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  #31  
Old 07-19-2012, 05:10 AM
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Doc,
Thanks for taking the time to explain it but I'm still confused. I thought we were tuning for a wave of the same frequency as the luminal wave but the velocity/wavelength of the two waves is different. From what your talking about it seems your implying different frequencies. Does this mean that the AM transmitter actually emits two waves of two differing frequency/velocity/wavelength rather than just two waves of two differing velocities. It seems in my line of reasoning I kept frequency constant but you made it variable. This also doesn't clear up the whole 2/pi 1/2pi problem either with the secondary coil length either. Could you also explain this statement more for me; "The extra coil would then need to operate at a minimum of 124% with no terminal capacitance." Sorry if my questions are silly, I'm still quite new to this TMT scheme. My sole focus for quite some time was on the 'free energy' aspects of this so I'm still trying to play catch up in certain parts.

I should probably just do what I was originally going to do and build it from Eric's math and see how my understanding comes along from there because you're getting results so something interesting is going on.

Raui
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  #32  
Old 07-19-2012, 05:31 AM
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Originally Posted by Raui View Post
Could you also explain this statement more for me; "The extra coil would then need to operate at a minimum of 124% with no terminal capacitance."
By that I mean, it would not be possible to get it into resonance unless you used no terminal capacitance, and got the extra coil velocity to 124% minimum. Otherwise its frequency would be too low relative to the secondary.

The frequency is constant. But if you take a 124% velocity in the way you mean and figure out the wavelengths from that, then all the numbers are still the same. IE replace c with the 124% value, do the calculations again, and you're back where you started.

I see what you're getting at but I think the problem with treating it as a physical object moving through space from point A to point B is that it throws off the method of energising it in the first place, you'd just be making the frequency lower while the 124% measured velocity remains constant. You're increasing the distance between point A and point B so now while you're still travelling at 124% you won't make it in time. Or something like that
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  #33  
Old 07-20-2012, 02:47 AM
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the CRI really highlights the measurement problem. anything that interacts even 'passively' will effect the desired result one is after. I was unable to get the two sets to match exactly to one another, close but not exact. adjusting one side affected the other, moving around them also caused issues.

at one point when I had it near 'perfect' there was some very odd effects to nearby electronics. I was using some led diode circuits on an acrylic rod and they were lighting up brightly in the vicinity of the extra coil, my cell phone in my shirt pocket started audibly chattering and buzzing when the extra hit 157%, that startled me and I shut the fq generator off. the phone didn't seem to have suffered any damage but it was very strange.
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Old 07-20-2012, 02:34 PM
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Baking wood

dR-Green:
Well, as we speak I am baking my secondary coil support rods at 190 degree Celsius for 1 hour. I hope this will do the trick. I have (20) 3 cm dia by 186 mm long support rods of which 10 is marked on one end 90 degrees apart with 3.5 mm, 4 mm, 5 mm and 5.5 mm grooves for a total of 20 turns for each spacing. Once freshly baked (and properly "seasoned") the rods will be coated with some polyurethane coating. The 10 marked rods are alternating with the unmarked rods and will be free to rotate for the desired spacing. Once the rods and the end plates are assembled I will first wind the coil with a 3.5 mm spacing. This corresponds to a .58 factor vs. Eric's .62. Next I will rewind this 20 turn coil with a 4 mm spacing that corresponds to a .81 spacing factor. If resonance frequency higher than before, then I will rewind again with 5.5 mm spacing (1.49 factor). If now I get a decrease in frequency then I still can rewind with a 5 mm spacing (1.02 factor). My wire diameter is 2.21 mm. Comments are welcome.
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Old 07-21-2012, 07:08 AM
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Originally Posted by Nhopa View Post
dR-Green:
Well, as we speak I am baking my secondary coil support rods at 190 degree Celsius for 1 hour. I hope this will do the trick. I have (20) 3 cm dia by 186 mm long support rods of which 10 is marked on one end 90 degrees apart with 3.5 mm, 4 mm, 5 mm and 5.5 mm grooves for a total of 20 turns for each spacing. Once freshly baked (and properly "seasoned") the rods will be coated with some polyurethane coating. The 10 marked rods are alternating with the unmarked rods and will be free to rotate for the desired spacing. Once the rods and the end plates are assembled I will first wind the coil with a 3.5 mm spacing. This corresponds to a .58 factor vs. Eric's .62. Next I will rewind this 20 turn coil with a 4 mm spacing that corresponds to a .81 spacing factor. If resonance frequency higher than before, then I will rewind again with 5.5 mm spacing (1.49 factor). If now I get a decrease in frequency then I still can rewind with a 5 mm spacing (1.02 factor). My wire diameter is 2.21 mm. Comments are welcome.
A very interesting idea Perhaps you could make it so you could rotate the rods and adjust the spacing without rewinding it each time?
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Old 07-21-2012, 11:17 PM
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Originally Posted by madhatter View Post
the CRI really highlights the measurement problem. anything that interacts even 'passively' will effect the desired result one is after. I was unable to get the two sets to match exactly to one another, close but not exact. adjusting one side affected the other, moving around them also caused issues.

at one point when I had it near 'perfect' there was some very odd effects to nearby electronics. I was using some led diode circuits on an acrylic rod and they were lighting up brightly in the vicinity of the extra coil, my cell phone in my shirt pocket started audibly chattering and buzzing when the extra hit 157%, that startled me and I shut the fq generator off. the phone didn't seem to have suffered any damage but it was very strange.
Yes this is why I went "remote", USB oscilloscope and signal gen so the frequency can be changed and measurements taken from the other side of the room. Ideally I would have needed binoculars to use the analogue panel meter With the new extra coil I think the range is even bigger, moving around within about 2 metres seems to have an effect.

Also some caution may be required. I've been changing the setup while keeping the environment the same. The coil and the terminal is now quite close to shelves on which I have various components, ICs and transistors. When it came to building the amplifier, of all the transistors that I tested from the shelf, not one of them had the gain they're supposed to have So I can't be sure but I suspect this could have been caused by the coil.
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  #37  
Old 07-22-2012, 02:33 AM
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Question #1

[I've been out of the loop for quite a while for personal reasons, but I've recently completed a marathon re-read of the Dollard threads].

Stupid question #1:

In the Bolinas/RCA video, Eric showed golden ratio discharges emanating from his apparatus.

He finished the video by showing similar patterns in nature, esp. the streams of water flowing from the beach towards the ocean.

The streams of water formed tiny, crooked little tributaries that joined with larger crooked tributaries that finally flowed into a trunk of water flowing into the sea.

I originally thought that in Eric's device, the sparks were emanated FROM his apparatus and dissipated in a golden ratio manner.

Watching the video, I get a different impression.

Is it implied that the streams of sparks are flowing INTO his device, just like the tributaries flowed into the ocean?

Do the coils/etc in his device suck energy inwards instead of expelling it outwards?

WRT to the glass bulb showing golden ratio discharges - if glass is a dielectric medium that supports dielectric fields, then are the golden-ratio discharges flowing inward from the glass towards the device, analogous to the rivulets of water that flowed into the ocean?

pt
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  #38  
Old 07-22-2012, 03:15 AM
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more stupid questions

Stupid Question:

Steinmetz, early in his book Discharges, Waves and Impulses (iirc) states that "current" is a fiction.

A mathematical construct.

Has "current" ever been measured directly?

AFAIK, current (amp) meters use precision resistors and Ohm's law to "measure" "current".

My impression from reading EPD is that "current" could only be measured via magnetic means, if that.

Are current-day clamp-meters better instruments for measuring "current"?

pt
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  #39  
Old 07-22-2012, 03:16 AM
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more stupid questions

Stupid Question:

We have two copper wires separated by a 1-unit distance.

One "line of force" exists between the two copper wires at right angles between both.

A certain force is exerted between the wires by the line of force.

Now, we move the copper wires to 2-unit distances apart.

What is the force that is exerted?

[This isn't intended as a trick question - I'm just trying to visualize. Math doesn't "speak to me", even after a few university degrees. I'm just trying to grok.]

pt
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Old 07-22-2012, 03:18 AM
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more stupid questions

Stupid Question:

We have two similar copper wires 1-unit apart.

One line of force is between them.

The line of force is not at right-angles.

It emanates at 45-degrees from wire 1 to wire 2.

What is the force exerted?

If the force is less than it would be if the line of force was at right angles, does this account for the phenomenom called "resistance"?

pt
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  #41  
Old 07-22-2012, 04:05 AM
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Eric Dollard Inspired Parameter Variation

The following posts are in regard to Eric Dollard inspired parameter variation taken from the Parameter Variation Machines With focus on EPD FQToEW, JF Murray, Manelstam & Papalex thread:

As promised, here is a bit of information about what I have been doing behind the scenes. It has not reached the stage of development that we are all seeking for yet, but it does provide some valuable insights to the beginning experimenter that could help save a lot of time.

First of all, let us examine what direction Eric Dollard has been pointing us towards. Examine the waveforms presented in the following diagram:



Notice that the power wave, P, in watts has an unequal amount of area underneath the curve. In the first diagram, the energy is being produced (the negative area under the power wave is greater than the positive area under the power wave) and in the second diagram, energy is being consumed (the positive area under the power wave is greater than the negative area under the power wave). Analyzing the sinusoidal waves in the graph shows that if the circuit did not have the parameter variation denoted by the wave labeled x, it would exhibit an induction factor of 100% and a power factor of 0%, meaning that this circuit would be a purely reactive circuit, a very high if not infinite magnification factor. This graph clearly shows that under certain conditions of synchronous parameter variation that a negative power factor can manifest in a circuit, meaning that energy is being externally supplied from the varying parameter. Where does the energy come from? That is the million dollar question...

As suggested by Eric Dollard, how do we construct a magnetic amplifier circuit to use as a means of synchronous parameter variation at the 2nd harmonic of the power wave? If you just simply connect up a circuit like this, complications will occur.



The above circuit will have the following waveshapes where the function shown in black is the power wave (carrier wave) and shown in blue is the modulation wave:


The above graph seems like it is suited to be the correct waveshape that we want for our modulation, HOWEVER, if you start taking DC inductance measurements for both polarities of ampere-turns in the control winding, you will see that the inductance of the power windings decreases with each half cycle of the modulation wave, giving 4 minimum inductance peaks rather than 2 as shown by Steinmetz's diagram above. A graphical representation can be seen below, inductance colored red:


As can be seen by the series capacitor in the "Simple Second Harmonic Magamp Modulation Circuit", the modulation portion needs to be in resonance to effectively deliver enough current into the impedance (control winding) that will in turn deliver the ampere-turns of magnetism into the core. After many, many hours of trying every damn thing that I could to overcome this problem of the 4x inductance crests/troughs, I found a simple solution. Two identical control windings and a couple of diodes! So easy...

*R4 is the 1 ohm resistor for current detection.

This arrangement allows for unidirectional current only in the control winding of the magamp under study. It still doesn't have the sinusoidal shape that Steinmetz's has, but the inductance variation becomes isolated to only two out of the four quadrants of rotation. It has produced the best looking waveforms that I have seen on my scope to date.


This configuration would be best used on a four phase electrical system. Then all diverted control winding current could be utilized to modulate another core, creating a balanced system.

This sums up how I have been running my modulation experiments, and I'll be posting some data to accompany this when I can stand to sit down at the computer again.

Until then...

Dave
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  #42  
Old 07-22-2012, 04:09 AM
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Parameter Variation Machines With focus on EPD FQToEW, JF Murray, Manelstam & Papalex This link is the second post in the parameter variation machine thread. It is not as important as the others but just shows some other figures in the circuit before I disassembled/reassembled the core.
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  #43  
Old 07-22-2012, 04:12 AM
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Interesting Results

***POST DELETED***

@All,

Sorry but it turns out that I had a connection issue going on that interlinked the two control windings. This interfered with the measurements which makes these results null and void.

I didn't mean to get anybody excited...

Dave
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Last edited by Web000x; 08-02-2012 at 03:06 PM. Reason: Data was not correct
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  #44  
Old 07-22-2012, 09:01 AM
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Hello,

How would you go about applying this modulation to a motor or generator which is capable of producing the blue waveform...?

Regards
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  #45  
Old 07-22-2012, 11:36 AM
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The blue waveform (voltage across 1 ohm resistor) would be a sinusoidal waveform IF the inductance had remained unvaried throughout the AC cycle. Anything capable of producing an AC wave can be modulated to create this waveform. The only requirements are that the inductance must be high during the charging of the inductor, low during the discharging of the inductor, and the magnification factor must be fairly high or there will be no negative power factor. See "Reaction Machines" in "Theory and Calculation of Alternating Current Phenomena" for more detail.

Dave
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  #46  
Old 07-23-2012, 03:52 AM
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Saturable Reactors / Parametric Variation Machines

Excellent work Dave! I'm quite excited having seen the new improvements you have made on your saturable reactor project. I wouldn't have thought that the control windings would yield extra magnetic induction like the power winding, this is an important discovery! Also, it would seem the power winding is operating at a ~72% negative power factor, this is an amazing result. Keep up the good work.

For all the "free-energy seekers" out there, Dave's simple demonstration shines brightly for those who really want a sustainable future that is independent of fossil fuels and "the grid". I would love to see Peter Lindemann explain how your recent results are "hocus pocus" now that you have gotten a working example of what Mr. Dollard has talked about for so long.

Sadly, I get the feeling that the bulk majority of people who are interested in "free-energy", are only concerned with looking for unicorns, scalar waves and Bedini motors. The most simple and practical designs are often over looked, synchronous parameter variation being one of the most well developed in history and technical literature of all of the so called free-energy technologies publicly available. I am honestly amazed each time I search for reading / reference material on this vast subject, there seems to be an almost endless supply of technical discussion and dissertations on different uses and forms of this phenomena, from radio communication to servo mechanisms to power conversion.

----------------------------------------------

On another note, I haven't been able to do any work regarding this subject recently, but I hope to be back at the bench here soon. In the meanwhile, here's the first two pages of a book I have been reading regarding this general topic. While its oriented towards radio/microwave circuits, it is still definitely worth taking a look at.

Semiconductor-Diode Parametric Amplifiers 1961 by Lawrence A. Blackwell and Kenneth L. Kotzebue (compliments of HathiTrust)




For some more fun reads on the subject (via HathiTrust) check out:

Self-Saturating Magnetic Amplifiers 1960 by Gordon E. Lynn

Magnetic Amplifiers, Theory and Application 1958 by Sidney Platt


In closing, the field of synchronous parameter variation is rife with potential in a wide ranging field of applications, not just power generation. The door is now wide open, and its up to every one of us as engineers to bring this technology, in any form, to practical use in power generation, radio communication and any other field that it is found applicable to.

Garrett M
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  #47  
Old 07-23-2012, 01:53 PM
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Primary coil capacitor

Based on measurements do any of the "builders" have some feel for the approximate size of capacitor we are going to need for the primary if the secondary coil is designed for around 1,000 Kc. I am thinking of using mica for the dielectric and copper plates. 1 mm thick glass would also be good, but I can't get it where I currently live. Has anyone tried yet to glue the plates together?
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Old 07-23-2012, 06:20 PM
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Grimeton Alexanderson Installation

Lamare found a couple of interesting books on magnetic amplifiers, one of which gave a brief account of the Alexanderson transatlantic telegraph transmitter installation. Which is still intact in Grimenton Sweden. I thought I would put up a few pages from the book to complement the recent T-trex transmission "Law of Electro-Magnetic Induction".

On Magnetic Amplifiers in Aircraft Applications 2007 by Lars Austrin









Garrett M
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Old 07-23-2012, 11:08 PM
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The Law of Electro-Magnetic Induction, Part 5. (1 of 2)

(1) This part in the series, Law of Electro-Magnetic Induction here continues with chapter three from the Steinmetz A.C.. book, 1916 edition. Here he has just given his definition of the Volt as,



And by algebraic operation, the magnetic “charge” is,



The Time Interval, t, is one second, and the quantity of induction, , is one hundred mega-lines of flux. This relation defines one volt of electro-motive force. In the next paragraph, page 16, Steinmetz turns the eighth power around, this to the negative eight, altering the relation to,



Compounded on this relation is the number of turns in the coiled winding,



And hereby it is,



Where En is the volt per turn and n is the number of turns. No explanation is provided as to the reason for the reversal of the power of ten, from plus eight, to minus eight. We are off to a good start here!

The number of turns in the winding act co-jointly to multiply the E.M.F. These turns also act co-jointly to the multiply the current. This current, i, in amperes, is continuous throughout the coiled winding. As each turn comes about it carries current, i, with it, round and round again, throughout the total number of turns. The net result is a sheet current, this consisting of n individual currents. This is given by the relation,



This sheet current is the magneto-motive force that maintains the magnetic induction. This is in distinction to the current, i, which is related to the “electronic” current. Hence the M.M.F. is expressed in ampere-turns, the “electronic” current, i, and the number of turns, n. For example, a reactance coil has 1000 turns, and it is drawing a current, i, of one ampere, the sheet current of the coil, is, is now 1000 amperes. Hence this coil is operating with a M.M.F. of 1000 ampere-turns. Large M.M.F.'s can be produced with small currents thru the compounding of these currents via multiple turn windings of many turns. The limiting factor is the accumulation of series resistance as the winding gets longer in length.

This was an important discovery in electro-magnetism. It's first engineering application was the Morse Telegraph Coil as developed by Joseph Henry, the American Faraday.

(2) These multiple turns not only multiply the current, i, they also multiply the E.M.F., E. The currents compound, side by side, in a parallel fashion, this creating a sheet current. The E.M.F. per turn compounds, end to end, in a series fashion. Each and every turn develops an identical E.M.F. All turns are linked together thru the mutual magnetic induction which surrounds the entire winding. Each individual E.M.F. adds to the next, in a series manner, developing a total E.M.F., that of the entire winding.

This is expressed in the relation,



Where,

Eo, the total end to end E.M.F.

E, the individual turn E.M.F.

For example, the same reactance coil, 1000 turns. This coil is discharged at a constant rate over a period of one second. During this discharge each turn develops an E.M.F. of one volt. The coil has 1000 turns, hence the total E.M.F. at the ends of the windings is 1000 volts. This is the principle of automobile ignition coil, a magnetic discharge device.

Here established is two relations, one for the total M.M.F.,



The other for the total E.M.F.,



The individual currents are identical thruout the coiled winding, no gradient exists in this current. The individual E.M.F's are also identical, but not as with the current. A gradient exists in between the turns as the E.M.F. compounds along the winding. Hence a voltage gradient exists along the winding length expressed as volts per turn. Here in this metallic-dielectric geometry the magnetic force and the dielectric force are oriented in the same direction, (MK).
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Old 07-23-2012, 11:09 PM
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The Law of Electro-Magnetic Induction, Part 5. (2 of 2)

(3) In chapter three, page 16, Steinmetz gives the dynamo formula for the average value of E.M.F. as,



Where,

F, frequency in cycles/second.

Steinmetz states here the numeric four results from the lines of force being “cut” four times in one complete rotation or cycle of alternation. This gives rise to four quarter wave surges of induced E.M.F. Each is in succession, one follows the other. These surges alternate in half wave sets, first plus-minus, then minus plus. For example, consider the 1000 turn reactance coil. At the onset of the cycle the magnetic induction expands outward, this with a “north” polarity. As it expands it must force its way thru the windings, giving rise to an E.M.F. in a reverse direction. As the cycle progresses the magnetism expands to its maximum extent and then is withdrawn, back inside the coil. This back surge of magnetism must again force its way thru the windings, giving rise to an induced E.M.F. in a forward direction. The first half cycle is now complete, giving a reverse and then a forward induced electro-motive force. At the onset of the next half cycle the magnetic induction expands outward again, this time it is of a “south” polarity. As it expands it again forces its way thru the windings giving rise to an induced E.M.F. in the forward direction, forward because the magnetism is now “south” rather than “north”. As this next half cycle progresses the magnetism expands to its maximum extent and is withdrawn. This back surge of magnetism must again force its way thru the windings to get back inside. This gives rise to an induced E.M.F. in the reverse direction and then the cycle is complete. Hence the existance of four distinct E.M.F. each existing in one quadrant of the A.C. cycle.

1) Expansion, north (+).
2) Contraction, north (-).
3) Expansion, south (-).
4) Contraction, south (+).

Euro-standards require reverse to be positive, its the law, the law of the crank. Reverse means here a back E.M.F. in opposition.

It should be noted that if the windings are shorted with no resistance, it is that no E.M.F. can exist and thus no motion of the magnetic induction is possible. This will halt the rotation of the dynamo.

(4) Steinmetz continues with the development of the dynamo formula. The maximum, or peak, value of E.M.F. is given by the relation,



This alters the dynamo formula into,



Here it is given that,



Steinmetz fails to incorporate this angular velocity or frequency, into his equations. This would simplify the dynamo equation to,



or on a Per Turn Basis,



Substituting the relation


The dynamo formula now becomes the basic expression of the law of E.M. Induction, this given as,


This on a per turn, or unit, E.M.F. basis. Hence a volt is given as weber per second. The radian is dimensionless.

Thruout his writings it is that Steinmetz refuses to use the angular frequency, , and insists upon the use of the cyclic frequency, F, cycles rather than radians. This unnatural form of expression results in the continued appearance of the factor two pi thruout his equations. This makes each equation that much more complex and gives rise to the situation of interferences with other pi factors causing cancellations and squares.

Steinmetz continues here to give the relation for the effective value of E.M.F.,



This is also known as the root mean square value, (RMS).

The dynamo formula now take the form,



This is the “Steinmetz Formula” for the law of E.M. Induction, a convoluted mess! This is a “practitioner's” formula for winding dynamo coils, not a starting point for a theoretical study of A.C. phenomena.

BK DE N6KPH

Reference:

“Intro to E.M. Theory”, Vol I by Oliver Heaviside, note “Practitioner”.
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  #51  
Old 07-24-2012, 01:14 AM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Nhopa View Post
Based on measurements do any of the "builders" have some feel for the approximate size of capacitor we are going to need for the primary if the secondary coil is designed for around 1,000 Kc. I am thinking of using mica for the dielectric and copper plates. 1 mm thick glass would also be good, but I can't get it where I currently live. Has anyone tried yet to glue the plates together?
When using silver mica caps in parallel I need 6 - 330pF caps for 1620.

Just Install your primary and use caps in parallel to find out how much you need. This will get you in the ball park. Then build your plate cap.
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  #52  
Old 07-24-2012, 05:03 AM
garrettm4 garrettm4 is offline
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Law of Electromagnetic Induction, from Steinmetz T&C of AC Phenomena

Quote:
No explanation is provided as to the reason for the reversal of the power of ten, from plus eight, to minus eight. We are off to a good start here!
I may be wrong on this, but I believe Steinmetz prefers the use of the maxwell instead of the weber for the unit of magnetic flux, at least for introductory explanations. This is why the use of 10^8 and 10^-8 make their appearance in his engineering expressions. Whereby 1 maxwell is a single loop of magnetic flux and one hundred million, 100,000,000 or 10^8 maxwells cutting a single turn conductor per second is one volt of E.M.F.

It is that one weber cutting a single turn conductor per second is also one volt of E.M.F. This relates the two by the factor of 10^8 or one hundred million maxwells is equivalent to one weber. Thus Steinmetz's expressions are confounded by 10^8 and 10^-8 due to the choice of unit for the measurement of magnetic flux. This is probably obvious to most, but I thought I would help clarify for those who are new or unfamiliar with this subject.

Concluding, Steinmetz starts off with the explanation in maxwells or "lines" but then converts this into webers by the use of 10^-8. I believe this is done to develop the significance of a single loop of magnetic flux, or one maxwell, while at the same time keeping the discusion relevant by making the expressions equivalent to units in webers. However, this portrayal may seem like a nuance to some, due to the added mathematical baggage needed to keep everything in order.

A helpful companion reference for this topic is The Magnetic Circuit 1911 by Vladimir Karapetoff. Given below are pages 6-7 of Karapetoff's book, which covers the differences between the maxwell and the weber:




Also, I thought I would put up the referenced pages of Steinmetz's book, Theory and Calculation of Alternating Current Phenomena, for quick perusal by those interested in the T-Rex Transmissions:




Garrett M
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Old 07-24-2012, 06:11 PM
Nhopa Nhopa is offline
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Primary coil

Hi jake, dR-Green and all your other experimenters:

Just a thought, what if I would place the primary coil right over the secondary? Tesla in his Notes, page 68 states "...the secondary will have to be placed in the closest possible inductive relation to the primary and this will give...., of relatively high frequency, since the inductances of the circuits by mutual reaction will be considerably reduced.". Now Tesla's set up was such that allowed him to make quick changes in his coil geometry. A primary over the secondary would not yield this kind of freedom of variation for coil configuration. Any thoughts?
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Old 07-24-2012, 06:40 PM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Nhopa View Post
Hi jake, dR-Green and all your other experimenters:

Just a thought, what if I would place the primary coil right over the secondary? Tesla in his Notes, page 68 states "...the secondary will have to be placed in the closest possible inductive relation to the primary and this will give...., of relatively high frequency, since the inductances of the circuits by mutual reaction will be considerably reduced.". Now Tesla's set up was such that allowed him to make quick changes in his coil geometry. A primary over the secondary would not yield this kind of freedom of variation for coil configuration. Any thoughts?
That's how it is (shown) in patent 1119732.

Patent US1119732 - ELECTRICAL ENERGY - Google Patents

Maybe this is the direction he was heading? At the same time, I don't remember where I read it, but Tesla mentions somewhere that he wanted the loosest primary-secondary coupling to allow for resonant rise in the secondary, which is why he developed the conical coil from the flat spiral I think, and then what led to the necessity of the extra coil (??) in the CS type setup. Not 100% certain but I think that was the general direction, I get the impression that changes are made, then other things need to be done to make up for the loss of performance or difference in the geometry etc. So maybe once the extra coil was done he could take a step "backwards" again, not needing the loosest primary-secondary coupling any more.

Just some thoughts on the matter.

[edit] Although I would expect the magnification factor of the secondary to be a lot lower that way. The secondary would be more ready to respond to a wider frequency band rather than a sharp peak at the resonant frequency. But where I get a bit lost is that the basic transformer action wouldn't be as efficient when they're further apart. So as with everything here maybe there's a particular distance where it will all be perfectly tuned.
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  #55  
Old 07-24-2012, 11:55 PM
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The Law of E.M. Induction, Part 6 (1 of 3)

(1) Steinmetz closes chapter three in his A.C. book, 1916 edition, with his development of the concept of Inductance. Here given, for the first time in chapter three, is the current, i, in ampere. It is the “electronic” current, for the lack of a better term. Steinmetz gives the relation,



This is the Magnetic Inductance, also known as the co-efficient of magnetic energy storage.

Steinmetz complicates this relation by giving the current, i, in effective values, an unnatural form. The relation is given by,



Hence the resulting expression is given by,



Transposing his relation gives,



This derives from Steinmetz's expression the co-efficient of self induction.

Using maximum rather than effective values for current simplifies the relation to,



This the basic expression for the co-efficient of self induction.

(2) This self induction is a non motional, or static, induction. This represents the reactance coil. It is important to notice that the self induction is distinct from the motional induction produced by the dynamo. The motional relation, that of rotary motion, is given by the relation,



The induction for the static, or stationary, condition is given by the relation,



In the static expression the number of turns, n, and the factor of ten to the minus eighth, are absorbed into the henry, that is,



becomes



(3) Continuing in chapter three Steinmetz introduces the concept of Reactance. The relation is given by,



Substituting the relation,



Establishes the basic Ohm's Law expression for alternating currents,



X is called the reactance of the coiled winding. Transposing gives the expression for the reactance as,



And it is that volt per ampere defines the dimensions of the ohm. This volt per ampere can also be expressed as a henry per second, giving the relations,



And it is,



This expression of reactance can be considered a synchronous inductance, this in an A.C. circuit.
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Old 07-24-2012, 11:56 PM
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The Law of E.M. Induction, Part 6 (2 of 3)

(4) The total magnetic induction can be sub-divided into a pair of independent factors.

One, the intensity of the magneto-motive motive force, this maintaining the quantity of magnetism, Force, i, in ampere.

Two, the concentration , or inductance, containing the quantity of magnetism, Concentration, L, in henry.

These two factors are related thru the Law of Magnetic Proportion, given by,


Where, i, is the ampere of current. Transposing gives the relation for magnetic induction as,



Hence the total magnetic induction is the product of two Independant Parameters, each of which contributes to the induction. Each of these two parameters can be varied separately. The E.M.F. is developed thru the resulting variation of the total magnetic induction.

The total energy contained in the magnetic induction is given by the relation,



It was given that,



Substituting this into weber-ampere gives,



And this leads to the expression of magnetic energy as,



(5) The quantity of magnetic induction is made to vary by variation of the current or the variation of inductance, or by the variation of both. This variation of magnetism that results from the parameter variation gives rise to a variation of the quantity of stored energy contained in the magnetic induction. The E.M.F. developed by the variation of magnetism is the means by which the stored energy can either leave or enter its magnetic form. It is then the current, or M.M.F., represents the potential energy stored in the magnetic field, and the E.M.F. represents the kinetic energy given or taken by the magnetic field.

This is analogous to the dielectric field. Here it is the electro-static potential, e, in volt that represents the potential energy of the field. The displacement current, I, in ampere then represents the kinetic energy taken or given to the dielectric field. Hence,





Therefore where it is that the voltage, e, is the electro-static potential, it is the M.M.F. (and its current, i,) is the magneto-static potential.

Both potentials in themselves do not represent energy, only the force required to maintain this energy in a static, or potential, state.

(6) The M.M.F. is the force holding the magnetism in place. A stationary magnetic field needs a continuous current to remain stationary.

The inductance is the holder of the magnetism. An invariant inductance can hold a stationary magnetic field of induction in place.

Variation of either the M.M.F. or the inductance requires the magnetism move. This gives rise to an E.M.F. of energy transfer, this as a result of a time rate of change in the quantity of magnetism. The E.M.F. is directly proportional to this change, the quicker the change, the larger the E.M.F.

Neither the M.M.F., nor the inductance, represent energy. They are only factors of the induction, parts of a whole. While each parameter effects the magnetism as a whole, the effects of each are not interchangeable, and this needs to be taken into account regarding the Law of Energy Continuity.

(7) In the static reactance coil it is the intensity of force, as a current, that is made to vary. This variation is expressed in ampere per second,



Where,



The inductance of the reactance coil is constant, or invariant in this situation. Hence the E.M.F. developed by the reactance coil is derived from the time rate of current variation only. This is expressed by the relation,



Where, , ampere-second. It is customary however to express this relation using



and



But here in the reactance coil the inductance is in-variant, no such henry per second exists. It is the ampere per second which acts here. Hence in its common expression the term reactance can be misleading.
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Old 07-24-2012, 11:57 PM
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The Law of E.M. Induction, Part 6 (3 of 3)

(8) In the employment of parameter variation for the development of an E.M.F., this thru variation of the current, the objective is to develop a back E.M.F. of self induction. The E.M.F. facilitates the flow of energy but this flow is wattless. Here the reactance coil serves as a “dissapationless resistor” for A.C. circuits. All energy is conserved, what goes into the magnetism all comes back out of the magnetism. The Law of Energy Continuity is not a consideration here. The alternative condition is the development of an electro-motive force by the variation of the inductance. This E.M.F. represents the transfer of energy into, or out of, the magnetism. However the energy is not conserved, thus the Law of Energy Continuity must be applied to identify the location of the transferred energy, (motion, heat, aether, etc).

(9) Parameter Variation of the inductance is expressed by the relation,



And here it is



In comparison, for the condition of parameter variation of the current the relation is,



And here it is given,



Hence,

Current variation in ampere per second, , and inductance variation in henry per second, XL, two distinct variations.

In these two distinctly different conditions, each have the same component dimensions,





These three dimensional relations engender but one magnetic field. However the order in which these three dimensions are situated gives rise to two distinctly different conditions, that is,

Ampere – Henry per Second,

Henry – Ampere per Second.

The Law of E.M. Induction exists in two forms with the same basic dimensions. Hence the term reactance can take on two new meanings, the reactance of self inductance, and the reactance of inductance variation,




Only in the variant inductance are the dimensions correctly in the henry per second.

(10) For the condition of current variation with respect to time the inductance is a constant, or invariant. The alternating E.M.F. is produced by a current alternating between maximum values of opposite polarity, positive and negative. A zero crossing results, between maximum values.

For the condition of inductance variation with respect to time the current can be constant, a direct current, that is, invariant. The alternaing E.M.F. is produced by the pulsation of inductance between maximum and minimum values. There is no zero inductance. Both the maximum and minimum values are positive.

Where it is possible to reverse the current, or make it pulsating, the inductance cannot be reversed. Negative inductance is undefined. The inductance variation is intrinsically asymmetrical in nature. The variation exists as a percentage of modulation, 100 percent being variation of inductance between zero inductance, and the maximum inductance, values, as limits.

(11) This parameter variation can be extended to both the current and the inductance, both in variation together. Each can be in variation at their own time rates, each at its own frequency and phase angle. This gives rise to a complex E.M.F. containing modulation products of sum and difference frequencies, with the originating frequencies suppressed. This is known as a double sideband modulation. The E.M.F. is of the form,



Here enters chapter 25, of Steinmetz's A.C. book, 1916 edition. The chapter is titled “Distortion of Waveshape and Its Cause”. Here Steinmetz develops expressions for what is called Synchronous Parameter Variation, for both rotating and static apparatus. This serves as an extension on the Theory and Laws of Hysteresis.

BK DE N6KPH
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Old 07-25-2012, 03:08 AM
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T-Rex

I'm the diagam where you showed the CRI powering a bulb there is a metallic connection between the secondary and extra. Is this correct?


Edit:
Sorry I'm on a phone and I can't find that diagram to link to. But I wanted to ask while I still saw T-Rex on the bottom.
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Old 07-25-2012, 02:53 PM
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Jake,

Eric is not close to a computer. Those past two posts are from manuscripts mailed to me by Eric.

@all,

My apologies on the recent data and getting anybody's hopes up. I have found that the control winding under study was being interfered with by another source of E.M.F. The results are null and void.



Dave
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Old 07-25-2012, 05:20 PM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Web000x View Post
Jake,

Eric is not close to a computer. Those past two posts are from manuscripts mailed to me by Eric.

@all,

My apologies on the recent data and getting anybody's hopes up. I have found that the control winding under study was being interfered with by an

other source of E.M.F. The results are null and void.

Dave
Bummer on both of these.


But here is the diagram I was talking about. Does anyone know why in this setup the secondary and extra are joined.



Thanks,
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