The Extraluminal Transmission Systems of Tesla and Alexanderson by Eric Dollard

The Secret of Tesla's Power Magnification

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  #901 (permalink)  
Old 01-19-2012, 07:39 AM
Lambda Lambda is offline
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New EPD Cosmic Induction Generator Photos 2

More.

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  #902 (permalink)  
Old 01-19-2012, 07:41 AM
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New EPD Cosmic Induction Generator Photos 3

Yet more.

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  #903 (permalink)  
Old 01-19-2012, 07:43 AM
Lambda Lambda is offline
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New EPD Cosmic Induction Generator Photos 4

The last 4 are from the Marconi Lab prior to the Integratron.

Also threw in another photo of a TMT single terminal discharge I haven't seen posted in awhile.

73 DE WX9HV
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Last edited by Lambda : 01-19-2012 at 09:01 AM.
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  #904 (permalink)  
Old 01-19-2012, 08:19 AM
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Gestalt Gestalt is offline
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Website Update

Just wanted to update you guys on my website. I have collected pretty much every post of Eric Dollard's on this forum and put them in sections on my website so people can quickly go over any content they may have missed and have it all in one place. I soon hope to have a comprehensive collection of all Eric Dollard's material up on my site including hosting documents & audio.

Gestalt Reality - Eric Dollard

Transmissions/Articles:
  1. “Energy Defined” by E.P.Dollard (2011)
  2. “The Theory of Anti-Relativity” by E.P.Dollard (2011)
  3. “Metrical Dimensional Relations of the Aether” by E.P.Dollard (2011)

Individual Posts:
I will keep things updated daily as new information comes out. I will also add a section on all of Eric's post from the n6kph yahoo group soon. Stay tuned.
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  #905 (permalink)  
Old 01-19-2012, 08:51 AM
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Gestalt & Lamare,
You guys are doing a wonderful job keeping up on all the posts and organizing them into one place, I for one really appreciate it as I was trying to do the same thing, but simply downloaded all of them from you gentlemen and made PDF's from them. Thanks to both of you, keep up the good work!

Mike

73 DE WX9HV
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  #906 (permalink)  
Old 01-19-2012, 07:52 PM
garrettm4 garrettm4 is offline
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Longitudinal Waves

Quote:
Originally Posted by Web000x View Post
In the most simplistic, man-made form, Longitudinal Waves are a result of an LC oscillation of the TEM transmission. L and C are spatial functions in themselves, but when multiplied, space cancels and you are left with a time function. This is when space becomes scalar. The RAYS of induction are existing equally, everywhere in space, tending towards electrification more-so on the COMPLIMENTARY RESONANT conductor surfaces. This is the basis for no inverse of distance function, propagation without loss of signal strength, longitudinal transmission, etc.

Dave
Longitudinal waves stem from TRANSFER coefficients (M & K) not STORAGE coefficients (L & C) of dielectric and magnetic energy. Longitudinal Wave energy is TRANSFERRED and not RADIATED, energy is conserved between two points, transmitter and reciever. TEM uses RADIATION and thus "sprays" energy out into space, no conservation of energy between transmitter and receiver. These being WITHOUT regard to propagation velocity.

Reference #1:
Nikola Tesla, Leland I. Anderson - Nikola Tesla on His Work With Alternating Currents and Their Application to Wireless Telegraphy, Telephony, and Transmission of Power: An Extended Interview [2002]
Specifically Pages 130-160 (conversation between Tesla and Counsel about "radiation" of energy from his wireless transmitter)

Reference #2:
EP Dollard - Theory of Wireless Power [1986]
Specifically, Pages 5-14, with special attention to Figure 3 and Pages 34-69, with special attention to Figure 1.

b) The Tesla system

The system of transmission and reception of electric energy without the employment of connecting wires, or waveguides, as conceived by Dr. Tesla IS NOT the propagation of any type of electromagnetic wave, nor is it the excitation of the earth-ionosphere waveguide. Tesla's system employes resonant actions along lines, or rays, of ELECTRIC INDUCTION, these lines standing between the transmitter and the receiver, figure 3. The apparatus for establishing these lines of induction is called the Tesla Magnifying Transmitter (T.M.T.). The T.M.T. is a system of resonant transformers harmonically balanced to the electric condition of the earth. The mono-polar nature of the T.M.T. induction facilitates the ease of transmission and reception that this apparatus exhibits.


Figure 3 (from page 6 of above reference)


a) Product of conjugate pair of inductions

The wave theories in present usage for the study of electric propagation along coils and kindred apparatus all suffer from the fundamental drawback that they are representations of energy propagation along a single line or axis. The equivalent circuit of coil propagation is, however best presented as in figure 1, that is, two perpendicular paths for induction. Thus the propagation can occur in any direction on the surface of the mesh given by figure 1.


The nature of electric energy varies with the direction of propagation and departs significantly from the common electro-magnetic form when the path is no longer along the usual axis. This departure in form is of singular importance in the study of Tesla's discoveries.

Figure 1 (from page 35 of the above reference.)


From the above references you can gather that the lines of mutual induction M & K propagate in straight lines or RAYS between different metalic-dielectric structures (transmitter and receiver). And have little relation to L & C when used in this manner. Also the AXIS of their (M & K) propagation through a coil is the shortest path possible (between turns) whereas L & C take the longest path possible (along the entire length of the wire). As for a telluric wave through the earth, Tesla said, in my first reference, that the waves spread out in all directions, BUT the energy was conserved and not lost. He makes a VERY large emphasis on conservation of energy (not spraying energy into space) in his system and the complete loss of energy in the Hertzian system of propagation.

Garrett M

Last edited by garrettm4 : 01-19-2012 at 08:32 PM.
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  #907 (permalink)  
Old 01-19-2012, 08:25 PM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by garrettm4 View Post

From the above reference you can gather that the lines of mutual induction M and K propagate in straight lines or RAYS between different metalic-dielectric structures (transmitter and receiver). And have little relation to L & C when used in this manner.

Garrett M
I agree with what you have said. All I was trying to convey is that the LC oscillation initiates the propagation of the longitudinal wave down the MK path. I am not sure how you would propagate longitudinal waves (Man made) without first establishing the activity using a LC circuit with a high magnification factor.

Eric Dollard Quote:
Quote:
Let us turn to the Heaviside Equation which is the most fundamental equations in all of Electrical Engineering:

(RG + XB) + j (XG – RB) = propagation constant squared

where:

R resistance in Ohms
G conductance in Siemens
X reactance in Henrys per second
B susceptance in Farads per second

Therefore:

RG is the scalar or DC component that is NOT A WAVE,
XB is the longitudinal or AC component and is an alternating electric wave
XB is a function of LC.

Dave
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  #908 (permalink)  
Old 01-19-2012, 09:15 PM
garrettm4 garrettm4 is offline
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XB with reference to L & C and M & K

Quote:
Originally Posted by Web000x View Post
XB is a function of LC.

Dave
When generally considered that is the usual assumption, but, XB can also be a function of M & K.

Note: This was intended to be considered with DISTRIBUTED system elements such as a single coil or mutually connected lumped elements as shown in Reference #2. LUMPED system elements such as separate inductors that are not coupled and non mutually connected capacitors use the second formula listed for total reactance or susceptance.

Total Reactance
(Distributed Reactance, or Special Case of Lumped Reactance)
(General Case of Lumped Reactance)

Self Inductive Reactance, X(sub)L, Henry per Second
Mutual Capacitive Reactance, X(sub)K, Second per Farad
Self Capacitive Reactance, X(sub)C, Second per Farad

The different axises of propagation of K & C and circuit layout denotes the difference in usage. For Lumped elements this is seen as series capacitor to series capacitor, K; series capacitor to series inductor, C.


Total Susceptance
(Distributed Susceptance, or Special Case of Lumped Susceptance)
(General Case of Lumped Susceptance)

Self Capacitive Susceptance, B(sub)C, Farad per Second
Mutual Inductive Susceptance, B(sub)M, Second per Henry
Self Inductive Susceptance, B(sub)L, Second per Henry

The different axises of propagation of M & L denotes the difference in usage. For Lumped elements this is seen as inductor winding to inductor winding, M; parallel inductor to parallel capacitor, L.


This next piece of text was intended to be considered with LUMPED elements, which everyone should be more comfortable with.

Because Inductions E & I are counter rotating Vectors, the Inductive-Reactance and Capacitive-Reactance cannot add directly, the same is true with Capacitive-Susceptance and Inductive-Susceptance. Thus one is shown as POSITIVE and the other NEGATIVE, this denotes the relation of their phase difference, which is assumed (+-)90 degrees. When both capacitive and inductive values for reactance or susceptance are equal in value they become a zero magnitude imaginary resistance or conductance when looked at from the source supply's perspective.

From Reference #3:
"...In the science of mathematics, the complex numbering system is useful in determining magnitude and phase angle in mechanical and electrical networks. The ‘ j ‘ operator represents the imaginary value Sqrt(-1). In AC power networks the ‘ j ‘ operator represents the rotation of a vector in a CCW (counter clockwise ) direction a full + 90°. Conversely, a ‘-j ‘ operator represents a full - 90°.
...
The real and imaginary numbers may be placed on a two dimensional complex plane to determine angular motion. The values along the horizontal axis are the real portion while the values along the vertical axis are the imaginary. Any horizontal vector magnitude directed from the PCC (point of common coupling) to the right is deemed to be positive in polarity while a vector directed to the left is deemed to be negative.
..."

Reference #1:
E. P. Dollard - Symbolic Representation of Alternating Electric Waves [1985]
Specifically pages 4-6 and pages 16-19

Reference #2:
Borderland Science - Transverse & Longitudinal Electric Waves [1988]
Specifically minutes 16 to 35 of video, "Analogue Computers".

Reference #3:
KVA vs. KVAR vs. KW

Self Inductions (Storage & Return of Energy):
L, series
C, parallel

Mutual Inductions (Transfer of Energy, in Either Direction):
M, parallel
K, series

Whether these elements (L, C, M & K) are of a LUMPED or DISTRIBUTED nature determines the resultant waveforms characteristics.

FOUR waves result from these four distinct coefficients (LC, MK, LK & MC). The Axises of propagation are different for each type of wave, as was shown in Figure 1, page 35, of Theory of Wireless Power. This reference shows the case of DISTRIBUTED system elements of a coil!

The time function of LC


The time function of MK


The time function of LK


The time function of MC


The above differential time values represent one "Arc Length" measure of time of the Natural Period and can be taken into Radians per Second or Cycles per Second very easily.

Differential Time (one Arc Length or Radian of Natural Period, in Seconds)
The values for this measure are shown above for the various circuit configurations.

Natural Period (total Time of Cycle, in Seconds)


Angular Frequency (Arc Lengths or Radians per Second)


Natural Frequency (Cycles per Second)


Quote:
Eric Dollard Excerpt:

...

Let us turn to the Heaviside Equation which is the most fundamental equations in all of Electrical Engineering:

(RG + XB) + j (XG – RB) = propagation constant squared

where:

R resistance in Ohms
G conductance in Siemens
X reactance in Henrys per second
B susceptance in Farads per second

Therefore:

RG is the scalar or DC component that is NOT A WAVE,
XB is the longitudinal or AC component and is an alternating electric wave
In conclusion, it can be seen that XB is a lot more than just an Alternating Current LC Oscillation. It in fact shows the MK configuration as well (both are "alternating" electric waves), its just that we don't ever talk about M & K so the lack of formal usage and general understanding of their interactions TOGETHER.

Garrett M

Last edited by garrettm4 : 01-20-2012 at 07:58 PM.
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  #909 (permalink)  
Old 01-19-2012, 09:42 PM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by garrettm4 View Post
When generally considered, that is the usual assumption, but, XB can be that of M & K as well

Example:

Total Reactance (+-)jX = X(sub)L - X(sub)K

Inductive Reactance X(sub)L, Henry per Second
Capacitive Reactance X(sub)K, per Farad per Second

Total Susceptance (+-)jB = B(sub)C - B(sub)M,

Capacitive Susceptance B(sub)C, Farad per Second
Inductive Susceptance B(sub)M, per Henry per Second

Because Inductions E & I are counter rotating Vectors the inductive reactance and capacitive reactance cannot add directly, the same is true with capacitive susceptance and inductive susceptance. Thus one is shown as NEGATIVE and the other POSITIVE this denotes the relation of their phase difference. When both are equal in value they become a zero magnitude imaginary resistance or conductance. When this happens the reactive currents or voltages caused by the storage or transfer coefficients equal zero, when added together, although both are still present and can still be measured separately.

Reference:
KVA vs. KVAR vs. KW

Self Inductions (Storage & Return of Energy):
L, series
C, parallel

Mutual Inductions (Transfer of Energy, in Either Direction):
M, parallel
K, series

FOUR waves result from these four coefficients (LC, MK, LK & MC)

The time function of LC, dt=(Square Root of LC)

The time function of MK, dt=(Square Root of (1/MK))

The time function of LK, dt=(Square Root of (L/K))

The time function of MC, dt=(Square Root of (C/M))

These values can be taken into radians per second.

Also, the Axises of propagation are different for each type of wave, as was shown in Figure 1, page 35, of Theory of Wireless Power.



In conclusion it can be seen that XB is a lot more than just an Alternating Current LC Oscillation. It in fact shows the MK configuration as well, its just that we don't ever talk about M & K so the lack of formal usage and general understanding of their interactions TOGETHER.
Well said.

As usual, You seem to be one step ahead of my understanding.

Dave
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  #910 (permalink)  
Old 01-20-2012, 08:20 AM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Web000x View Post
That is some good looking data. What is your time span on that audio waves? also, how far away from the transmitting tower are you?

Dave
On the bottom waveform, I think it's 100µs per division, not sure about the top one. The resolution is 32 samples if that's any help. The transmitter is about 37-38 miles away according to google maps.

It seems that the incoming radio signal isn't reliable for judging the phase because it's possible to make it look either way through the tuning, so I'll be posting conclusive audio analysis evidence shortly I'll upload the audio later too so anyone can open it in an audio editor or whatever and look directly.
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  #911 (permalink)  
Old 01-20-2012, 10:31 AM
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Scope connected to the amplified audio output. The audio was recorded earlier and was used instead of real time live transmission (they were talking nonsense and I wanted to include some music).

Crystal Sets Gone Wild - Audio Analysis-01 - YouTube

Stupid youtube have blocked the AM radio quality audio in some countries because of copyright. I'll make another later. If not, saturday night is scheduled to have unsigned music so that will do nicely
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  #912 (permalink)  
Old 01-20-2012, 03:56 PM
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Time to get my hands dirty, I've been collecting and purchasing parts & supplies to build the TXR-RCVR of the T.M.T.

I'm still scouring up more tubes as I would prefer to utilize the plasma nature of tubes for harmonics and switching.

oddly so far acquiring the flat copper wire is the most difficult, looks like I'll need to order direct from the mfg in bulk. The other thought was cold rolling heavy gauge round stock too and then annealing it.

To the best of my knowledge based on posts here and studying the referenced work of Heaviside, Steinmetz etz.. geometry is a critical factor in the design. It's the same for plasma and electron optics as well, so it's only natural that it would follow here. I also think that capacitance is going to be the bigger hurdle in controlling, will more than likely have a number of experiments in that area.

I'll keep you all posted, it's probably going to be a couple months before it's together and things are under way.
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  #913 (permalink)  
Old 01-20-2012, 04:11 PM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Lambda View Post
The last 4 are from the Marconi Lab prior to the Integratron.

Also threw in another photo of a TMT single terminal discharge I haven't seen posted in awhile.

73 DE WX9HV
I wanted to comment on that pic of the TMT single design. I've worked for various agencies in the past that did defense (intentionally leaving out the acronym) work. One of the depts was working on a project that included a unit so similar to that it's downright spooky. coincidence possibly? but I never figured on seeing any of that stuff in the light of day to be honest.
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  #914 (permalink)  
Old 01-20-2012, 04:25 PM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by dR-Green View Post
Scope connected to the amplified audio output. The audio was recorded earlier and was used instead of real time live transmission (they were talking nonsense and I wanted to include some music).

Crystal Sets Gone Wild - Audio Analysis-01 - YouTube

Stupid youtube have blocked the AM radio quality audio in some countries because of copyright. I'll make another later. If not, saturday night is scheduled to have unsigned music so that will do nicely
I ran the audio thru a simple FFT analyzer and there is a resonance around 1.2kHz Do you notice that as well?
It's seems like the current is leading to the ground in the Tesla antennae.
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  #915 (permalink)  
Old 01-20-2012, 11:08 PM
Lambda Lambda is offline
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Copper Strap Supplier

Quote:
Originally Posted by madhatter View Post
Time to get my hands dirty, I've been collecting and purchasing parts & supplies to build the TXR-RCVR of the T.M.T.

I'm still scouring up more tubes as I would prefer to utilize the plasma nature of tubes for harmonics and switching.

oddly so far acquiring the flat copper wire is the most difficult, looks like I'll need to order direct from the mfg in bulk. The other thought was cold rolling heavy gauge round stock too and then annealing it.

To the best of my knowledge based on posts here and studying the referenced work of Heaviside, Steinmetz etz.. geometry is a critical factor in the design. It's the same for plasma and electron optics as well, so it's only natural that it would follow here. I also think that capacitance is going to be the bigger hurdle in controlling, will more than likely have a number of experiments in that area.

I'll keep you all posted, it's probably going to be a couple months before it's together and things are under way.
A good place to get copper strap for reasonable price is Georgia Copper. Remember that the mass should be equal to mass of copper in secondary (should use RG-316 teflon coated silvered coaxial cable), but only the weight of the shield should be taken into consideration. Just a suggestion, this is where I got my ground strap for my ham radio equipment and also have a decent amount I intend on using for the primary of the pancake coil and then the TMT I'd like to build.

Georgia Copper - COPPER GROUND STRAP for GROUNDING AND BONDING

Kind Regards,
Mike

WX9HV
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  #916 (permalink)  
Old 01-21-2012, 06:52 AM
Nhopa Nhopa is offline
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RG316 coax cable

In Eric dollard's video on longitudinal waves, Peter Lindemann says the coax cable used had a diameter about .080". The RG316 coax is .098" dia, while the RG178 coax cable is .071" dia. The other difference is the max attenuation of the two cables. The RG316 has 22.452 dB/100' @ 750MC and the RG178 has 42.7 dB/100' @ 900MC attenuation. But because we use the shield as the conductor I don't think it matters. To measure the weight of the silver coated shield is more difficult for this reason Eric recommended the matching the surface area of coax cable shield secondary to that of copper strip primary. Both RG178 and RG316 can be purchased on Ebay for about the same price. I wonder how much difference does it make that the RG178 core is silver plated, copper clad steel and that of the RG316 core is copper.

Last edited by Nhopa : 01-22-2012 at 08:47 AM. Reason: To add important information left out of the original post
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  #917 (permalink)  
Old 01-22-2012, 03:08 AM
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Eric,

If by chance you are reading this thread, please give me a call. I will be available to answer my phone Sunday, 1/22, around 5 P.M. EST or before 3 P.M. EST on Monday or Tuesday. I am in touch with somebody that may be of interest to you that would like to get in touch with you ASAP.

Dave
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  #918 (permalink)  
Old 01-24-2012, 01:14 AM
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Symbolic Rep. of the Gen. Electric Wave by E.D.

I've been going back and reading more of Eric Dollard's notes. I think I understand the basics of four quadrant electricity, which explains the two types of electricity, steady state and transient phenomena. However, I'm trying to grok the versor math as I think it holds the key to developing an overunity system.

In the text "Symbolic representation of the generalized electric wave", Eric introduces "k", where a wave = a+kb. Where
a=non-time dependent power factor
b=time dependent induction factor

In addition, Eric states that k denotes that b is time dependent. However, in the paper he rotates the wave backwards by 90 degrees and then states that the wave = ka-b since multiplying by k shifts the wave backwards by 90 degrees. This seems strange since by definition, a is time invariant and k denotes time dependency. Eric's math appears to imply that if you retard a wave by 90 degrees then the power factor is suddenly time dependent. I would think the wave shifted by 90 degrees backwards should be: wave=a-bk

I know my question is very technical, but I want to understand the theory. Anyone want to take a stab at what I'm missing?

The link to the paper is at:
http://www.tuks.nl/pdf/Eric_Dollard_...%20Dollard.pdf
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  #919 (permalink)  
Old 01-25-2012, 12:55 PM
Nhopa Nhopa is offline
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Practical questions

For me getting metal spheres is difficult. Can I use a plastic ball and glue aluminum foil over it as a substitute for a real metal sphere? Also I can't get copper strip for the primary coil, how would the functioning and size, i.e. the length be effected if I used brass strip instead for the primary? Any help will be appreciated.
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  #920 (permalink)  
Old 01-25-2012, 04:06 PM
john_g john_g is offline
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Making Copper Strip

Quote:
Originally Posted by Nhopa View Post
For me getting metal spheres is difficult. Can I use a plastic ball and glue aluminum foil over it as a substitute for a real metal sphere? Also I can't get copper strip for the primary coil, how would the functioning and size, i.e. the length be effected if I used brass strip instead for the primary? Any help will be appreciated.
Hhopa

It may be a pain to do, but you could take copper plumbing pipe, and split the pipe to make strip. If you have access to a bandsaw, you could make a jig up, consisting of a block with a hole, say 15mm. The block is attached to the saw bench and the blade travels through the block. You would then feed the pipe into the block and it would be in the correct position to split the pipe in half, maybe feed pipe through again to quater it.
Just a thought.
Regards
John
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Old 01-26-2012, 03:05 AM
skaght skaght is offline
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Okay, so I feel a bit foolish having tried to build circuits emulating Dollards work before reading all of his references and papers. I'm working my way through his work on tesla's oscillating current transformer and I'm wondering if anyone has built a DC tesla coil transformer with the secondary having an n=1 (length to diameter ratio)? It sounds like a short fat secondary is critical to reproduce the unique effects.

My primary interest is in the production of the dielectric field, not in transmitting, so I'm not sure I need the three coil arrangement. I'm guessing if I balance the secondary and primary with regards to surface area, make the secondary n=1, wrap it on a proper form and drive it properly with a DC capacitive discharge that I may start to see the special effects. Any thoughts from anyone?

Last edited by skaght : 01-26-2012 at 03:54 AM.
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Old 01-27-2012, 01:13 AM
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Four Quadrant Energy Exchange in Magnetic & Dielectric Fields of Induction, Part One:

The Magnetic Field of Induction, Phi, is directly related to the magneto-motive force, or “current”, i, in amperes. A constant, time invariant, M.M.F. constitutes a constant, or “direct current”, magnetic field. This constant M.M.F., or direct current, gives rise to no reactionary Electro-Motive Force, E. E.M.F. is a result of the magnetic field acting to maintain a constant current in a regulatory manner. Here the current, and hence the M.M.F. are already constant, thus zero E.M.F. In this condition no energy is exchanged, thus the magnetic energy is “static”, or all Potential Energy, in Weber-Ampere.

Since Electric Activity, or Power, in watts, is the product of this constant current, i, and an E.M.F., E, which is zero, the Activity, or Power is also zero. Thus in the absence of an E.M.F. no Power is required in order to maintain a static Magnetic Field of Induction, Fig 1A.

Likewise, a Dielectric Field of Induction, Psi, is directly related to an electro-static potential, e, in volts. A constant, time invariant potential constitutes a constant, or “D.C.”, Dielectric Field. This constant potential gives rise to no reactionary Displacement Current, I, in amperes. Displacement is the result of the Dielectric Field acting to maintain a constant potential, but here the potential is already constant, thus the Displacement is zero. In this condition no energy is exchanged, thus the Dielectric Energy is “static”, or Potential Energy in Coulomb-Volts.

Since Electrical Activity, or Power, P, in watts, is the product of this Constant Potential, e, and a Displacement Current, I, which is zero, the Activity, or Power is also zero. Thus in the absence of Displacement no power is required to maintain a static Dielectric Field of Induction, Fig 1B.

A violent magnetic discharge, in the form of an intense forward E.M.F., results from the path for current, i, being broken, or open circuited. This forward E.M.F. is the result of the stored energy within the Magnetic Field acting to maintain a continuous current, and its M.M.F., which now has been disrupted by an open circuit. An open circuit is the denial of any current flow, thus an infinite E.M.F. is developed within the Metallic-Dielectric Geometry of the Inductance. Fig 1C.

Likewise, a violent dielectric discharge, in the form of an intense Forward Displacement Current, results from the Potential, e, being Short Circuited. This Forward Displacement is the result of stored energy within the Dielectric Field acting to maintain a Continuous Potential which now has been disrupted by a short circuit. A short circuit is the denial of any Potential, thus an infinite Displacement is developed within the metallic-dielectric geometry of the Capacitance. Fig 1D.

The Flow of Power, or Activity, is indefinite in all four of the above conditions. No products can be formed since it is either the current is zero, or the potential is zero. The energy involved is only that contained in the Fields of Induction themselves, no energy exchanged, or transfer, exists with outside forces. The static charge, or Transient Discharge must remain within the metallic-dielectric geometry of the Inductance, or the Capacitance.

For the static case, the energy remains in a signal form, magnetic or dielectric. For the disrupted case, the energy escapes into its conjugate form within the Counter-Spatial Dimensions of the Inductor, or the Condenser, containing the energy involved. For the Disrupted Magnetic Discharge the extreme E.M.F., E, becomes an extreme electro-static potential, e, thus the energy escapes into Dielectric Form within the Inductor.

Likewise, for the disrupted Dielectric Discharge, the extreme displacement, I, becomes an extreme M.M.F., i, thus the energy escapes into Magnetic Form within the Condenser. Because no energy is dissipated, powerful electric oscillations are produced within the Inductor or Condenser. The trapped energy is continuously reflected to and fro between Magnetic & Dielectric Forms within the metallic-dielectric geometry of the device. Little Theoretical or Experimental knowledge exists on this subject, but here enters the work of Nikola Tesla, and his disruptive discharge apparatus.

When the energy contained within the Fields of Induction is delivered to, or taken from, external forms, a set of relations exist as shown in Fig 2. This condition of energy transfer involves Electrical Activity, or Power, P, in watts. Power is The Time Rate of Energy Transfer into, or out of The Field of Induction. The Dimension of Time now takes part. Thus energy transfer gives rise to Frequencies and Time Constants.

For this condition of External Energy Transfer, the external device is a specifically constructed drycell, this the size and shape of the common “D” cell as used in a flashlight. This drycell has virtually no internal losses. It also has been proportioned to have a Natural Impedance of one ohm, and thus a Natural Admittance of one siemens. Hence the following characteristics of this “XD” drycell;

Open Circuit Potential, eo, 1 Volt

Short Circuit Current, io, 1 Ampere

And thus the ratio of one volt to one ampere is

Natural Impedance, Zo, 1 Ohm

The Polarity markings for eo and io are shown on the drycell in Fig 2.

This unit drycell is hereby a source of Constant Potential to a Charged Condenser of Equal Potential, and a source of Constant Current to a Charged Inductor of the Same Current. The Displacement or E.M.F. is zero. In both conditions the energy is static, no Transfer of Energy takes place giving rise to Activity. The Power is zero thus the conditions revert to those of Fig 1A & 1B.

This unit drycell contains a certain quantity of Stored Chemical Energy. This Chemical Energy can be taken out and delivered to an external form, or it can be given back to Chemical Form within the drycell, taking energy from an external form. Energy can be taken from or given to this unit drycell, it is rechargeable.

This unit drycell thus can be a Negative Resistance, or a Negative Conductance, when supplying Energy to External Forms. It also can be a Positive Resistance, or a Positive Conductance, when taking energy from external forms. For the condition of constant current this unit drycell is a Positive Resistance, R, in ohm when taking in energy from an External Form, or it is a Negative Resistance, a “Receptance”, H, in ohm when giving out Energy to an External Form.

Likewise, for the Condition of Constant Potential this unit drycell is a positive Conductance, G, in siemens when taking in energy from External Forms, or a negative Conductance, and Acceptance, S, in siemens when giving out energy to External Forms.

This unit drycell is here shown to be a bi-directional resistance or conductance. In ordinary Resistances R or Leakages G energy flow is always a uni-directional flow, out, in the form of Heat Energy commonly. Here then is a Versor Resistance, or a Versor Conductance. The D.C. Versor operator is derived from the expression,
(1)
Symbolically it is
(2)

With roots, +1 and -1

The versor operator becomes, for this D.C. condition of bi-directional flow,
(3)
And




...etc
Hereby the versor relations of the bi-directional device, such as the unit drycell are given
(4)


And it is

The energy stored within the Magnetic Field of Induction can be supplied to, or taken from the unit drycell. Likewise the energy stored within the Dielectric Field of Induction can be supplied to or taken from the unit drycell. Whereas the disruptive circuit condition completely open circuits the Inductance, or completely short circuits the Capacitance, here now the unit drycell is inserted in the place of the open circuit, or the short circuit. Circuit Continuity is hereby maintained by the drycell. Energy can now be transferred in a finite manner.
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  #923 (permalink)  
Old 01-27-2012, 01:14 AM
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Four Quadrant Energy Exchange in Magnetic & Dielectric Fields of Induction, Part One:

(Continuing in another post due to restrictions)

The Magnetic Inductance can take the Chemical Energy out of the drycell, storing it within its magnetic field. Conversely, The Magnetic Inductance can deliver its Stored Energy to the Chemical Energy of the drycell. This is a two way Reciprocal Relation.

Likewise, The Dielectric Capacitance can take the Chemical Energy out of the drycell, storing it within its Dielectric Field. Conversely, The Dielectric Capacitance can deliver its Stored Energy to the Chemical Energy of the drycell. Again this is a two way Reciprocal Relation. The Inductance and Capacitance can give or take energy just as can the drycell.

Hereby Four Distinct Conditions exist, a pair for each Field of Induction, one pair the Energy Transfer between the Drycell and Inductor, (1) charge, (2) discharge, the second pair the Energy Transfer between the Drycell and Condenser, (3) charge, (4) discharge. Hence,

(1) The Energy, W, in Joules, stored in the Magnetic Field, Phi, in Weber, is delivered by Electrical Activity, P, in Watts, Fig 2A, to the drycell

(2) The Energy, W, in Joules, stored in the Dielectric Field, Psi, in Coulomb, is delivered by Electrical Activity, P, in Watts, Fig 2B, to the drycell.

(3) The Energy, W, in Joules, stored in the Magnetic Field, Phi, in Weber is derived from the Electrical Activity, P, in Watts, Fig 2C, out of the Chemical Energy of the drycell.

(4) The Energy, W, in Joules, stored by the Dielectric Field, Psi, in Coulomb, is derived from the Electrical Activity, P, in Watts, Fig 2D, out of the drycell.

Hence Magnetic Power Flow in watts can transfer energy from the Magnetic Field, or to the Magnetic Field, this energy to, or from, the Chemical Energy of the drycell. The flow of power is two way, or bi-directional. It is a differential quantity.

Likewise hence, Dielectric Power Flow in watts can transfer energy from the Dielectric Field, or to the Magnetic Field, this Energy to, or from, the drycell. Again the Power Flow is bi-directional, a differential quantity.

The Magnetic Inductance develops an Electro-Motive Force, E, during the Time of Energy Transfer with the drycell. This E.M.F. acts in conjunction with, or in opposition to, the Continuity of Current (M.M.F.), i, this developing the Electrical Activity, Ei, in watts, of Energy Transfer. This Activity, or Power, Pm, is the time rate of Energy Transfer.

Likewise, the Dielectric Capacitance develops a Displacement Current, I, during the Time Interval of Energy Transfer with the drycell. This Displacement acts in conjunction with, or in opposition to, the Continuity of Potential, e, this developing the Electrical Activity, Ie, in watts, of Energy Transfer. This Activity, or Power, Pd, is the Time Rate of Energy Transfer.

It hereby can be seen that the dimension of Time plays an important role in this Energy Transfer. Electrical Activity is the time rate of Energy Transfer,

Watt, or Joule per Second. (5)

The longer, more prolonged, time rate of transfer, the less in magnitude is the Power Flow. Likewise, the shorter, more instantaneous, time rate of transfer, the greater in magnitude is the Power Flow. The Disruptive Discharge is a Limiting Condition, and as well is the Static Charge. In both cases the Flow of Power is zero. The Energy remains within the Inductor or the Condenser.

Thru adjustment of the time rate of charge, and the time rate of discharge, involved in Energy Transfer into, or out of, a Field of Induction, any magnitude of Electrical Activity, P, can be developed from a given quantity of stored Energy, W, Fig 3, Fig 4. Denoting the charge time as t1, and the discharge time as t2, taking the ratio as,
, Numeric (6)
The Power Magnification is given as
, Watts, (7)
And thru Energy Conservation, it is,
, Joules (8)
The factor n is called The Magnification Factor of Energy Exchange.

While a Magnetic Inductance is gathering energy from the Chemical Energy of the drycell, a backward directed E.M.F., E, is developed within this Inductance. This E.M.F. acts to maintain a constant M.M.F., or current, i, that is it acts to maintain the quantity of Energy Stored within the Magnetic Field. While an Inductance is delivering its Magnetic Energy to the Chemical Energy of The Drycell, a forward directed E.M.F., E, is developed within the Inductance. This E.M.F. also serves to maintain a constant M.M.F. or current, i, that is it acts to maintain The Quantity of Energy Stored within the Magnetic Field. Fig 2A & 2C.

Hence the charging Inductance, gaining Magnetic Energy, develops an E.M.F., E, in opposition to the Potential, e, of the Drycell. The resulting Voltage Difference combines with the current, i, in delivering Energy to the Magnetic Field of Induction. This E.M.F. is called the “Back E.M.F.”. Also, the Discharging Inductance, losing Magnetic Energy, develops and E.M.F., E, in conjunction with the Potential, e, of the Drycell. The Resulting Voltage Summation combines with the current, i, in delivering Energy to the drycell. This E.M.F. is called the “Forward E.M.F.”. The E.M.F. is thus a differential magnitude, Back E.M.F. on charge, +E, Forward E.M.F. on discharge, -E. Fig 3.

Likewise, hence the Charging Capacitance ad Displacement Current, I, in opposition to the current, i, of the drycell. The resulting current flow combines with Potential, e, in Delivering Energy to the Dielectric Field, taking it from the Chemical Energy of the drycell. The Discharging Capacitance develops a Displacement Current, I, this in conjunction with the current, i, of the drycell, in Delivering Energy to the drycell, taking it from the Stored Energy of the Dielectric Field, Fig 2B & 2D. The Charging Displacement is called the “Back Displacement,” and The Discharging Displacement is called the “Forward Displacement”. Back Displacement, -I, Forward Displacement, +I, the displacement is a differential magnitude. Fig 3.

Hereby, The Four Primary Energy Transfer Relations

1) Magnetic Energy Discharge,
Forward E.M.F., Fig 2A.

2) Dielectric Energy Discharge
Forward Displacement, Fig 2B.

3) Magnetic Energy Charge,
Back E.M.F., Fig 2C.

4) Dielectric Energy Charge
Back Displacement, Fig 2D.

Note, the unfortunate condition exists that the Production of Energy is taken as a Negative Value, the Consumption of Energy is taken as a Positive Value. However, this is the established convention, despite the confusion it creates.

The following relations for power flow are hereby derived,

MAGNETIC POWER FLOW;

1) Charge, (9)

2) Discharge, (9)

DIELECTRIC POWER FLOW;

3) Charge, (10)

4) Discharge, (10)

The versor expressions for charge and discharge are given as.

(11)
,


,
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  #924 (permalink)  
Old 01-27-2012, 01:14 AM
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Four Quadrant Energy Exchange in Magnetic & Dielectric Fields of Induction, Part One:

(Continuing in another post due to restrictions)

Where is the charge/discharge versor operator. Substituting these expressions into the general relations of Power Flow, the magnetic,

(12)
,


,

And, the dielectric,

(13)
,


,
Hence the most general expression for Versor Power is,

(14)
, Versor Watts

, Versor Watts
Where, N = 0,1.

Break, more to follow.










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  #925 (permalink)  
Old 01-27-2012, 03:46 PM
Nhopa Nhopa is offline
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Four Quadrant Energy Exchange

Thank you Eric, this is a wonderful summary. Looking at Figure 4, it seems to me the dielectric charge/discharge cycle allows a kind of "pumping", that is with a properly designed system to provide an almost uniform output from the extra coil, since the charge/discharge time ratio is 1:5 respectively, versus the magnetic charge/discharge time ratio of 5:1 respectively. Is it not what Tesla tried to accomplish?
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  #926 (permalink)  
Old 01-27-2012, 05:54 PM
Nhopa Nhopa is offline
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Coil design

Quote:
Originally Posted by skaght View Post
Okay, so I feel a bit foolish having tried to build circuits emulating Dollards work before reading all of his references and papers. I'm working my way through his work on tesla's oscillating current transformer and I'm wondering if anyone has built a DC tesla coil transformer with the secondary having an n=1 (length to diameter ratio)? It sounds like a short fat secondary is critical to reproduce the unique effects.

My primary interest is in the production of the dielectric field, not in transmitting, so I'm not sure I need the three coil arrangement. I'm guessing if I balance the secondary and primary with regards to surface area, make the secondary n=1, wrap it on a proper form and drive it properly with a DC capacitive discharge that I may start to see the special effects. Any thoughts from anyone?
The following discussion will reference Nikola Tesla's Colorado Springs Notes 1899-1900, from now on just called the Notes. So far I have not seen any reference in the Notes that the secondary coil should be n=1, that is diameter to lenght ratio of 1. All the secondary coils described in the Notes are much longer than their diameter. On the other hand the so called "extra" or Tesla coils are closer to that 1:1 ratio, as can be seen from some of the photographs in the Notes. With the "extra" coil Tesla has achived extremely high e.m.f.. I think the extra coil is necessary for the reproduction of unique effects. Although, you are not interested in transmitting/receiving but to best achieve it Tesla prefers the use of "flat spiral form of coil...", page 66 of the Notes. Teasla indicates in a couple of places in the Notes that the copper masses in the primary and secondary should be equal, for example page 193. On the other hand in Eric Dollard's book "Condensed Intro to Tesla Transformers", page 16, Eric is recommending the use of equal surface area rather than weight because of the skin effect. Eric also used the surface area method in costructing his transmitter/receiver antennas used in his Longitudinal Waves demonstration video. In my coil calculations I equated the weight of primary to the secondary coil as Tesla did then when I compared the surface areas, my secondary has 18.8% more surface than my primary flat copper strip coil. I am sure the calculation can be set up so to find a good close compromise between surfaces and weights.
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  #927 (permalink)  
Old 01-27-2012, 07:58 PM
Nhopa Nhopa is offline
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Practical questions con't

1. In my design the weight of primary coil is the same as the secondary coil. Should the primary coil be one turn copper strip or two? I can make the strip half wide and twice the length. Does it matters? Looking the surface areas the secondary coil has 18.8% more surface area than the primarycoil.
2. I have an unused dug well on the property with some water in it. Would it function as an acceptable ground if I would lower into the water a heavy cable with some metal weight on the end?
3. Will a tennis ball covered with aluminum foil work as a spherical metal capacitor?
4. The radio station for which I am designing the crystal receiver is transmitting @ 1,476 Kc/sec with 60KW power. I am located 110 miles from it, am I too far from this station?
5. Is it important which direction the "extra" coil is wound with respect to the secondary coil? Secondary coil is wound in the same direction as the primary coil.
6. In order to make the spiral coil a smaller diameter, would it make much difference if I wound 3 turns on top of each other in each groove instead of the two as Eric has done it for the Longitudinal Wave demonstration video?
Thank you in advance for any suggestion or recommendation.
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  #928 (permalink)  
Old 01-27-2012, 08:18 PM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Nhopa View Post
So far I have not seen any reference in the Notes that the secondary coil should be n=1, that is diameter to lenght ratio of 1. All the secondary coils described in the Notes are much longer than their diameter.
I think you will find that it's the diameter of the secondary that's much greater than its height/length (15 metres diameter x about 2m high) The extra coil is equal diameter to height ratio.

Also I read somewhere in the CS Notes, a greater surface area of secondary will result in a greater pressure than an equal number of turns with thinner wire. I think, I didn't make a note of what page it was so I can't easily find it again. That reference MIGHT be somewhere around page 60.

@skaght: In my opinion you are probably complicating it through trying to simplify it. Beware the illusion of something becoming simpler through removing parts - reality is one continuous whole, not a collection of parts. That is, Eric wants people to do it "properly" and is answering things on that basis, so you won't get a simple answer. If you just build it then you won't need to ask the question
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  #929 (permalink)  
Old 01-27-2012, 08:46 PM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Nhopa View Post
1. In my design the weight of primary coil is the same as the secondary coil. Should the primary coil be one turn copper strip or two? I can make the strip half wide and twice the length. Does it matters? Looking the surface areas the secondary coil has 18.8% more surface area than the primarycoil.
2. I have an unused dug well on the property with some water in it. Would it function as an acceptable ground if I would lower into the water a heavy cable with some metal weight on the end?
3. Will a tennis ball covered with aluminum foil work as a spherical metal capacitor?
4. The radio station for which I am designing the crystal receiver is transmitting @ 1,476 Kc/sec with 60KW power. I am located 110 miles from it, am I too far from this station?
5. Is it important which direction the "extra" coil is wound with respect to the secondary coil? Secondary coil is wound in the same direction as the primary coil.
6. In order to make the spiral coil a smaller diameter, would it make much difference if I wound 3 turns on top of each other in each groove instead of the two as Eric has done it for the Longitudinal Wave demonstration video?
Thank you in advance for any suggestion or recommendation.
This is my opinion

1. Two. Best to keep it in accordance with the patent and Eric's design to start with.

2. I don't know, but I'm inclined to think that won't be up to some people's standards. Although it may still work.

3. Yes a tennis ball will work, but probably not very well due to being small and low capacitance. You might be able to overcome this with the use of the metal plate near it.

4. You'll probably hear the radio, but in relation with question 2 you probably won't be lighting up a 100 watt bulb any time soon

5. Extra coil should be wound in the same direction. I don't think this is required with a flat spiral coil.

6. Read from page 120 of the CS Notes. I believe the purpose of the layered turns is to set up series capacitance in order to overcome the undesirable parallel capacitance that's a result of the spaced turns. Or something to that effect. You can try 3 but I don't think anyone knows the answer as to whether it will be better or worse, unless the posted equations can predict it or someone has actually done it and seen the differences for themselves.

Last edited by dR-Green : 01-27-2012 at 11:24 PM.
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  #930 (permalink)  
Old 01-28-2012, 12:42 AM
mikrovolt mikrovolt is offline
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I thought it was an avalanche through a lump transmission line into a thyratron tube giving a longitudinal asymptotic pulse.

This seems aggressive yet very smooth compared to the erratic transverse kW sized sparks that I keep seeing on this thread.

What would be wrong with an Lwave of 80 volts 50mA on 160M ?
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