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  #1  
Old 07-08-2012, 06:39 PM
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Eric Dollard

This thread is a continuation of:
http://www.energeticforum.com/renewa...p-dollard.html
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Old 07-08-2012, 11:49 PM
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NFG.

That's twice.
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Old 07-09-2012, 12:39 PM
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NFG x 2. It's like a maze! We'll have to live with it I suppose.

I hope Eric is able to find this thread and is able to continue his wisdom. All great wisdom at all great points in time consists of assumption. Like all good languages - at least ones that can effectively convey complex ideas. Interestingly language always lags behind engineering! Or a suitable collections of assumptions descriptions and definitions of suitably complexity do not yet exist, and it is the observations themselves which lay foundation for justification of language and it's evolution as an art.

Here is something I put together on the subject of Atomic Orbits, derived Electrons and the difference between perpetual atomic motion current, and non perpetual non atomic electron motion current, and what causes it to stop spinning that doesn't at the atomic way, and how we might be able to build a spinning flywheel akin to the Dollard/Tesla Magnifier that is able to contain the energy and conduct it in the same was as the endless rotations of electrons. If this is not in vain we are talking about a permanent magnetic AC source that can indefinitely rotate, in fact accelerate, and drive any apparatus at any voltage, anywhere.

The Perpetual Atomic Force & Batteries and more

I have created a separate thread to reduce confusion, but this work is critical to the understanding of counter space and 4 quadrant theory. As this effect is capable of lagging in time and in constant in the same way that the radiant mind is able to lead ahead of language, we find a wonderful mechanical demonstration where the magnetic field can lag in quadrature to the movement of armature, causing an assymetrical field akin to the electron, and in turn creating a 500KVA device the size of a small workbench that is capable of stretching magnetic weak forces in the 1000 Ampere range, apparently out of nowhere, or at least from the same place that the smaller atom is able to "conserve" it's energy and in the large version we see - in this case in much greater numbers:

1) Energy is not conserved, it's either radiated or absorbed by atoms depending on their synchonous rotation.

2. The small atom and the large 500KVA atom-shape design has it's Energy is conserved indefinitely by indefinite reflections that triangulate around the apparatus. The losses are minimal.

A 3rd option exists:

1) The output gains of a T.M.T are used to accelerate the armature motion so that they reach an atomic point of synchronous interaction that the same constants and lead and lag times no longer apply. Or rather at some point fluids and gases may self-order beyond the range that is readily observable today, in the same way that the Sun may generate Electrostatic and it may in fact be the rotation of the particles atom's at the diffraction layer of the atom that is generating the photonic disruption we call sunlight- a fluorescent tube of gas or mass this is akin to, under a pressure - all of which can be found inside the earth's ionosphere.

End Dirty Quick post


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Old 07-10-2012, 07:13 PM
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Simplest way to light a bulb on one wire?

Question for Eric Dollard.

Could you conceive and explain here the simplest possible device that would light a standard, filament 230V light bulb with just one wire?

What would the schematic of that device be?
It needs to be as simple as possible and use familiar components like capacitors, transformers, copper wire, maybe carbon, spark gaps and stuff...
What would be the primary electric power source?

And finally, what's the method of operation of such a circuit?

p.s. it's Tesla's Birthday today
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Old 07-10-2012, 10:25 PM
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Birthday

Yay, Happy Birthday Nicola!
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Old 07-11-2012, 07:09 PM
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Law (Theory) Electro-Magnetic Induction:

(1) Electro-Motive Force, or E.M.F., is a consequence of the law of electromagnetic induction, Faraday's Law. This is his Electro-Tonic State. It is dimensionally the time rate at which magnetic induction is produced or consumed, or in other words “moved about”. The dimensional relation is given as

Weber per Second,

This defines E.M.F. in Volts.

(2) The notion exists that the electro-motive force, E.M.F. in volts, is established by “cutting” lines of magnetic induction via a so called electric conductor. This “cutting” is then said to impel the motions of so called electrons within the conducting material. It is however that a perfect conductor cannot “cut” thru lines of induction, or flux lines, Phi. Heaviside points out that the perfect conductor is a perfect obstructor and magnetic induction cannot gain entry into the so called conducting material. So where is the current, how then does an E.M.F. come about? Now enters the complication; it can be inferred that an electrical generator that is wound with perfect conducting material cannot produce an E.M.F. No lines of flux can be cut and the aether gets wound up in a knot. Heaviside remarks that the practitioners of His Day “do a good deal of churning up the aether in their dynamos”.

(3) A good analogy exists between the induction generator, and its hydraulic counterpart, the centrifugal pump. The pump casing is filled with water in order to operate. Once filled with water, in the condition that the suction and discharge valves are shut thereby confining water to the pump casing, the pump consumes no energy from its shaft. The pump impeller rotates with no damaging pressure, and the water and impeller rotate in step within the pump casing. Upon opening the valves the shaft is loaded by the energy required to move the water thru the pump casing. The law of energy continuity is established in that the energy consumed by the pump shaft is continued as the energy delivered to the motion of the water. Also by the law of reciprocity the energy can be extracted from the flow of water and continued as the delivery of energy to the shaft. Now the centrifugal pump is a centrifugal turbine.

In this configuration the centrifugal apparatus is connected with an electro-dynamic machine, this an induction motor. This induction motor delivers motive energy to the centrifugal pump. It is however that the centrifugal apparatus is also capable of serving as a centrifugal turbine delivering energy to the motor shaft and hence now this induction machine is and induction generator. Again the law of energy continuity is established in that the motive energy taken from the flow of water is delivered to the shaft of the induction machine. The law of reciprocity is established in that the energy continuity is equivalent in both directions of power flow. (This is not possible with an engine)

(4) The induction machine is in some ways analogous to the centrifugal machine. In order for the centrifugal machine to function the casing must be filled with water. Likewise, the induction machine must be filled with magnetism, this in order to function as a generator or motor, otherwise the shaft & rotor spin free transferring no energy. This describes the torque converter in an automatic transmission, a fluidic clutch. As with the centrifugal machine, once it is filled with magnetism, it is that no load appears on the shaft of the induction machine when its circuit breaker is open. Only upon closing the breaker can energy be supplied to the shaft as an induction generator, or taken from the shaft as an induction motor. This analogy between the centrifugal machine and the induction machine fails in one aspect, where the body of water in the casing is moved along with the flow, the magnetism in the induction machine remains stationary and static. No magnetic energy is required beyond that necessary to fill the induction machine. Hence this magnetizing force can be maintained by an electro-static condenser.

It is however that a large electro-magnetic energy is developed by the induction generator, taking this from the rotor shaft and its prime mover. Here the magnetic induction & E.M.F. developed greatly exceeds that involved in the excitation of the induction machine. This opens the question as to where exactly does this generated electricity come from, and likewise with an induction motor where does the consumed electricity go. A sea of partial differential equations is of no assistance in finding the answer. It is occult to human kind, and the actual dimensions of electricity remain unknown. Here is where we begin.

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Old 07-12-2012, 03:24 AM
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Law of Electro-Magnetic Induction, Two

(1) In this series of writings the principle objective is the theoretical treatment of the magnetic amplifier as applied to synchronous parameter variation. The magnetic amplifier is a development of Ernst Alexanderson, a Swedish born engineer. Alexanderson worked directly with Steinmetz at General Electric. Here developed was the Alexanderson system of wireless transmission. This system was the only wireless development to show novelty over all of the encompassing patents of Nikola Tesla. The magnetic amplifier is an important element in the Alexanderson system of transmission.

(2) After the fall of Nikola Tesla and Wardenclyffe in 1904, a dark age fell upon the wireless. Promotional efforts, fraud, monopolistic practices, all ensued. Names like Lee DeForest, G. Marconi were the rulers of this age. See “Empire of the Air”. A morass of interference developed from the stations of inventors and experimenters. With the onset of World War One, it became a matter of national security. The Alexanderson system was developed by 1917 and would effect greatly the course of radio history.

(3) During the dark ages the U.S. Navy became increasing disillusioned with the wireless developments provided to them. Poor and unreliable performance along with the dependence upon civilian technicians frustrated the efforts of establishing a reliable and effective naval radio communication system. The Alexanderson system along with later developments by Edwin Howard Armstrong would mark the end of the radio dark ages. The U.S.Navy was quick to co-opt the Alexanderson system into its communication network. KET and WII were its first Alexanderson stations for V.L.F. transmission. The Navy froze all radio patents from the dark ages, ending the relentless patent wars. The assistant secretary of the Navy Franklin D. Roosevelt used this opportunity to outlaw radio for civilian use, ending the radio experimenter. Under the direction of Admiral Bullard, U.S.N. A “Radio Corporation” was organized to serve as a holding company for radio patents and developments. Hence the birth of R.C.A. in 1919, and also the birth of radio as it has become known. The year 1919 begins the age of electromagnetic radio and its domination of transmission theory. But today we are interested in the unknown radio of yesterday, that before 1919, that of Tesla and Alexanderson.

(4) The development of the thermionic vacuum tube by General Electric and Bell Telephone put this device in the forefront of radio advancements. This could never happen in the hands of the inventor, Lee DeForest, so he was bought out by A.T.T. And his patents placed into the patent pool of the Radio Corporation, developing into a monopolistic trust. The efforts of Edwin H. Armstrong for R.C.A. and Langmir for G.E. Led to the Pliotron Power Oscillator utilizing the UV-207 thermionic, water cooled, vacuum triode. This instantly obsoleted use of the Alexanderson alternator for the production of large quantities of radio frequency power. His system became obsolete almost as soon as it was installed (1921), R.C.A. Radio Central, Rocky Point, NY. Thus the Alexanderson system became a dinosaur, to be buried and then forgotten. In the American tradition it was all smashed into rubble and then thrown over the cliffs into the sea. (Bolinas). Another historic “elimination”.

(5) Becoming obsolete, the Alexanderson system was regarded as of no significance to the “modern understanding” of electricity. As electronic ideas began to overtake electrical ideas a misunderstanding developed with regard to the electric wireless of Tesla and Alexanderson. Radio became married to electro-magnetism, and electricity became married to the electron. It is however that the Alexanderson system is electrical, not electronic. It was in fact developed specifically to avoid the electronic patents, and also work in a way not already specified in the patents of Nikola Tesla. The magnetic amplifier served as a kind of magnetic transistor, eliminating the need for the electronic vacuum triode of DeForest. The Alexanderson aerial is unlike the structures of Tesla and Marconi and also is not an electro-magnetic radiator. The developments of Ernst Alexanderson operate in a unique fasion, unlike more commonly known electrical developments. Hence the importance of the study of the elements of the Alexanderson system.

(6) The Alexanderson system consists of three principle elements;

I) The Variable Reluctance Alternator, for the generation of V.L.F. Power.

II) The Magnetic Amplifier, for the modulation of this V.L.F. Power.

III) The Multiple Loaded Aerial, for the transmission of the modulated V.L.F. Power.

All three of these elements are based upon radical departures from more conventional electrical designs. The Law of Electromagnetic Induction finds a new meaning in these particular developments of Alexanderson. These represent a “third way” in the development of electromotive force. It can be expected that certain anomalies as well as certain oppositions by “the group” in the Law of Energy Continuity are to be found in the elements that comprise the Alexanderson system. Such is demonstrated with the Variable Reluctance Generator seen in the Borderland video, this machine similar to the Alexanderson alternator in principle.

(7) Electro-Motive Force is brought about by magnetism in motion. The motional relationship between magnetism and its bounding metallic-dielectric geometry give rise to E.M.F., this E.M.F. as a reaction to magnetic motion is and inertial force, at least as it is commonly understood. The production or consumption of electro-motive force is developed by three distinct relations;

I) The E.M.F. of Variable Magnetic Induction, such as with the static transformer,

II) The E.M.F. of Motional Magnetic Induction, such as with the rotating motor-generator,

III) The E.M.F. of Variable Magnetic Inductivity, such as the static magnetic amplifier, or rotating variable reluctance alternator.

In basic terminology, with the static transformer it is the intensity of the magnetism is variable, in the motor-generator the position of the magnetism is variable, and in the magamp or Alexanderson alternator it is the containment of the magnetism is variable.

In the static transformer the magnetizing force is made to vary, as with alternating current. This gives rise to a continuously variable quantity of magnetic induction developing a continuously variable E.M.F. Induction is the variable.

In the motor-generator the position of the magnetic induction is made to vary via rotation. This rotation is constant developing an E.M.F. which is also constant and constantly rotating as is the magnetism. Here the E.M.F. is not alternating as with the static transformer, but has a vector of constant length in constant rotation. Hence this E.M.F. is in a polyphase or direct current relation. Orientation in Space is the variable.

In the magnetic amplifier, or Alexanderson alternator, the inductivity of the medium supporting the magnetic induction is made to vary, this by saturation or relative motion. Hereby magnetism is made to enter or leave the magnetic medium thru the variation of the storage capability of that medium. The E.M.F. developed is in order to facilitate the flow of magnetic energy into, or out of, the medium of variable magnetic inductivity. Storage Capability is the variable. This is the “third way”.

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Old 07-12-2012, 08:05 PM
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Law of Electro-Magnetic Induction, Three (1 of 2)

(1) The analysis of the Faraday Law, the Law of Electro-Magnetic Induction, continues here with the “Theory and Calculation of Alternating Current Phenomena”, by Charles Proteus Steinmetz, PhD, 1916. This is the fifth edition, which is partitioned into several other allied books. Two chapters are used in the analysis here, chapter three, “The Law of Electro-Magnetic Induction”, and chapter twenty-five, “Distortion of Wave-shape and Its Cause”. The chapter on reaction machines is missing from the fifth edition as it is partitioned into an allied volume. The 1900 edition is more suited for the study of Synchronous Parameter Variation in terms of a wider conception, however the 1916 edition is sufficient for the analysis here, this is all glom provides.

(2) Many of the expressions given by Steinmetz are unclear, particularly the harmonic expression of the reactance variation. The signs and symbols in the subscript have misprints, and the dimensions often do not line up. It must also be remembered that Steinmetz was forced to alter his mathematical expressions by the P.E.E.E. He literally came under attack by the pendants particularly for his development of the “Law of Hysteresis”. Hence Steinmetz changed his expressions because of PEEE adopted international standards, to quote;

“Thus for the engineer familiar with one representation only, but less familiar with the other, the most convenient way when meeting with a treatise is in, to him, unfamiliar representation is to consider all the diagrams clockwise and all the signs of j reversed.”

“In conformity with the recommendation of the Turin Congress – however ill conceived this may appear to many engineers – in the following the Crank Diagram will be used, and where ever conditions require the Time Diagram, the latter be translated into the Time Diagram.”

In basic terms if it seems daylight savings time is a bad idea, now it is a standard that all clocks must turn backwards in their rotation.

(3)Steinmetz does not use rational units in the development of his expressions. Heaviside warns that this is fatal to a solid theoretical understanding. The result is a quagmire of four-pi, one over c square, one over ten and all multiplied by ten to the eighth power. Steinmetz compounds the confusion by using cyclic frequencies in cycles per second rather than angular frequencies in radians per second. This results in the continual appearance of two-pi in all his expressions. The numeric pi is seen to appear and vanish so many times in Steinmetz equations and formulae that its meaning has become lost.

Steinmetz works backward from the practitioner's law for the output of a D.C. dynamo,



Where E is the developed E.M.F., F is the frequency in cycles per second, n is the number of turns, and phi is the quantity of magnetism. The numeric 4 is the number of inductions per cycle, one for each angular quadrant. Steinmetz considers this as an average E.M.F. where in actuality the average value of a sine wave is zero. His average value is the rectified value, that of a half wave. This in order to express the E.M.F. in maximum or peak values, the factor pi over two must be affixed to the average E.M.F. This creates another pi in all the expressions, fading in and out like a ghost thruout.

In the development of his expressions, by working backwards, it appears to be a “force-fit” in order to arrive at an already predetermined result, a form of contrivance to quickly reach a practical result. This obviates any understanding of the theoretical conditions involved. Steinmetz created his system of mathematics for the practicing engineer, not the theoretician. This riles the pendant, nemesis ensues.

(4) As is well known Steinmetz introduced many mathematical concepts to greatly simplify the understanding and utilization of alternating current electricity. But General Electric did not want him to put too much know how in his books. Other than Steinmetz, it was only Nikola Tesla of Westinghouse Electric that could make working A.C. equipment. But Tesla did not write books, his failing, out loss.

Thruout his writings Steinmetz utilizes a dimensionless time operator which greatly simplifies the expression of alternating current phenomena. An angular rate is substituted for a time rate. It is an instantaneous position variable along the A.C. cycle, the dimension of time is canceled by the angular frequency in radians per time, given is,

t = Time Variable, second

T = Time Period, second

F = Frequency, cycle per second

= Time Rate, per second

Hence the following expressions,











Where the factor 2pi can be called an “angular tensor”.

The differential expressions for alternating current phenomena become a dimensionless operator, not a time rate



is now,



Now it is a variation in angular position, radians are dimensionless.
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Old 07-12-2012, 08:06 PM
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Law of Electro-Magnetic Induction, Three (2 of 2)

(5) Thru this methodology the A.C. wave is simplified in expression, its frequency is of unit value. This is a consequence of the fact that all parts of an alternating current networks are all operating at the exact same frequency, differing only in their angular position along the unit A.C. wave. For example, at a frequency of 60 cycles per second







Hence for 60 cycles the angular position is given by



For one radian it is that



This the time taken for the 60 cycle A.C. wave to advance one radian in its angular progress thru a cycle. This is a dimensionless operation. This angular position variable is like an instantaneous versor operator of infinitesimal unit positions. This operator is then compounded with the quadrantal A.C. operator,



Where is given by









The result is the segregation of the resistive from reactive terms, or more properly the kilowatts from the kilovolt-amperes reactive. Great simplification is derived here thru inductance expressed in ohms as is resistance, and by capacitance expressed in siemens as in conductance. The differential expressions vanish and Ohm's Law as well as Kirchoff's Law can be utilized in alternating current circuits. This is known as the “Steinmetz Method” a mathematical breakthru for the expression of the phenomena of alternating electric waves. This was the birth of electrical engineering in alternating current systems. While the engineer loves it, (This is why E.F.W. Alexanderson came to America, in order to work with the great engineering mathematician, Dr. Steinmetz.) the pendant has a deep contempt for the Steinmetz methodology (Pupin). At a common level, upon my unusually high test scores in naval electronics entry school, this thru my use of the Steinmetz method, naval instructors accused me of cheating, and caused me trouble!

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Old 07-12-2012, 09:25 PM
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Preview to Angle of Hysteresis & the Continuity of Energy

I found that T-rex transmission to be a refreshing and incredibly lucid account of the general workings of the magnetic induction circuit and early American radio history. It reads off as a "master at work" writing, something you don't get the privilege to see every day.

Mr. Dollard, thank you for your always thoughtful and informative writings. I really appreciate your clear and concise descriptions, really helps people like myself see electrical concepts more clearly.

On another note, I have been doing some research regarding synchronous parameter variation and have found a few pertinent quotes by Heaviside, that might be of interest regarding the general concept and the very recent transmissions by Mr. Dollard. Also, I thought I would present a shortened preview of my article "Angle of Hysteresis & the Continuity of Energy" that I have been writing for a while now.

Below is a page from "Forces, Stresses & Fluxes of Energy in the Electromagnetic Field". Published in 1891 in the Proceedings of the Royal Society. Here, Heaviside was preaching his version of Maxwell's electro-magnetic gospel. Heaviside had many disagreements with Maxwell's explanation, and in doing so came to a conclusion that explains, inadvertently, the general principle behind synchronous parameter variation in certain magnetic circuits.



I would like to point out more clearly, that "free-space" is considered un-magnetizable. Furthermore, anything that has a greater or lesser permeability than free-space has to be something that "occupies space", i.e. matter. More simply, the presence of matter alters the permeability of the ether, or space itself, at that local point of its presence. Therefore, we always have two different magnetic (or dielectric) quantities, the intrinsic magnetic field H and the induced magnetic field B, due to the magnetization of matter. Furthermore, the synchronicity of the two cannot be made into perfect alignment. While the Intrinsic Field H moves at the speed of light, the Induced Field B has a delay or Hysteresis associated with its propagation due to the magnetization time delay of material entities, seen as the alignment of magnetic domains. This is made more apparent when operating at high frequencies, and is one of the reasons the inductance of an inductor decreases with increasing frequency. (However, at very high frequencies, distributed capacitance becomes the dominant reason.)

While we generally can't change the absolute permeability of any medium or material directly, we can however, easily change the effective amount of the relative permeability of a ferromagnetic material. Thus, to change the permeability of the "medium", you have to do it in a very round-about manner. However, Heaviside's commentary remains a concise account, regardless of how you achieve the desired action.

This now brings us to the question of "how do we achieve a gain in energy" and "where does this energy actually come from"?

The key point to these questions is what happens in the reverse, or "what takes place when energy is removed from the system" and "where is it going". Since this is the norm, it would make sense to study these actions first, then devise a method that does the exact reverse to achieve a gain in electrical energy.

*To avoid an incredibly long and undoubtedly boring explanation from me, I will give an abridged summary of how I see the situation. Which is always subject to change with new understanding and personal growth. To meet this end, no accompanying math will be presented, minimal pictures and terse descriptions used. The full report would span many separate posts due to the large amount of content, however, it is hoped that the presented details will suffice in giving the basic outline and theory of the principle.

Energy Movement



In general, in a reactive circuit, if there is no resistance, there is a phase angle of exactly ±90° between the vectors of voltage and current, this represents Circulatory Energy and not necessarily Power as we usually understand it. To describe this specific situation, we use the term called "Reactive Power".

I should point out, that the definition of power, is the time rate of work done or time rate of relative energy used, which boils down to "energy being moved in time", joules per second. While this description is accurate it is however overly broad, a circulation of energy without any change in original quantity does not constitute a unidirectional movement generally associated with the word "Power", or more appropriately "Real Power". A circulation of energy is in essence a form of kinetic storage. Therefore, we will conclude that "Real Power" represents a uni-directional movement of energy from one point to the other with no ability to circulate or be stored and returned. Reactive Power however, is merely the storage and return or circulation of energy, whereby there can be no losses or gains in this oscillatory movement.

In quick summary, series resistance r and shunt conductance g, represent electrical energy being removed from the circuit as an equal quantity of heat radiated to the ambient. Series Inductance L and shunt Capacitance C represent storage mediums and therefore "trap" electrical energy in their bounding structures. This trapped (or stored) energy can be returned back to the source and stored once again forming a circulatory loop of energy movement.

If we place a resistance in series with our reactive circuit element and source supply, we cause a change in the phase angle of the vectors of voltage and current. We are now no longer watt-less, or purely reactive, we now have a uni-directional transfer of energy and simultaneously a circulation of energy taking place. This forms a complex movement of energy, we are no longer purely real, unidirectional. Nor are we completely imaginary, circulatory, but now a gradient of the two.

In essence, the greater the positive resistance in an Lr or rC alternating current circuit, the lesser the phase angle between the voltage and current vectors, i.e phase difference approaches 0°, but cannot reach 0° due to the reactive element. Conversely the lesser the resistance seen the greater the phase angle, limited to 90° for zero resistance and realistically, only approaches 90° due to the resistive element.

The above given resistance is called "ohmic resistance" and is considered constant at all frequencies, or retains the same magnitude regardless of conditions involving time. However, it is seen that in situations not involving DC or low frequency AC, that the effective resistance seen is not in proportion with the DC-ohmic resistance. Here, we have a time-variant resistance, due impart to a multitude of factors. Notably; radiation resistance, hysteresis, Foucault (eddy) currents, and AC-ohmic resistance. All of these distinct effects contribute to unidirectional exchanges of energy from the circuit into the ambient and all increase with increasing frequency.

Natural & Artificially Induced Hysteresis; Variation of a Storage Parameter in Time

The time-variant phenomena that we will focus on and is most pertinent for our discussion is the hysteresis loss. In Reactive circuits, this phenomena is explicitly associated with the interaction of the Intrinsic and Induced fields.

If the naturally existent hysteresis of the permeable matter causes a loss of energy, by a lagging field of induction to its intrinsic source. An artificial source of hysteresis, engendered by placing a time-variant storage element in the circuit, adroitly controlled and timed, can cause the storage parameters magnitude to lag at an appropriate time that causes an excess release of magnetic induction which is greater than the magnetic induction originally stored.



With instrumentation, this is visually seen as a distortion of one or both of the vectors of current and voltage. This, as a displacement of the node maxima of the affected quantity. Curiously, the zero crossings of the respective vector quantities remain in quadrature relation but the displaced node maxima can either return more energy than stored or alternately, store a portion of energy that won't ever be returned, where this energy goes is unknown. These actions cause the wave of the electric field (power) to be distorted and asymmetric, thus denoting the excess return or excess consumption taken. Here, energy is either converging into the circuit from an outside source or is diverging into an unknown sink, presumably not as thermal radiation.

Arguably, this action is seen as a negative resistance in the circuit because, reactive elements can only store energy and cannot impart energy to themselves. If they are merely storage elements, the energy source that filled the time-variant storage medium cannot be the storage medium itself, and cannot be the original source due to the energy increase happening on the falling quarter period, or return of stored energy. Furthermore, despite the quadrature relation of the zero-crossings, the node maxima are displaced causing the constituent waves to align asymmetrically, either with opposing signs (negative power factor) or same (positive power factor). If a positive resistance was seen as a voltage drop and a divergence of energy from the circuit into the ambient, seen as a load. By the law of duality, a negative resistance would have to be seen as a voltage rise and a convergence of energy into the circuit, seen as a source. If we return more energy than was stored, a negative resistance would be seen as a negative power factor. Whereby the source becomes a sink and the load becomes a source for a select portion of time.

Energy Synthesis; Continuity of Energy vs. Conservation of Energy

O' say, can you see where the energy came from? While the actions and conditions are known, the outside source imparting the excess energy isn't. If I were to speculate, which I don't profess to be right, I would say since we have been talking about negative power factor and negative resistance, that negative time would appear to be involved. Lets take a look at what the ever astute Heaviside has to say on energy, its motions and the continuity of its existence.



Will finish this latter,

Garrett M
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Old 07-13-2012, 05:22 PM
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Law of Electro-Magnetic Induction, Four

(1) The following analysis begins with chapter three, “Law of Electro-Magnetic Induction” by C.P. Steinmetz, 1916. This chapter opens with the definition of one volt of electro-motive force. One volt of E.M.F. is developed by the movement of 100 million lines of magnetic induction. This movement develops its E.M.F. via the metallic-dielectric geometry bounding the magnetic induction. Hereby the relation is given as,




And,



The volt-second defines the unit of “magnetic charge”, just as the ampere-second defines the unit of “electric charge”. Hence, and E.M.F. of one volt, over a duration of one second, produces or consumes one unit of magnetic induction, this induction consisting of 100 million lines of magnetic flux. One flux line, or tube of induction, can be taken as a discrete entity, and of a distinct dimensional size, this a numerical constant. In other words a quantum size of magnetic induction defines all lines of induction as being the same size. It is then that this line of induction is a constituent of the Planck, a quantum dimensional relation consisting in part of a quantum of magnetic induction. The factor of ten to the eighth power partially defines the size of the Planck, in defining a distinct line of magnetic induction. Here is a partial answer to the old question of “how big is a Planck?”

(2) The volt-second, or magnetic “charge” is the conjugate of the ampere-second, or dielectric charge. Magnetic charge is in weber, dielectric charge is in coulomb, this dimensionally given as







In common practice the unit of dielectric charge is the ampere-hour, and defines the quantity of electricity into, or out of, an electric accumulator (storage battery).

Considering the ampere-second it is when the displacement current, I, in amperes, passes thru an impedance, Z, in ohm, that energy is exchanged with the dielectric field of induction. In this passage the displacement current, I, in amperes is transformed into a magneto-motive force, i, also in amperes. This i relates to the metallic, and the displacement I relates to the dielectric. When this impedance, Z, consists of a resistance, R, in ohm, the displacement current gives rise to an electronic current, i, this also in amperes, the energy in the dielectric is dissipated at the rate,



(3) The concept of the accumulation of “charge” is normally not considered when dealing with a magnetic field and the energy it contains. This magnetic “charge” is analogous to the dielectric charge. Magnetic charge is given as the volt-second, this a volt of E.M.F. When this volt of E.M.F. is impressed upon an admittance, Y, in siemens, that energy is exchanged with the magnetic field of induction. Hereby the E.M.F., E, in volt, is transformed into an electro-static potential, e, also in volt. When this electro-static potential is impressed upon a conductance, G, in siemens, this conductance dissipates the energy stored in the magnetic field of induction at the rate,




It was shown in the “Four Quadrant Theory”, E.P. Dollard, that dielectric discharges give rise to strong currents, whereas magnetic discharges give rise to high E.M.F.s. This was shown in recent experiments with the 60KV, 3000KVA, power line transformer. The magnetic charge drawn from only a 12 volt car battery can have destructive consequences if discharged rapidly by an open circuit, hence the flashover on the bushing safety gap.

(4) Electro-motive force is the medium by which energy is supplied to, or demanded of, the magnetic field developing this E.M.F. When this E.M.F. is made to be an electro-static potential, then energy can be exchanged. Part of this energy is stored, thru a displacement current,



or it is dissipated,



or combined, for an A.C. wave,



Gives the total electrical activity of the magnetic field of induction in the exchange of its energy to an external form. In this relation the E.M.F., E, is made equivalent to electro-static potential, e, this via a parallel connection of the magnetic inductance to the external system. Conversely, for the dielectric field, the displacement current, I, is made equivalent to M.M.F., or electronic current, i, this via a series connection of the dielectric capacity to the external system. Hence the Law of Electro-Magnetic Induction is entirely analogous to the Law of Dielectric Induction, and the understanding of one can be derived from the other.

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Old 07-14-2012, 08:35 PM
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A quick update of the situation here. Extra coil tuning tests have been put on hold primarily due to the fact that I have no method of knowing what's going on in the secondary with the limited power of the signal generator, I can only pick up the extra coil with the "field intensity meter".

So finally after some time searching/researching, and a failed attempt with a 741 op-amp (apparently won't amplify above 300 kc) I'm now ready to assemble the simplest transistor amplifier. I came across a handy little amp design program which includes defining the output impedance and then it comes up with all the values of components required. So now I hope it translates into reality a bit more accurately than a certain java circuit simulator has so far.

TransistorAmp circuit design software for bipolar transistor amplifiers

If that goes to plan then I can get back on track as this amplifier business has not been much fun to say the least.
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Old 07-15-2012, 04:48 PM
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Amp.

dR-Green:
When I tried to down load the program, I got a warning message saying this software may contain a virus that will harm your computer. Does your computer still works?
I am also working on my project from the beginning. So far I got some copper wire 2.2 mm dia, close to #11 AWG, and two 30 mm dia hard wood broom sticks which I cut up to twenty 19 cm long pieces. Before baking I have to decide on the groove spacing. May be I will use triple spaced grooves and wind in the one in the middle, then test, followed by a rewind in the third spacing and test again to see if magnification has increased. If not then I will rewind in the groove that gives the closest spacing. Since there are no calculations given to establish the "best fit" I think this leaves me with experimenting. Reading the Tesla's notes, it seems even he did not have a clue to the proper spacing.
By the time you finish your coils and put some power on the primary you will draw 10' sparks. Make sure you have a remote switch so you don't have to be in the room when you power up.
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Old 07-15-2012, 08:03 PM
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Originally Posted by Nhopa View Post
dR-Green:
When I tried to down load the program, I got a warning message saying this software may contain a virus that will harm your computer. Does your computer still works?
I am also working on my project from the beginning. So far I got some copper wire 2.2 mm dia, close to #11 AWG, and two 30 mm dia hard wood broom sticks which I cut up to twenty 19 cm long pieces. Before baking I have to decide on the groove spacing. May be I will use triple spaced grooves and wind in the one in the middle, then test, followed by a rewind in the third spacing and test again to see if magnification has increased. If not then I will rewind in the groove that gives the closest spacing. Since there are no calculations given to establish the "best fit" I think this leaves me with experimenting. Reading the Tesla's notes, it seems even he did not have a clue to the proper spacing.
By the time you finish your coils and put some power on the primary you will draw 10' sparks. Make sure you have a remote switch so you don't have to be in the room when you power up.
I think that warning happens when you are downloading a .msi or .exe files, or any executable file. There isn't any virus that I'm aware of but I don't use any antivirus software because I can't stand them. What I do use is a firewall which notifies me on any incoming or outgoing network attempts that I haven't manually authorised and it's safe to say the amp software isn't doing anything dodgy in that respect.

I'm trying to keep the power levels low, all I really want is enough power to be able to use an incandescent bulb with a test coil so I can see what the secondary is doing. The amp I built from the software works but the spec is not right for what I need, too much power in and needing high power low resistance resistors with not enough power out in my opinion. So I seem to be producing some heat with no real advantage at all, just a couple of volts more than what I had before. The point of a transistor amp was to keep it as simple as possible with components I already have but I think that plan has been undone already [edit] It looks like I'll also need to make another (current) amplifier and then get it all to work together. So signal generator driving a common emitter amp driving a common collector amp, I think. At this rate I'd may as well just buy the vacuum tubes and build it properly in the first place.

It would be good to have the data from the things you're thinking. I'm guessing there must be a balance between too much and too little spacing, because in basic terms, to have a big magnification factor the coil isn't meant to respond to anything until you get as close as possible to the tuned frequency, if there's no response at all around the peak frequency then you could have a massive magnification factor at the peak. So it needs to be as unresponsive as possible around the peak, and as selective as you can possibly get with the target frequency. Maybe here we come back to the 62% spacing.

[edit] Are you also going to make another extra coil with shorter wire length?
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Old 07-16-2012, 04:48 AM
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Hey all,
I managed to get two more Guillemin books, Introduction to Circuit Theory and Theory of Linear Physical Systems, into pdf format. They are available here;
Introduction to Circuit Theory
Theory of Linear Physical Systems

---

Eric,
I don't know whether or not you saw my post on the extra coil lengths but as I was reading through your coil calculations I came across something I haven't been able to come to any sort of conclusion on. You gave the coil length as being


You said in an earlier transmission;
Quote:
PI over two; this factor appears twice in the Crystal Radio Initiative, C.R.I. The (20%) secondary coil "effective" propogation velocity is the velocity of light in the space in which it occupies. Here the Pi over two factoris an offsetof a unit value to shorten the winding to compensate for the heavy external loading that the secondary is loaded with, that is, the external inductance and capacitance from the earth and extra coil connections. The aspect ratio of 1 to 1 on the extra coil gives an "effective" propogation of 187% the velocity of light, hence the winding length must be made greater in order to get a quarter wave resonance at a higher speed. This is brought down to Pi over 2 percent, 157%, the velocity of light to compensate for the burden upon the extra coil, this mostly arising from the dielectric upon which this coil is wound. The secondary is Pi over two shorter, the extra coil is Pi over two longer. Golly Mr. Wizard that's Pi squared over four! Do not hunt for magic where it is not, this is all experimental. So go experiment.
So if I interpret what you're saying correctly you want the secondary to be pi/2 smaller or roughly 63% of electromagnetic wave length and you want the extra coil to be pi/2 longer or roughly 157% of electromagnetic wave length. Therefore from my reasoning the secondary length is actually equal to;

The extra coil length is equal to;

Notice the last term. If you multiply your given equation for secondary length by Pi squared on 4 then you end up with roughly 39% electromagnetic wave length for extra coil wave length I would expect it to be greater than the electromagnetic wave length because the extra coil is apparently exhibiting a velocity greater than light.

Sorry if my question is stupid and there is something really easy that I completely missed but right now I'm pretty stumped with it, I want to clear this up before I start my build. I know that dR-Green is getting very good results from the dimensions you've posted so I am very open to me being wrong but if I am I'd like to know how/why. I hope your well.

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Old 07-16-2012, 05:47 AM
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The work of Dr. Stiffler; Relavent to the CRI?

Wow! I honestly about shat myself when I came across Dr. Stiffler's work on his SEC circuits! Those YouTube videos are priceless and have opened my eyes to some alternative uses for the Tesla Transformer and a general overview of one-wire circuit topologies.

Call me out of the loop, but I hadn't the slightest awareness of his existence and work until three days ago. I want to point out that I don't particularly agree with his theory of the "energy lattice" let alone the vibrating Bose condensate / phonon stuff Frank Znidarsic has come up with. Although, they seem to be in agreement in experimental results / theoretical explanations, which says a lot. Also, Dr. Stiffler seems to have a working theory as to how and why, that's backed up by all his various experiments, which also says a lot. However, I'm not here to say he's right or wrong (nor am I qualified to even give an opinion), I just wanted to point out that there is a lot that he has shown and done which parallels whats going on here in this thread on the CRI.

I think he has done much good in, inadvertently, showing the general principle of what I believe to be an alternate mode of excitation, the one-wire inductive discharge mode as opposed to the two-wire mutual induction (through a primary loop to the secondary).



I believe Mr. Dollard had called this arrangement the "Steinmetz Coil" connection. I never could quite grasp this circuit arrangement until I watched the YouTube videos that Dr. Stiffler had put up.



If one were to shrug off all the explanatory details of Dr. Stiffler's circuit, and just examine the circuit for what it is, you would see a transistor passing a pulsed current through an inductance coil, with a second coil connected at the junction between the two. This is in essence an inductive impulse circuit, there is no mutual coupling as far as I'm aware. The collapsing field of magnetic induction is directed towards the transistors collector terminal, it just so happens this is where the other coil is connected. I believe this collapsing induction, as a time-variant E.M.F., is what actually triggers the second coil into oscillation from its distributed constants. If the first coil were to discharge at the proper frequency the second coil would go into a resonant state.

If we examine the second coil as a one-wire transmission line, when driven at its natural resonant frequency we would see a large E.M.F. developed at the end-terminal or free end. Now insert an "AV plug" (at the end-terminal) and some sort of DC load (on the "plug"), and boom! You have a one-wire back to two-wire transformation, and you now are charging a capacitor or powering a neon or LED. Cool stuff indeed.

I honestly believe that the coils Dr. Stiffler uses ("cardboard coils", long skinny solenoids) are limiting his performance. If you were to use the coil design outlined by Mr. Dollard (equal width to height, spaced windings, etc.) you would see an immense increase in performance of the SEC circuit, due to higher magnification ratios seen from better coil design. So for anyone who has built a model coil based on Mr. Dollard's engineering plans you might want to look into Dr. Stiffler's SEC and give it a whorl and see what you can achieve.

A method to turn up the power level, to dangerous, would be to build a resonant inductance coil triggered by a thyratron, this would be a Steinmetz coil type connection to a Tesla coil. This arrangement has the possibility of very high energy operation and is much more immune to damage than semiconductor switches, however it is limited to low frequency operation. You might be able to see new effects that just aren't present at lower power levels. Although, you could most likely achieve the same results with properly designed vacuum tube or even transistor based circuits.

On another note, the use of a Guillemin Pulse Forming Network (PFN) could also be used to drive the Tesla coil, I don't think anyone has really talked about this method of connection. I'm foggy on the details, but I believe this network, when designed properly, acts as a transverse to longitudinal converter so you would be driving the Tesla coil longitudinally and thus with a one-wire inter-connection between the two. This is similar to, but not the same as, the Steinmetz coil connection.

I believe there are a few more interesting methods of excitation, but the Guillemin Line and Steinmetz coil connection are the modes I'm going to investigate, this of course, after I finish construction of my Secondary / Extra coil. Also, from watching Dr. Stiffler's videos, I found a very interesting one where he shows how two capacitors that have the same effective values, but huge differences in mass, have different effects. I think this corroborates what Mr. Dollard has been saying about matching the mass of the primary loop and its attached resonant capacitor. This is definitely something worth looking into.

*One more thing, I would be thrilled to see someone get the "concanted" configuration working between their secondary / extra coil. From what I understand this results in a half wavelength spanned across the entire setup, whereby each coil is operated at 1/4th wavelength. Curiously, instead of the half-wave spread across the two coils as a single wave node (rise to fall), you have two 1/4th waves nodes (rise to maxima) that are in the same direction, or the node polarity / phase is the same across each coil. This means that the voltage across the entire transmission line is doubled, and is additive like batteries in series! I don't think any ordinary configuration can actually do this, so this is definitely something to strive for. Also, I would be interested in seeing a concanted configuration hooked up to a SEC circuit, I dare say the effects would be magnified immensely.

Garrett M
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Old 07-16-2012, 07:26 AM
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Garrett,
Very strange you should bring that up because I too have been thinking about DrStiffler's SEC technology and how all the stuff we're doing in this thread relates. I'm not sure if you're aware but I did a bit of research into Stiffler's SEC and found some very interesting things (you can watch them on my youtube; Question on the Measurement of Spatial Resonant Frequency - YouTube) Must admit I didn't think of it as acting like a Steinmetz coil and now I can see what your talking about, very interesting indeed! I was going to retry this experiment (SEC 01 - Coils importance in SEC - YouTube) with a few different coils of varying magnification factors and to see what I could find and now that you've posted this I will definitely be giving it a go. I'll start winding the coils tonight and give you an update soon

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Old 07-16-2012, 07:42 AM
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[QUOTE=dR-Green;201852] Are you also going to make another extra coil with shorter wire length?[/QUOTE
Yes dR-green, that is the plan. I will also use the same wire dia as for the secondary coil and lets see what happens.
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Old 07-16-2012, 08:12 PM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Raui View Post
Eric,
I don't know whether or not you saw my post on the extra coil lengths but as I was reading through your coil calculations I came across something I haven't been able to come to any sort of conclusion on. You gave the coil length as being


You said in an earlier transmission;


So if I interpret what you're saying correctly you want the secondary to be pi/2 smaller or roughly 63% of electromagnetic wave length and you want the extra coil to be pi/2 longer or roughly 157% of electromagnetic wave length. Therefore from my reasoning the secondary length is actually equal to;

The extra coil length is equal to;

Notice the last term. If you multiply your given equation for secondary length by Pi squared on 4 then you end up with roughly 39% electromagnetic wave length for extra coil wave length I would expect it to be greater than the electromagnetic wave length because the extra coil is apparently exhibiting a velocity greater than light.
I don't see where you got that first equation from? All I see is

ls = 4.8 x 10^9 / F

From "CalculatingPropertiesforaTeslaTransformerSecondar yCoil001.jpg"

Since the tests determined that the extra coil frequency was much too low my "le" or extra coil wire length is now

= λ / 4 / 1.24

[edit] Where λ = c / F

Corresponding to the 124% measured velocity. Eric only gave me a wire length to use so this is how I see that he calculated it. No actual calculations were given so this could be wrong.

Quote:
Originally Posted by T-rex
Extra Coil

Dr Green;
I believe that another extra coil needs to be made for a higher frequency, that of your secondary, 3670. So an extra coil for 3700 with some terminal loading. The extra coil that you have now is too large/long and many turns would have to be removed, best to keep this one intact. Since now you can see the actual extra coil relations from the one you made, now it can be scaled to any frequency. Break, more to follow...

Quote:
Originally Posted by T-rex
Dr Green Extra Coil

3670 Luminal Wavelength
81.70 Meters

3670 Luminal Quarter Wave
20.4 Meters

Empirical Extra Coil Velocity Factor
124%

Extra Coil Wire Length
16.5 Meters

Wind your width equals height extra coil with 16.5 meters of 18 to 22 gauge transformer wire
Thanks for posting the books btw.
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Old 07-17-2012, 02:02 AM
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Doc,
The 4.8*10^9 / F comes from the simplification of;

Since;

We can say that;

Or at least very close to.

The reference to the first equation comes from;


In the figures Eric gave you you'll see that the extra coil wire length is smaller than quater wave at luminal velocity. The way I think about it however is if you have more meters covered per second and your frequency in per seconds stays the same, which it does since we know the specific frequency we're tuning for, the wavelength will naturally have to be longer not shorter. Here's another way to think about it get your hands and move them a certain distance apart in one second and take a quarter of that distance. Now compare it to moving them further apart than the first time and take a quarter of that, assuming it was covered in the same time the distance is longer and not shorter than the original since the time is the same. At least that's how I'm seeing it

No problem about the books, Garrett was the one that pointed me in the direction of a digital copy of Introduction to Circuit Theory and I found Theory of Linear Physical Systems while I was on the same website (Hathi-trust) so he is to thank for it as well. The only thing I did was 'extract' the images from the digital library and combined them into a pdf

EDIT: Btw just a quick update on the SEC/Extra coil experiment, I want to make sure that I reduce the number of variables I'm dealing with so I'm having to make a coil form for each coil. I don't have the right drill bit I need. Dad said he'd pick me one up from the hardware store of the way home so hopefully tonight I'll be able to start winding the coils.

Also, Aaron this isn't my forum and I truly mean no disrespect but I'm finding it really frustrating having to navigate through 3 topics instead of one. I don't know if anyone else is in the same boat but I'd like to see all 3 topics merged into one. I know that you're trying to stop posts getting deleted but when posts are getting deleted it's the authors of those posts who are deleting them. Also why is it that it's only this topic which is getting continuation topics while the others which have just as many people posting, if not more, aren't?

Raui
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Old 07-17-2012, 04:45 AM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Raui View Post
In the figures Eric gave you you'll see that the extra coil wire length is smaller than quater wave at luminal velocity. The way I think about it however is if you have more meters covered per second and your frequency in per seconds stays the same, which it does since we know the specific frequency we're tuning for, the wavelength will naturally have to be longer not shorter. Here's another way to think about it get your hands and move them a certain distance apart in one second and take a quarter of that distance. Now compare it to moving them further apart than the first time and take a quarter of that, assuming it was covered in the same time the distance is longer and not shorter than the original since the time is the same. At least that's how I'm seeing it
Yes that's true, but if

c = 299792458
F = 3670000
λ = 81.68
λ/4 = 20.42

Then

124% <

/1.24 = 16.469
Luminal frequency = 4550.8 kc
= F*1.24

124% >

*1.24 = 25.323
Luminal frequency = 2959.677 kc
= F/1.24

The extra coil would then need to operate at a minimum of 124% with no terminal capacitance. However the frequency of the secondary is certainly brought up through being connected to the extra coil, and the results from the old extra coil tests I believe, as far as I can interpret it, shows that the maximum possible velocity of the extra coil in operation with the direct connection to secondary is 124% luminal even with the effect of the frequency being brought up, excluding any terminal capacitance.

If a coil of λ/4 = 20.42 metres wire length was made, then based on the results shown of 124% the measured frequency would be approx

4550.8 kc

Which = λ/4/1.24

= 16.469 metres extra coil wire length luminal frequency

Therefore, tuned to 100% luminal frequency of this 16.469 metres wire length, the extra coil would theoretically be operating at the so-called "F*1.24" or 124% velocity of the fundamental F. Excluding any effects of being connected to the secondary.
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Old 07-17-2012, 06:22 AM
garrettm4 garrettm4 is offline
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Conductor Skin-depth Equations

I was reading Jim Williams excellent book, The Art & Science of Analog Circuit Design 1998, and came across a chapter by James M Bryant, which had some engineering expressions regarding skin-depth of a conductor. They seem to be close to what Mr. Dollard had presented and I thought that people might like to see them as a reference.

Without further ado, here's the relevant pages of interest (pgs 104-105). Also, I highly recommend reading the book, its relevant with what everyone is doing here, seeing as how we are dealing with analog engineering after all.




Garrett M
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Old 07-17-2012, 07:23 AM
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Garrettm4, I recall the discussion over skin depth and frequency, though it's a ways back in one of the threads. The thing to remember is that skin depth is frequency dependent and not linear. as the velocity of propagation changes so does the skin depth effect, another moving target.

I really need to collate the design and results data I have on the 4mHz coils, I only strayed a bit from Erics calcs in relation to wire ga and surface area. I really went on a 'hunch' from the patterns in the equation results and built the coils based on that.

There's a lot to be learned from the CRI.
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Old 07-17-2012, 10:27 AM
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Skin Depth

Hi garrettm4:
Thank you for the information on the skin-effect. Previously I have done some research into this subject and posted my findings on the "Eric P. Dollard" forum, #343, dated 05-05-2012. It seems both your and my conclusion supports what Eric published in the first place, except our findings show how the equation was derived.
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Old 07-17-2012, 09:21 PM
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In general, in a reactive circuit, if there is no resistance, there is a phase angle of exactly ±90° between the vectors of voltage and current, this represents Circulatory Energy and not necessarily Power as we usually understand it. To describe this specific situation, we use the term called "Reactive Power".

With instrumentation, this is visually seen as a distortion of one or both of the vectors of current and voltage. This, as a displacement of the node maxima of the affected quantity. Curiously, the zero crossings of the respective vector quantities remain in quadrature relation but the displaced node maxima can either return more energy than stored or alternately, store a portion of energy that won't ever be returned, where this energy goes is unknown. These actions cause the wave of the electric field (power) to be distorted and asymmetric, thus denoting the excess return or excess consumption taken. Here, energy is either converging into the circuit from an outside source or is diverging into an unknown sink, presumably not as thermal radiation.

Arguably, this action is seen as a negative resistance in the circuit because, reactive elements can only store energy and cannot impart energy to themselves. If they are merely storage elements, the energy source that filled the time-variant storage medium cannot be the storage medium itself, and cannot be the original source due to the energy increase happening on the falling quarter period, or return of stored energy. Furthermore, despite the quadrature relation of the zero-crossings, the node maxima are displaced causing the constituent waves to align asymmetrically, either with opposing signs (negative power factor) or same (positive power factor).

If a positive resistance was seen as a voltage drop and a divergence of energy from the circuit into the ambient, seen as a load. By the law of duality, a negative resistance would have to be seen as a voltage rise and a convergence of energy into the circuit, seen as a source. If we return more energy than was stored, a negative resistance would be seen as a negative power factor. Whereby the source becomes a sink and the load becomes a source for a select portion of time.

Garrett M
Oh Garrett - how pleased I was to read these words of yours.

This is something I studied 20 years ago in relation to loudspeaker crossover systems and audio power amplifier distortion.

Yes, exactly as you write, audio transients arising within music time, but coincidental with reactive loudspeaker system generated back-EMFs generated in loudspeaker time totally unrelated with signal input can cause the (amplifier output) 'source to become a sink'.
When the NFB loop phase is not coherent with input and output (as is so often the case with SS power amplifiers in order to guarantee amplifier stability, often with phase turnover wrt output commencing from 100Hz upwards), whereupon the output voltage can momentarily leads input prior to current correction, the crossover artifacts which 'expert' designers claim to be completely non-existent due to NFB, become clearly audible due to NFB phase delay.
Only amplifiers where output terminal sensed NFB error potential is controlled fully in phase with input at all audible frequencies do not generate crossover distortion, and there are precious few of them in existence.

The dynamically induced return of reactively stored and released energy is something which is simply ignored and not tested for on the audio workbench, and this explains why amplifiers supposedly having 0.001% distortion specs still do not sound good beside low or non feedback designs.

I should however like to comment upon your words -
"can either return more energy than stored or alternately, , where this energy goes is unknown."

The return of reactively stored energy is always displaced in time with respect to source/ input.
That return from the reactive circuits, relates to how many phase changing circuits coincidentally become simultaneously energised before there is reflection/ return event. The greater the number of phase changes prior to reflection, the greater the reactive return boost.

At LF in loudspeakers there can be air spring motion as well as L-C crossover reactances, potentially causing dynamic impedance dips as low as 2 ohms on 8ohm LS systems, and yet the true loading of these dips will not (cannot) be revealed by steady sine testing - this exactly as you suggest Garrett, with your complex dynamic current/ voltage phase shift waveform observations.

However "store a portion of energy that won't ever be returned" is not something I have observed to be correct, for that energy is always returned/ dissipated the moment that the energising source input is either switched off or disconnected, this in the form of a reactive settlement tail which can be recorded with respect to 't'-off at the input.

Surely it is only photonically/ electromagnetically radiated energy, or the electric/ magnetic field transduced portions doing work, which won't ever be returned ?

Cheers ........... Graham.
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Old 07-17-2012, 10:49 PM
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If

c = 299792458
F = 3670000
λ = 81.68
λ/4 = 20.42

Then

124% <

/1.24 = 16.469
Luminal frequency = 4550.8 kc
= F*1.24

124% >

*1.24 = 25.323
Luminal frequency = 2959.677 kc
= F/1.24

If a coil of λ/4 = 20.42 metres wire length was made, then based on the results shown of 124% the measured frequency would be approx

4550.8 kc

Which = λ/4/1.24

= 16.469 metres extra coil wire length luminal frequency

Therefore, tuned to 100% luminal frequency of this 16.469 metres wire length, the extra coil would theoretically be operating at the so-called "F*1.24" or 124% velocity of the fundamental F. Excluding any effects of being connected to the secondary.
Furthermore, taking the luminal frequency as 4550800, the measured frequency would be approx

4550800*1.24 = 5642992

5642992/3670000 = 1.5376

So theoretically extra coil with no terminal capacitance = almost 154%

Although ultimately this may be a load of useless rubbish, I'm just putting my thoughts on it out loud as I establish various relationships through numbers so make of it what you will
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Old 07-18-2012, 12:31 PM
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The square root of Pi divided by 2 is 1.25; could this be related to the empirical 1.24 through a longitudinal excitation not involving transverse transduction ?
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Old 07-18-2012, 06:55 PM
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Thoughts on the Overall View of a Tesla Transformer

I may most likely be wrong, but here are some thoughts I had on the Tesla Transformer as given by Mr. Dollard.

The Secondary Coil is intentionally designed with extra capacitance present in the solenoids distributed constants. I believe, this is to counteract the "loading inductance" attributed to the grounding system.

Conversely, the Extra Coil is intentionally designed with extra inductance present in its distributed constants. Similar to the Secondary Coil, this is to counteract the "loading capacitance" attributed to the end-terminal beer can, dome, sphere or whatever is used.

In both cases the increased parameter (L or C), distributed throughout each distinct coil, isn't wanted but is needed to counteract the parasitic elements seen in an actual system. Therefore, they are necessary "evils", needed to make an actual working system.

Here, the grounding system acts as a one-wire "thru-the-earth" connection to the receiving units, by use of telluric transmission. The end-terminal capacitance, if I'm not mistaken, may act as a "reflecting capacitance", but more importantly, it is used to lower the dielectric gradient around the end-terminal of the extra coil. Here, the end-terminal beer can, or other voluminous metallic object, distributes the flux lines around the surface of the beer can, as opposed to the tip of a wire, thereby lowering the density of the flux to safe levels. This is done to prevent arcing, due to dielectric saturation of the air surrounding the coil. I would think, to achieve the best performance, you would want the end-terminals metallic object to have the LEAST capacitance with the GREATEST surface area. This, to minimize loading and also to reduce dielectric flux density.

When actually testing a built unit, the end-terminal capacity is increased and reduced as a parameter to help bring the whole unit into resonance. Here, the choice for shape isn't necessarily important, but when you tune for maximum performance it becomes an important aspect to address, especially when operating at high voltages. Also, a delay line, a certain length of wire between Extra Coil and end-terminal capacity, may or may not be needed for proper operation, this in itself would impose a certain amount capacitance and its value would need to be taken into account if used. The ring condenser, between the top of the secondary and bottom of extra, capacitance is also a very important parameter to aid in tuning the whole assembly. Last but not least, the primary loop capacitance is yet another parameter to adjust for proper operation.

Now, as for the velocity of the coils, the coil forms and wire jacketing permittivity were not taken into account when you derived your dimensions for construction. These impose extra loading capacitance (from non free-space permittivity), which was not intended. This is the primary evil of a working system. I believe Mr. Dollard has stated that he was able to get a coil to operate at the 157% velocity of c, also Madhatter has stated that one of two coils, that he built, was nearly at that velocity, the other was close but seemed to be loaded by some extra capacitance.

Thus the 124% isn't an absolute value, its only a statistically relevant figure. It would seem almost everyone who builds a coil has about the same parasitic loading capacitance distributed throughout their coils resulting in a figure that is ~124% velocity of c.

I will admit that I haven't done a thorough examination of the subject, and I'm not even remotely qualified to give even an opinion on it either, but I thought it couldn't hurt to give an outline of how I see the whole operation of the Tesla Transformer.

Garrett M
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Old 07-18-2012, 07:32 PM
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Originally Posted by garrettm4 View Post

I believe Mr. Dollard has stated that he was able to get a coil to operate at the 157% velocity of c, also Madhatter has stated that one of two coils, that he built, was nearly at that velocity, the other was close but seemed to be loaded by some extra capacitance.

Garrett M
There again that Pi divided by 2 ratio = 157%;
the unique longitudinally polarised photonic radiation, as opposed to normal transverse electromagnetic transduction.
The coil photonically excited longitudinally and not electrically as an electromagnetic inductance.
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Old 07-19-2012, 12:25 AM
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Originally Posted by garrettm4 View Post
When actually testing a built unit, the end-terminal capacity is increased and reduced to bring the whole unit into resonance. Here, the choice for shape isn't necessarily important, but when you tune for maximum performance it becomes an importance aspect to address. Also, a delay line, a certain length of wire between Extra Coil and end-terminal capacity, may or may not be needed for proper operation.
It's a little more complicated than that. You could tune it that way, but then, what do you tune your secondary to? If you tune the secondary to F, then add the extra coil, suddenly the secondary frequency has gone right up and you need to add more secondary capacitance, otherwise you'll need a massive terminal capacitance. Physically I mean, I've had a bit of a Tower Of Babel coming along which was not practical at all Eventually I ran out of metal objects so could proceed no further, and had to take it down for safety reasons in case it all came crashing down through an accidental knock.

[edit] But either way, I was only bringing the tandem frequency down which was relatively high because the secondary had no capacitance and I was instead doing the tuning through the extra coil terminal. My conclusion is that the secondary needs to be tuned to a relatively low frequency, exactly what I don't know yet.

A "delay line" also constitutes some of the terminal capacitance whether insulated or not. The fact the piece of wire is there at all reduces the frequency, as well as its arrangement or direction and distance above the extra coil. The distance of the terminal itself from the top of the extra coil/TMT as a whole has an effect, as well as the length of wire leading to the terminal at any given distance above the coil. So a 15cm sphere for example 5cm above the coil would be very different to the same 15cm sphere 20cm above the coil.
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Last edited by dR-Green; 07-19-2012 at 12:33 AM.
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