelength. The wavlenght I gave of c/omega is not the standard wavelength. The standard way is c/f, then take 1/4th of that. That's the electromagnetic wavelength. The coils are not electromagnetic devices. Wire length is calculated by c/omega. A factor of 2pi is involved, so it's c/2*pi*f. There is no quarter. This gives a wirelength that is now 2 over pi shorter. There is no inductance and capacity to compensate or think about, the coil is both. They are not separated. Read the article in 7 parts just put in, paying special attention to the section labeled disruptive discharges. In the Colorado Springs all you want to look for is the final dimensions of the Magnifying Transmitter. Other than some circuit diagrams and final dimensions there's not much there of any use for coil design. Tesla was figuring stuff out as he was going along, he was struggling to figure out what was going on, he had nothing to work with. So read the Colorado Springs notes and share in his confusion.
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#978
02-10-2012, 05:44 PM
 jake Senior Member Join Date: Nov 2007 Posts: 169
A sincere thank you,

I have been reading this since it started and look forward to finding new posts everyday. I appreciate every question that is asked and every reply that is posted.

I just want everyone to remember the for every active member there are many many of us who are also working on understanding this lost art.

Thank you,

Jake
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#979
02-10-2012, 05:49 PM
 madhatter Senior Member Join Date: Nov 2010 Posts: 457
Quote:
 Originally Posted by T-rex @All struggling with 1/4 and 3/4 There is no inductance, capacitance, or wavelength. The wavlenght I gave of c/omega is not the standard wavelength. The standard way is c/f, then take 1/4th of that. That's the electromagnetic wavelength. The coils are not electromagnetic devices. Wire length is calculated by c/omega. A factor of 2pi is involved, so it's c/2*pi*f. There is no quarter. This gives a wirelength that is now 2 over pi shorter. There is no inductance and capacity to compensate or think about, the coil is both. They are not separated. Read the article in 7 parts just put in, paying special attention to the section labeled disruptive discharges. In the Colorado Springs all you want to look for is the final dimensions of the Magnifying Transmitter. Other than some circuit diagrams and final dimensions there's not much there of any use for coil design. Tesla was figuring stuff out as he was going along, he was struggling to figure out what was going on, he had nothing to work with. So read the Colorado Springs notes and share in his confusion.
thank you, honestly this helps in clarifying a few things and also makes me want to jump ahead, I will refrain from doing so so that I don't miss anything.

I did go back again and went thru the notes forensically and with your progress and experience in mind Eric I was able to read thru and see what Nikola was doing, researching the reasons for the results and essentially 'cracking the code' we have the advantage of looking back and seeing forward that he did not and that is also a two edged sword as one can easily overshoot what he was doing and miss it entirely.

I found the research work in capacitance on wire lengths to be most insightful. I also noted that his use of inductance in cm although not odd did remind me that C and L are units of space, something that can be easily forgotten but is critical in understanding what he's after. L and C should annul each other which occurs at a coils SRF, however I did find that he was using a variable coil pitch which is variable inductor tuning.

To me it's akin to balancing a pin on it's point. the wire length is to be so that L and C cancel while being a harmonic of the fq where Land C cancel, and that is based on the current and emf.

I will shortly be going thru your latest posts Eric, so once again thank you.

The final coil dims for the extra coil are dated on Jan 2, 1900

The Nov 9, 1899 note makes a comment on the secondary coil with it's additional winding being connected at the top. I assume that based on the wood former notes previous that there was an additional winding added in parallel to the secondary for adjusting the inductance that was then closed adding an increase in mass to the secondary. No further comments on this arrangement though.
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#980
02-10-2012, 08:13 PM
 Skiv Junior Member Join Date: Feb 2012 Posts: 4
Quote:
 Originally Posted by T-rex So read the Colorado Springs notes and share in his confusion.
Oh, I do!

Thank you for these posts. I'll be spending a lot of time with them. I just acquired a copy of Steinmetz' lectures on transients, and spent last six months working through CSN day by day.

Skiv
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#981
02-10-2012, 10:28 PM
 madhatter Senior Member Join Date: Nov 2010 Posts: 457
ever have that light bulb moment? I just did I was mulling over the L and C and how it relates to resonance and what the ultimate goal is. I recalled back to Heaviside and reference to that if an infinite conductor was not possessing inductance and that it would be purely resistive and infinitely so. 'BING' goes the bulb, adding to what has been posted here and the whole big bowl of soup I saw that a coil designed just so with it's L and C in annihilation would become a purely resistive conductor, it would be time invariant thus the standing wave of resonance. but it's more than that, within in the right parameters it would be able to generate infinite amounts of current, scary really. any potential could be handled when the parameters are met. It's not, get more out then in, it's lets put a tap on the well and take whats needed when needed, no loss of efficiency because it's time invariant.

this part here from above:
The other method of altering the charge/discharge cycles is thru synchronous Parameter Variation. Rather than switching the energy storage elements, the co-efficients of energy storage, L, and, C, can be made variable throughout the cycle of Alternating Energy Exchange. Hereby the capacitance can vary between charge and discharge intervals, or the inductance can vary between charge and discharge intervals, and both can be varied throughout the cycle of alternating energy exchange. The magnification factor is now a complex quantity, or versor expression. Little theoretical knowledge exists on this subject.

this is an ideal arrangement in that any load against the circuit would be met provided it could be 'tuned'. I do wonder thought if it's possible to self feed the circuit, I get the feeling it would be an infinite loop that would be highly destructive, unless balanced oh so finely,ummmm...
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#982
02-11-2012, 12:19 AM
 garrettm4 Senior Member Join Date: Oct 2010 Location: Orbiting Sol somewhere in the Milky Way Posts: 178
Mind Bottling... FOUR QUADRANT THEORY OF ELECTRIC WAVES

My God! The recent Transmissions of Mr. Dollard have been the holy grail in terms of building an actual device using his Four Quadrant Theory of Electric Waves! This along with James F Murray's work go hand in hand for the greater understanding of ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY (VA, VAR, Watts & Apparent Power) and that by OSCILLATING this quantity as opposed to specifically a voltage or a current you get AMAZING RESULTS that can either remove (work used with out radiation, heat dissipation, or transference by M or K or storage by L or C) or impart anew from the ELECTRIC FIELD and its subsequent constituents the DIELECTRIC & MAGNETIC via a changing STORAGE PARAMETER L or C (and having potentially other ways as well).

The Transmissions, Four Quadrant Energy Exchange & The Four Quadrant Theory of Electrical Activity, are awe inspiring to me, and have truly changed my (albeit limited) perspective on electrodynamics. These used with reference to his prior works Symbolic Representation of the Generalized Electric Wave, Symbolic Representation of Alternating Electric Waves and the final chapter in Theory of Wireless Power are some very powerful tools if you have a creative, clear thinking, engineering oriented mind. Also the 1990 JBR article that Jim Murray wrote while working with Mr. Dollard, New Concepts in Power Generation, is a must read. The reason I brought up Jim Murray is because of the fact, that he is the only person I know, who has used Mr. Dollard's Four Quadrant Theory in actual designs of working machines and solid-state circuits.

For those who would like more info on Jim Murray, here's my personal collection of files on the man:

New Concepts in Power Generation, JBR Vol. 46, No. 2, March-April 1990, 32 pages (this was quite troublesome to get a hold of, but is LITERARY GOLD)
Free File Hosting - Online Storage; Upload Mp3, Videos, Music. Backup Files

Peter Lindeman Exerpt on Jim Murray. This has a link to a video of a Lecture that Jim gave.
Free File Hosting - Online Storage; Upload Mp3, Videos, Music. Backup Files

James F Murray Patents on his Dyna-Flux Motor/Alternator (three total):
Free File Hosting - Online Storage; Upload Mp3, Videos, Music. Backup Files

Here are the References used by Jim, in the video link given by Peter. These are the three articles by Nikola Tesla on the Moons Rotation about its axis.
Free File Hosting - Online Storage; Upload Mp3, Videos, Music. Backup Files

To Mr. Dollard,

Thank you for all your tireless and compassionate efforts in sharing your work and understandings of Tesla, Steinmetz & Heaviside, despite your personal circumstances and seemingly rightful contempt of your fellow man (or should I say common swine of society).

To everyone participating on the forum,

Good luck on your coil building (I'm still getting all the parts for my build), and a very big thank you for your contributions and continued interest in Mr. Dollard and his work.

Garrett M
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Last edited by garrettm4; 03-08-2012 at 01:13 AM.
#983
02-11-2012, 03:56 PM
 Nhopa Senior Member Join Date: Nov 2011 Posts: 134
Coil related questions

For my secondary coil calculation I came up with a 3.24mm wire diameter. That is about equivalent to a 1/8" dia wire or no.: 8 AWG size wire. Tesla, on the other hand, often used a no.:10 B&S wire or sometime he called for a no.:10 cord. If it is a no.: 10 wire or cord, it would be about .1" or 2.54mm dia. But the cord is a multistrand wire versus a .1" dia solid copper carrier. Question is, can I use stranded and insulated wire no.: 10 ga instead of the calculated no.: 8 ga solid copper. The secondary coil would probably be a taller dimension. The cost of material enters into the picture and the minimum amount to purchase around here is 100m. Any thoughts?
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#984
02-11-2012, 11:04 PM
 t-rex Senior Member Join Date: Aug 2011 Location: In the bushes Posts: 422
The secondary coil conductor must be hollow. Number 14 wire is maximum thickness, otherwise wall depth is 0.03 centimetre. The 62% spacing is for maximum magnification factor. Otherwise use 14 gauge copper wire on secondary coil. Any larger than 14 gauge litz wire must be used to get all the copper active. This is for 1000 Kc/sec. Tesla's Colorado unit was 80 Kc/sec. At that frequency he could use 10 gauge wire because there is less of a skin effect. Here we are dealing with 1000 Kc/sec, more of a skin effect. This allowed for a 3.5 times thicker conductor material. Remember coax works as tubing as it's hollow, and equal volume/same as equal weight. Remember whatever active volume of metal you have in the secondary then determines the amount of active metal in the primary and extra coil accordingly.

73 DE N6KPH
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#985
02-12-2012, 08:46 PM
 t-rex Senior Member Join Date: Aug 2011 Location: In the bushes Posts: 422
Calculating Properties for Secondary

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#986
02-13-2012, 10:43 AM
 Nhopa Senior Member Join Date: Nov 2011 Posts: 134
Coaxial coil material

Thank you Eric very much for your valuable help in figuring out what is right and what is false. Two coax cables which have similar sizes to the one used in your 1980's Longitudinal Wave video are the RG178 ang the RG316. One of the manufacturer, Wellshow, gives the following specifications.
RG178 - .071" insulation OD, .041" shield OD, and center conductor is silver coated copper covered steel wire, 30AWG.
RG316 - .10" insulation OD, .067 shield OD, and center conductor is silver coated copper covered steel wire, 26AWG.
The questions are:
1. Do we connect the center conductor to the shield?
2. Either way, connected or not, does the center steel wire conductor acceptable for operational purposes, i.e. possibly creating a magnetic field that could interfer with the desired coil resonance?
__________________

#987
02-13-2012, 12:34 PM
 Sputins Silver Member Join Date: Aug 2009 Posts: 531
Coyote like idea

Quote:
 Originally Posted by Web000x When I spoke to Eric, he told me to let everybody know that he has finally grown sick of interacting with society. His driveshaft is still missing after many email attempts of getting a hold of the individual that supposedly has it. On top of that, the car parts that were promised to him have still not manifested. It seems like it is just easier for some people not to help Mr. Dollard rather than sacrifice a little time and effort... He told me that he will be cutting ties with society as much as possible. He may write another book just for the sake of boredom as he doesn't see a laboratory becoming a reality at this rate. If there is anybody out there that can possibly do some fundraising for Eric or get in touch with him about investing in furthering his research, there is a load of equipment at a scrapyard in Morro Bay that has most everything that he would need to build a lab. Estimated cost is a couple of thousand U.S. Dollars. It would be a shame to see Mr. Dollard share the same fate as Dr. Nikola Tesla, broke and homeless (lab-less). Eric, I just wanted to say thank you for everything that you have presented. I can guarantee that your efforts will bear fruit. It will just take longer than expected since none of us are properly funded for R&D. Don't lose hope yet. Dave

It would be my hope that there could be a possibility of setting up some sort of Lab for Eric, perhaps not the multi-million dollar lab that he deserves, but perhaps a shoe-string budget Laboratory at some location, where Eric can access equipment, tools, and building materials. Unfortunately though, it seems everyone is broke, myself included. I send a little money now and then but it isn’t enough to set up a Lab. However might there yet be hope, it still exists..

Eric has given the design instructions and formulas (which are absolute gold in my opinion) and there is now enough information to begin immediate construction. One might say, concerning the Crystal Radio Receiver Initiative, that it’s a heck of a lot of work and money to spend, building a Tesla type crystal radio receiver, just to light up a small light bulb. However it’s actually a rather brilliant and Coyote like idea, for several reasons.

1st - As Eric says it will prove Tesla once and for all.

2nd - It teaches us how to properly construct a Tesla coil type radio system, a valuable teaching unto itself.

3rd - Teaches us how to receive a signal, one must know how to receive before one can begin to transmit.

5th - It would be great fun to just (briefly) “pull the rug” out from under the local radio station.

6th – Other reasons not yet realized.

Obviously, each builder would select their own local radio station to tune into and build their system up for that. Learn how etc. Eventually however, given time, some money and a little experience, those whom are ready, once the systems are in place, (I.e. good grounding systems etc). I would suggest that particular frequencies be chosen and agreed upon world wide, thus to begin the possibility of transmission and reception of a Tesla Type, Non-Electromagnetic, World Wide Radio System. E.g. From the USA to Australia, or other locations around the world, where these Tesla Radio Systems are constructed, the possibility to send & receive transmissions, through the Earth at Pi over two times the velocity of light.. Something that is actually achievable & within the realms of possibility.

Electric farmer Dollard, has planted the seeds, they will soon spout and grow, and they are not easily up-rooted.
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#988
02-13-2012, 12:53 PM
 Sputins Silver Member Join Date: Aug 2009 Posts: 531
Weight of Cu Shield: RG-178

Quote:
 Originally Posted by Nhopa Thank you Eric very much for your valuable help in figuring out what is right and what is false. Two coax cables which have similar sizes to the one used in your 1980's Longitudinal Wave video are the RG178 ang the RG316. One of the manufacturer, Wellshow, gives the following specifications. RG178 - .071" insulation OD, .041" shield OD, and center conductor is silver coated copper covered steel wire, 30AWG. RG316 - .10" insulation OD, .067 shield OD, and center conductor is silver coated copper covered steel wire, 26AWG. The questions are: 1. Do we connect the center conductor to the shield? 2. Either way, connected or not, does the center steel wire conductor acceptable for operational purposes, i.e. possibly creating a magnetic field that could interfer with the desired coil resonance?
1, My understanding is that the inner conductor is never used, or connected. Free floats within the Teflon, although it acts as a "reflector".
2, Don't know, probably not.

I have actually measured weight of the copper shield within RG-178 Co-axial cable. (Not just calculated but striped 1 meter and measured on an accurate analytical balance).

Actual weight of Cu shield in RG-178 Co-axial cable is 3.54 grams per meter. (3.5384g)

I will post Cu shield weights of other co-axial cable when available (RG-316 next).
__________________

#989
02-13-2012, 04:18 PM
 Nhopa Senior Member Join Date: Nov 2011 Posts: 134
Weight of silver plated copper shield.

Quote:
 Originally Posted by Sputins 1, My understanding is that the inner conductor is never used, or connected. Free floats within the Teflon, although it acts as a "reflector". 2, Don't know, probably not. I have actually measured weight of the copper shield within RG-178 Co-axial cable. (Not just calculated but striped 1 meter and measured on an accurate analytical balance). Actual weight of Cu shield in RG-178 Co-axial cable is 3.54 grams per meter. (3.5384g) I will post Cu shield weights of other co-axial cable when available (RG-316 next).
Thank you for the weight figure, this will take the guess work out calculating veights.
I still need an answer to my second question.
As far as the frequencies concerned, Eric picked 1,000Kcps, but if I do not have any radio station transmitting on that frequency near me then I suppose I can use other frequencies. How about short wave stations in the Mcps range. The important thing is the amount of power they are transmitting with and the distance to the "Tesla receiver". Do we have an equition for the power drop-off as function of distance from the transmitter? Is it simply 1/distance or 1/distance squared or some log function?
Last week in my post I mentioned that, we should look at the available equipment at Morro Bay. If it is only a few thousand dollar and if Eric determines that they would be useful to him, then we should make an effort to get them and store them until a lab-site is found. Somehow I have the feeling that many people on this forum (probably mostly guests) do not truly understand Eric Dollard's significance. It is like a fleeting moment, that comes and goes in a blink of an eye. Those of us who realize what are we part of thanks to Eric, should make all efforts to find a solution for Eric's situation. May be Eric's main contact should run a survey to see how much pledge is there to support this effort.
__________________

#990
02-13-2012, 09:50 PM
 t-rex Senior Member Join Date: Aug 2011 Location: In the bushes Posts: 422
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