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  #451  
Old 05-18-2012, 01:28 AM
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Now I've got to really think about this last bit, I put together another core, two magnet disks 3" dia, 2 copper disks 2.75" dia all with .25" hole, sandwiched the copper disks with a piece of .125" thick neoprene. 20 turns of 26ga mag wire.

putting a static 9vDC charge on the plates has a very interesting effect on the windings, now the charge is via a wall unit so it's not battery clean. the meter reads 2v AC on the leads if there is a small .001uF capacitor in series. now if I touch the magnets the voltage fluctuates due to my body capacitance. another interesting feature, take the ground lead of the meter and attach to a clean ground, I have a rod for this. leave the positive lead on one of the winding ends, it'll will read ~10vAC, If I touch the magnets the voltage jumps to ~23vAC and climbs to 43VAC.

if I remove the ground lead from the ground and touch it with my finger it'll read ~7VAC.

putting in a diode it'll read .5vDC on the windings.

THis is all with a static 9Vdc charge on the plates in the magnet core transformer.

need to source some highly permeable material to make layered cores with copper plates and see what I get without the impressed magnetic field already in place.
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  #452  
Old 05-18-2012, 01:36 AM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by madhatter View Post
OK interesting, lets work this out.
a quick and dirty core was made of 4 large flat washers, 3.5" dia with a 1" hole in the center, layered with poly plastic. 22ga mag wire wound 4 turns in traditional manner. 2nF capacitance on the core.

applied an .5v 1kHz sine wave to the 'capacitor plate' core and picked up a AC signal on the windings, applied same .5v sine wave to windings and picked up the AC signal on the core. nothing in this setup is optimized it was simply to see if the magnetic field would induce voltage in the windings and vice versa, it does.

So now the question is how?, esp the capacitor arrangement.

going to build a another core with the capacitor plates arr
anged vertical and see what that does to the magnetic field.

the sine wave was feeble in getting a response, a square wave would be best, however the signal generator I have doesn't output square, need to build a full bridge circuit and re-test.
Going old school. I like it.

Also don't call that static dc until you put a scope on it. A lot of those don't even have a smoothing cap. Make your own smoothing cap.
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  #453  
Old 05-18-2012, 02:07 AM
garrettm4 garrettm4 is offline
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"Flux Capacitor"

Madhatter,

It would seem this little experiment has some potential. If possible could you post a picture of your setup, I am going to give it a go tomorrow when I get some more free time.

I had an interesting thought, what if you hooked up an Arial to one side of the "capacitor" and an earth ground to the other. I am curious if you could tap the free flowing electrostatic displacement currents between the earth and clouds and translate it to low voltage high current ac on the coil side of things.

Thanks for posting your experiment, its got me thinking of some crazy "free energy" devices.

Garrett M
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  #454  
Old 05-18-2012, 03:13 AM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by jake View Post
Going old school. I like it.

Also don't call that static dc until you put a scope on it. A lot of those don't even have a smoothing cap. Make your own smoothing cap.
Oh I know it's not clean, whats interesting is the windings do indeed pick up the 60Hz cycle. I did use a smoothing cap expecting a change, nope all that happens is the 60Hz hum goes away. putting a diode bridge on one lead of the winding terminal is very sensitive to capacitance.

I need to play with this some more, as this is a very fascinating discovery.
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  #455  
Old 05-18-2012, 03:35 AM
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Originally Posted by garrettm4 View Post
Madhatter,

It would seem this little experiment has some potential. If possible could you post a picture of your setup, I am going to give it a go tomorrow when I get some more free time.

I had an interesting thought, what if you hooked up an Arial to one side of the "capacitor" and an earth ground to the other. I am curious if you could tap the free flowing electrostatic displacement currents between the earth and clouds and translate it to low voltage high current ac on the coil side of things.

Thanks for posting your experiment, its got me thinking of some crazy "free energy" devices.

Garrett M
This is indeed a very, very strange experiment and results. I'm still trying to figure how the windings are picking up an AC voltage of such high potential when the plates are charged, I figured the effect would be more pronounced with pulsed dc.

I did try a few things, leave on plate wire free and feed the other with the positive feed of the dc transformer. take the winding leads, one is attached to a capacitive foil sheet the other is fed to the meter, the ground lead of the meter is clamped to a clean ground rod. AC voltage is roughly equal to the DC voltage of the transformer.

there is many different things to try here, and I fiddled around with a number of things.

I want to try a few different designs, let me put some diagrams together and I'll post 'em for you to try as well.
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Old 05-18-2012, 04:56 AM
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here's where I started, the windings are shown as air wound here however in reality I wound them against the core.



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Old 05-18-2012, 06:38 AM
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Mutual Inductance, 1/4 Wavelength and how it Relates to Standing Waves and Longitudinal Propagation - A Visual Dimensional Analysis

Warning: This is my personal Theory and Wild-Conjecture.

Firstly let me quote O'Neill from The Prodigal Genius pg.119

"Tesla did not invent the idea of electrical resonance. It was inherent in the mathematical description of the condenser discharge as developed by Lord Kelvin, and in the physical nature of alternating currents; but Tesla changed it from a buried mathematical equation to sparking physical reality. It is the analogy of acoustical resonance which is a natural property of matter.

However, there were no practical circuits in which resonance could manifest itself until Tesla developed alternating currents, particularly the high-frequency currents. He put the master's touch to the research in this field by developing the principle of resonance in individual circuits through adjustment of capacity and inductance; the amplification of effects by inductive coupling of two tuned circuits, and the peculiar manifestations of resonance in a circuit tuned to a quarter of the wavelength of the energizing current.

This latter development was a stroke of pure genius. In the vibrating string, two loops measure a complete wavelength and one loop measures half a wavelength, since one of the loops is up when the other is down. Between the two loops is a nodal point which does not move. From the nodal point to the top of a loop is a quarter wavelength.Taking the quarter wavelength as a unit, one end is motionless and the other end swings through the greatest amplitude of vibration. By tuning his coils to quarter wavelengths, one end of the coil, Tesla found, would be entirely inactive while the other end would swing through tremendous electrical activity.

Here was a unique situation, one end of a small coil inert and the other end spouting a flood of sparks of hundreds of thousands or even millions of volts. In a physical analogy it seemed like the Niagara River reaching the edge of the precipice--and then its waters shooting mountain high in a gigantic fountain instead of fallinginto the chasm. The quarter-wavelength coil is the electrical counterpart of the vibrating tine of the tuning fork, the ordinary clock pendulum, or the vibrating reed. Once accomplished,it was a simple thing--but its discovery was a work of genius."

In order to understand mutual inductance and therefore how longitudinal propagation arises within the secondary of the Tesla Magnifying Transformer it is crucial to understand how it relates to standing waves, especially the quarter wavelength component of a standing wave. First lets start with a stereotypical AC standing wave. A standing wave is created by sending a wave in one direction and then it REFLECTING back upon itself. Having a mirror like reflection point is key in order to create a standing wave. Image from Patrick Kelly.



--->Starting Point ---------------- Reflecting point ----> |
------->>> Blue wave is the incident travelling in this direction ----->>>

<<<------ Red Wave is the REFLECTED wave travelling in this direction <<<----

The Standing wave is the resultant combination of the two opposing travelling waves. Superimposition. The red points are the nodes, the maximal swing point is the anti-node.

I can't post the following animation here because it is a Java applet, however please click on the link and watch how a Standing wave is created in Slow Motion.

Standing wave Java Animation

Now if you were to take a top-down look at a single coil of which has a standing wave on it, it would look something like this:



What is important to note is that at certain points along the perimeter of the circular wire there are massive voltage fluctuations, and NO voltage fluctuations at the nodal points.

The secondary of the TMT has multiple loops of wire stacked on top of each other. So now imagine how if each one had a Standing wave on it what that might look like. If they are aligned it would look the same..or uniform all the way down. If the standing waves were out of sync, it would look more like a haphazard jagged saw blade. I believe the key to proper TMT tuning is to have all the nodes and anti-nodes on each winding line up with all the nodes and anti-nodes of the other windings. This in effect is that separate standing waves are synchronized with each other geometrically and spatially.

The Importance of Quarter Wavelength:
As O'Neill stated above, Quarter wavelength represents the maximum swing point. The point of greatest amplitude variation. These pictures show how a quarter wavelength is created. (Image from Patrick Kelly)



Now the important thing to note here is that the TMT DOES NOT USE AC WAVES. Thus all the animations/pictures above are WRONG. They merely convey the concepts. Tesla used IMPULSES in his TMT to create standing waves/oscillation. These are quite a different animal than AC waves and look VERY different.

Ok, so now what does a standing wave of quarter wavelength look like in a TMT? First lets relate how an Impulse wave compares to an AC sine wave.



Notice how the 1/4 wave length is in a different spot for the impulse compared to that of the sine wave. This is very important because the maximum amplitude point is of crucial importance. The quarter wavelength for a sine wave is DIFFERENT than that of an impulse.

Now this is more like how I Imagine an unidirectional impulse wave creates a standing wave. The forward wave and the reflected wave compound on each other giving power magnification. So not only is an impulse compress energy in time, when an impulse superimposes itself upon another impulse...well you get some massive power amplification.




A Standing Longitudndal wave in the aether or any medium such as a wire probably looks more like this.



A Java Animation representation of the above - pleas click.

What is important to note is the zones of compression is where maximum amplitude exists of the impulse wave. I hypothesize that the compression points are Peak L activity and Peak C activity in unison.

Now if we look at a coil of winding like the secondary of TMT:



The Red Arrows represent zones of compression or peak nodal points of Mutual induction (M) and Capacitance (C) from one impulse peak to another adjacent impulse peak, from one winding to another.

It is hypothesized that the longitudinal waves travel orthogonal or at 90 degrees to the direction of propagation of the impulses along the wire. Thus in a way it might be likely to suppose that you have TWO standing waves here. One travelling along the wire, and another being created at 90 degrees.

What's interesting here, and of course this all hypothetical talk, is that if Mutual inductance is occurring in counter space at 90 degrees to L then, it is directly in line with C. M and C are now in phase. The two lines of force are now geometrically aligned. M in counterspace and C in space. This is because the dielectric lines of force naturally jump across the space between the winding's, attaching themselves to the conductors on either side.

This creates a rather interesting picture. We have a magnetic transfer of energy phenomenon happening in counterspace, and a naturally counterspaicial phenomena of Dielectric occurring in space. Regular L...magnetism appears to be left behind, and really is of only use to creating M. What happens with K!? Does that play a part in this?

On a separate side note, I had to throw this in here:


That is an impulse waveform.....and it's a heartbeat! Nature as its source of power operates using impulses, not sinusoidal AC. Tesla was really onto something here. The impulse is another one of those fundamental archetypes of the universe.
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Last edited by Gestalt; 05-18-2012 at 06:51 AM.
  #458  
Old 05-18-2012, 09:12 AM
David G Dawson David G Dawson is offline
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Telluric Vs Hertzian propogation delay:

Have the Oscilloscope connected in an attempt to measure the propogation delay but difficult to do on Audio.
If the Station were to transmit a constant CW then it may be possible.
Radio & TV Stations in the old days used to transmit a CW after their close-down time at Midnight but don't think that happens today.

Tuned the Extra Coil and found the best to be 45 turns for my frequency.
However, tapping at this point lowers the signal and is much louder at the 55turn and unable to explain why.
A Portable Transistor Radio with an external dipole antenna goes very loud when placed near the Extra but one with an internal wound Ferrite type does not change volume.
Have now got the Primary with a variable Condenser (about 350pF) to join in with the symphony.
Will now make an Integrated Condenser.

Is anybody else able to pick up their Station with the 1N34 pick-up head
with an air gap from the Extra Coil and what distance can you first detect the Station and what is the loudest or best distance?
Thanks.

Smokey
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  #459  
Old 05-18-2012, 02:19 PM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by David G Dawson View Post
Is anybody else able to pick up their Station with the 1N34 pick-up head
with an air gap from the Extra Coil and what distance can you first detect the Station and what is the loudest or best distance?
Thanks.

Smokey
I have tried variuos extra coils and YES it starts to pick up around 6" away from the extra coil if I am touching any metallic part of the pick up headset. If I insulate myself from the headset it starts to pick up around 2" away. At contact it over powers the piezo and sounds garbled and scratchy.




@ Eric,

If you could give the following definitions new "words". That do not now, or have ever had any connection to the electrical world what would you call them.

C=
L=
K=
M=


Thanks,
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  #460  
Old 05-18-2012, 04:04 PM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by jake View Post
I have tried variuos extra coils and YES it starts to pick up around 6" away from the extra coil if I am touching any metallic part of the pick up headset. If I insulate myself from the headset it starts to pick up around 2" away. At contact it over powers the piezo and sounds garbled and scratchy.




@ Eric,

If you could give the following definitions new "words". That do not now, or have ever had any connection to the electrical world what would you call them.

C=
L=
K=
M=


Thanks,
Quote:
Here established is the forms of inductance, and two forms of capacitance. Expressing these in dimensional relations,

(1) L, Henry. Trasverse Inductance.

Centimeter Square

(2) C, Farad. Transverse Capacitance.

Second Square per Centimeter Square

And

(3) M, per Henry. Longitudinal Inductance.

Per Centimeter Square

(4) K, per Farad. Longitudinal Capacitance.

Centimeter Square per Second Square.

Hence given is the quadrapolar relations

L, the self inductance

C, the self capacitance

M, the mutual enductance

K, the mutual elastance.

Derived is two time scalar space distributions,

LM, Henry per Henry

CK, Farad per Farad

LM is called the Magnetic Space Factor,

CK is called the Dielectric Space Factor.

These space factors LM and CK represent this quadrapolar space distribution as extensions of the basic L and C. Also, a pair of frequencies now exist,

LC, Henry – Farad, or Second Square

And

MK, per (Henry – Farad) or per Second Square.

It hereby can be seen that resonance of a complex structure, such as an oscillating coil, is much more difficult to represent than a simple LC relationship. Here is the major obstacle to the engineering of Tesla type resonant transformers.

Break more to follow
DE N6KPH
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  #461  
Old 05-18-2012, 08:18 PM
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Inductive Waves

Previously defined are four dinstinct electric types of inductivities:

1) Self inductivity, L, in Henry per centimeter
2) Self capacity, C, in Farad per centimeter
3) Mutual enductivity, M, in per Henry per centimeter
4) Mutual elastivity, K, in per Farad per centimeter

The dimension relations are given as:
1) L, centimeter
2) C, second square centimeter cube
3) M, per centimeter cube
4) K, centimeter per second square

These are the distributed constants of the generalized field of electric induction. The two distributions in space are defined by:

1) LM, per centimeter square
2) CK, per centimeter square

Dimensionally standing between LM and CK is the dimensions of second square. This is to say that the magnetic distribution and the dielectric distribution are interwoven through the dimension of time and its relation frequency. This is not unlike a simple condenser and reactance coil which interect through per second square. Now the two fields are not lumped, but are distributed in form. Hence the time dimensional interactions between LM and CK gives rise to a complex of electric wave propogations in both spatial and counter spatial modes.

Here we meet with the completely generalized electric wave. We are nearing the holy grail of electrical engineering.

The complex of magneto-dielectric interactions can take four distinct forms. Each is a single magnetic energy interacting through time with a single dielectric energy. Hence:

1) LC, Henry-Farad per centimeter square
2) MK, per Henry-per Farad per centimeter square

In dimensional expression these are given as,
LC, second square per centimeter square
MK, second square times centimeter square

These two terms give rise to a pair of propogation constants,
One over the square root of LC,
1) centimeters per second

One over the square root of MK,
2) per centimeter per second

Relation (1) is a velocity, motion through space over time, and relation (2) is a counter velocity, motion through counter space over time. These two propogation constants represent the motion of electric induction in a general metallic-dielectric geometry. Unlike the distributions LM and CK which are hyperbolic functions of distance, the propogations LC, and MK, are circular functions of distance along the propogating structure. It can be said two hyperbola are transformed into two circles, this as a geometric analog.

Two additional interactions between magnetic and dielectric inductions arise,
3) K/L, per second square
4) M/C, per second square

or alternatively
3) L/K, second square
4) C/M, second square

A reciprocal relation suggests itself here such as
3) L/K per second square
4) C/M second square

In all their forms both L over K and M over C are space scalars in that they exhibit no distribution in space, everywhere at the same time. Relations (3) and (4) are space-scalar frequencies of magnetic-dielectric exchange and accordingly they are circular functions of time.

Through the presented dimensional relations a generalized expression for electric induction is established. It consists of the following components,

1) The space distribution of magnetic induction, LM,
2) The space distribution of dielectric induction, CK,
3) The time rate of energy exchange between self inductivity, L, and mutual elastivity, K,
4) The time rate of energy exchange between self capacity, C, and mutual enductivity, M

And these four factors, or constants give rise to a pair of electric wave propagations,

a) The electromagnetic propogation in space, LC,
b) The magneto dielectric propogation in counterspace MK

Here four scalar constants, two time scalar, two space scalar, give rise to a pair of waves in two conjugate dimensional relations. This is a bit more complex than a single lumped condenser, or a single lumped reactor. In fact in view of this more generalized understanding the condenser is in actuality a mutual elastor, K, and the reactor is in actuality a mutual enductor, M. Here is a completely reversed viewpoint.

73 DE N6KPH
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  #462  
Old 05-18-2012, 08:37 PM
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  #463  
Old 05-18-2012, 09:09 PM
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Once again Thank you Eric,

I do hope to make some progress on reading the lecture notes, your notes and references. Full load of work here, I'd say that there is easily 4~6 yrs of study and research to cover.

I wanted to comment on the hyperbolic curves, going to a Poincare disk model or hyperbolic geometry the hyperbola can be the inverse of a sphere depending on projection and plane.



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I've been working on spherical waves for the electrostatic field, two intersecting spherical waves would have a hyperbolic curve in counter space.

William Clifford developed an Algebra for hyperbolic geometry. In his book Elements of Dynamic (1878), he introduced "quasi-harmonic motion in a hyperbola". He wrote an expression for a parametrized unit hyperbola.

I'll try and dig this up and post it here later.
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Old 05-19-2012, 01:14 AM
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There seems to be little progress in the longitudinal moon bounce idea, this because we do not know what it is that is bouncing off the moon or if it even bounces at all. It seems necessary to go back to "square one".

It was said that you cannot see the stars in outer space. Is there some reason why you should see them? If then there is no primary light in outer space beyond the influence of the earth then there is no velocity of light since there is no light. This is to say there is not a delay in time when viewing objects in deep space, no light years, etc. The distant galaxies then appear here just as they are, not images of a distant past. Relativity crashes into oblivion. What is known on earth as light is electro-magnetic waves. These light waves of course propagate at luminal velocity.

The sun and stars in this view emit primary induction, not electro-magnetic waves. This is to say that while man made waves that take 8 minutes to travel from sun to earth, the primary induction of the sun arrives at earth much sooner, if not instantly. It is the envelope of the earth itself that engenders the sun light. Through a better understanding of this primary induction a transmission system utilizing it can be developed. The idea here is NOT to get too hung up on theory and innumerable details but to make something work, and this is in the face of impossibility. This is like a military situation, make it work or the ship sinks. The Navy has no secret Telluric system, and moreover they gave up on E.L.F., 76 cps.

Marconi just does not work at those frequencies. If there was such a Navy Telluric transmission, it would be received at Landers. The Landers antenna was capable of detecting underground nuclear detonations, and the Navy 25 Kc/sec fleet broadcast was overwhelmingly strong, requiring the use of band reject networks. Break, more to follow

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Old 05-19-2012, 05:43 AM
David G Dawson David G Dawson is offline
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[QUOTE=jake;193694]I have tried variuos extra coils and YES it starts to pick up around 6" away from the extra coil if I am touching any metallic part of the pick up headset. If I insulate myself from the headset it starts to pick up around 2" away. At contact it over powers the piezo and sounds garbled and scratchy.

Jake,
Thankyou.
20" here with best at 8" without me being bodily present in any way and comes in loud and clear.

Have made a Math presentation at 'n6kph' and will copy here later.

Have been able to improve the Oscilloscope view and have taken some 30 or 40 pictures and will sit down to review.
You can see a slight misalignment but may not be sufficient to generate a propogation delay time.
Oscilloscope is a HP 1741A 100 Mhz.

Eric's 3E29 data sheet:

http://www.mif.pg.gda.pl/homepages/f...049/3/3E29.pdf

Thought I had one but not the case.

Smokey
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Old 05-19-2012, 06:35 AM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by David G Dawson View Post
Have been able to improve the Oscilloscope view and have taken some 30 or 40 pictures and will sit down to review.
You can see a slight misalignment but may not be sufficient to generate a propogation delay time.
If you are doing the audio I think the delay should be somewhere in the region of 7.5-20µs. These images display the time difference between each marker at the top







In MS Excel



The scope data is here if it's any use to you

telluric_vs_hertz_results-01.rar

I forgot to add a text file to the archive, Waveform A is Telluric and Waveform B the regular receiver, transmitter distance 84.78kM but I don't think that makes any difference to the audio signal measurement.
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  #467  
Old 05-19-2012, 06:12 PM
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Electrical Oscillators (Pt1)

I found this Tesla article last night and thought it might be of some use to people building the TMT:


Electrical Oscillators
By Nikola Tesla

Originally Published in Electrical Experimenter July, 1919





Few fields have been opened up the exploration of which has proved as fruitful as that of high frequency currents. Their singular properties and the spectacular character of the phenomena they presented immediately commanded universal attention. Scientific men became interested in their investigation, engineers were attracted by their commercial possibilities, and physicians recognized in them a long-sought means for effective treatment of bodily ills. Since the publication of my first researches in 1891, hundreds of volumes have been written on the subject and many invaluable results obtained through the medium of this new agency. Yet, the art is only in its infancy and the future has incomparably bigger things in store.



Fig. 13—Tesla Oscillator with Magnetically Controlled, Sealed Mercury Interrupter.


From the very beginning I felt the necessity of producing efficient apparatus to meet a rapidly growing demand and during the eight years succeeding my original announcements I developed not less than fifty types of these transformers or electrical oscillators, each complete in every detail and refined to such a degree that I could not materially improve any one of them today. Had I been guided by practical considerations I might have built up an immense and profitable business, incidentally rendering important services to the world. But the force of circumstances and the ever enlarging vista of greater achievements turned my efforts in other directions. And so it comes that instruments will shortly be placed on the market which, oddly enough, were perfected twenty years ago!



Fig. 14—Electrical Oscillator, Illustrated in Fig. 12, Showing Details and Circuit Connections.


These oscillators are expressly intended to operate on direct and alternating lighting circuits and to generate damped and undamped oscillations or currents of any frequency, volume and tension within the widest limits. They are compact, self-contained, require no care for long periods of time and will be found very convenient and useful for various purposes as, wireless telegraphy and telephony; conversion of electrical energy; formation of chemical compounds through fusion and combination; synthesis of gases; manufacture of ozone; lighting; welding; municipal, hospital, and domestic sanitation and sterilization, and numerous other applications in scientific laboratories and industrial institutions. While these transformers have never been described before, the general principles underlying them were fully set forth in my published articles and patents, more particularly those of September 22, 1896, and it is thought, therefore, that the appended photographs of a few types, together with a short explanation, will convey all the information that may be desired.



Fig. 15—Tesla Transformer with Gravity Controlled, Sealed Mercury Interrupter.


The essential parts of such an oscillator are: a condenser, a self-induction coil for charging the same to a high potential, a circuit controller, and a transformer which is energized by the oscillatory discharges of the condenser. There are at least three, but usually four, five or six, circuits in tune and the regulation is effected in several ways, most frequently merely by means of an adjusting screw. Under favorable conditions an efficiency as high as 85% is attainable, that is to say, that percentage of the energy supplied can be recovered in the secondary of the transformer. While the chief virtue of this kind of apparatus is obviously due to the wonderful powers of the condenser, special qualities result from concatenation of circuits under observance of accurate harmonic relations, and minimization of frictional and other losses which has been one of the principal objects of the design.



Fig. 16—Electrical Oscillator, Illustrated in Fig. 15, Showing Details of Master and Break Mechanism.


Broadly, the instruments can be divided into two classes: one in which the circuit controller comprises solid contacts, and the other in which the make and break is effected by mercury. Figures 1 to 8, inclusive, belong to the first, and the remaining ones to the second class. The former are capable of an appreciably higher efficiency on account of the fact that the losses involved in the make and break are reduced to the minimum and the resistance component of the damping factor is very small. The latter are preferable for purposes requiring larger output and a great number of breaks per second. The operation of the motor and circuit controller of course consumes a certain amount of energy which, however, is the less significant the larger the capacity of the machine.


In Fig. 1 is shown one of the earliest forms of oscillator constructed for experimental purposes. The condenser is contained in a square box of mahogany upon which is mounted the self-induction or charging coil wound, as will be noted, in two sections connected in multiple or series according to whether the tension of the supply circuit is 110 or 220 volts. From the box protrude four brass columns carrying a plate with the spring contacts and adjusting screws as well as two massive terminals for the reception of the primary of the transformer. Two of the columns serve as condenser connections while the other pair is employed to join the binding posts of the switch in front to the self-inductance and condenser. The primary coil consists of a few turns of copper ribbon to the ends of which are soldered short rods fitting into the terminals referred to. The secondary is made in two parts, wound in a manner to reduce as much as possible the distributed capacity and at the same time enable the coil to withstand a very high pressure between its terminals at the center, which are connected to binding posts on two rubber columns projecting from the primary. The circuit connections may be slightly varied but ordinarily they are as diagrammatically illustrated in the Electrical Experimenter for May on page 89, relating to my oscillation transformer photograph of which appeared on page 16 of the same number. The operation is as follows: When the switch is thrown on, the current from the supply circuit rushes through the self-induction coil, magnetizing the iron core within and separating the contacts of the controller. The high tension induced current then charges the condenser and upon closure of the contacts the accumulated energy is released through the primary, giving rise to a long series of oscillations which excite the tuned secondary circuit.


This device has proved highly serviceable in carrying on laboratory experiments of all kinds. For instance, in studying phenomena of impedance, the transformer was removed and a bent copper bar inserted in the terminals. The latter was often replaced by a large circular loop to exhibit inductive effects at a distance or to excite resonant circuits used in various investigations and measurements. A transformer suitable for any desired performance could be readily improvised and attached to the terminals and in this way much time and labor was saved. Contrary to what might be naturally expected, little trouble was experienced with the contacts, although the currents through them were heavy, namely, proper conditions of resonance existing, the great flow occurs only when the circuit is closed and no destructive arcs can develop. Originally I employed platinum and iridium tips but later replaced them by some of meteorite and finally of tungsten. The last have given the best satisfaction, permitting working for hours and days without interruption.


Fig. 2 illustrates a small oscillator designed for certain specific uses. The underlying idea was to attain great activities during minute intervals of time each succeeded by a comparatively long period of inaction. With this object a large self-induction and a quick-acting break were employed owing to which arrangement the condenser was charged to a very high potential. Sudden secondary currents and sparks of great volume were thus obtained, eminently suitable for welding thin wires, flashing lamp filaments, igniting explosive mixtures and kindred applications. The instrument was also adapted for battery use and in this form was a very effective igniter for gas engines on which a patent bearing number 609,250 was granted to me August 16,1898.


Fig. 3 represents a large oscillator of the first class intended for wireless experiments, production of Rontgen rays and scientific research in general. It comprises a box containing two condensers of the same capacity on which are supported the charging coil and transformer. The automatic circuit controller, hand switch and connecting posts are mounted on the front plate of the inductance spool as is also one of the contact springs. The condenser box is equipped with three terminals, the two external ones serving merely for connection while the middle one carries a contact bar with a screw for regulating the interval during which the circuit is closed. The vibrating spring itself, the sole function of which is to cause periodic interruptions, can be adjusted in its strength as well as distance from the iron core in the center of the charging coil by four screws visible on the top plate so that any desired conditions of mechanical control might be secured. The primary coil of the transformer is of copper sheet and taps are made at suitable points for the purpose of varying at will, the number of turns. As in Fig. 1 the inductance coil is wound in two sections to adapt the instrument both to 110 and 220 volt circuits and several secondaries were provided to suit the various wave lengths of the primary. The output was approximately 500 watt with damped waves of about 50,000 cycles per second. For short periods of time undamped oscillations were produced in screwing the vibrating spring tight against the iron core and separating the contacts by the adjusting screw which also performed the function of a key. With this oscillator I made a number of important observations and it was one of the machines exhibited at a lecture before the New York Academy of Sciences in 1897.

...

(Continued in part 2)
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Old 05-19-2012, 06:16 PM
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Electrical Oscillators (Pt2)

Fig. 4 is a photograph of a type of transformer in every respect similar to the one illustrated in the May, 1919, issue of the ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER to which reference has already been made. It contains the identical essential parts, disposed in like manner, but was specially designed for use on supply circuits of higher tension, from 220 to 500 volts or more. The usual adjustments are made in setting the contact spring and shifting the iron core within the inductance coil up and down by means of two screws. In order to prevent injury through a short-circuit, fuses are inserted in the lines. The instrument was photographed in action, generating undamped oscillations from a 220 volt lighting circuit.


Fig. 5 shows a later form of transformer principally intended to replace Rhumkorf coils. In this instance a primary is employed, having a much greater number of turns and the secondary is closely linked with the same. The currents developed in the latter, having a tension of from 10,000 to 30,000 volts, are used to charge condensers and operate an independent high frequency coil as customary. The controlling mechanism is of somewhat different construction but the core and contact spring are both adjustable as before.


Fig. 6 is a small instrument of this type, particularly intended for ozone production or sterilization. It is remarkably efficient for its size and can be connected either to a 110 or 220 volt circuit, direct or alternating, preferably the former.



Fig. 17. Tesla Transformer With Adjustable Mercury Controller.


In Fig. 7 is shown a photograph of a larger transformer of this kind. The construction and disposition of the parts is as before but there are two condensers in the box, one of which is connected in the circuit as in the previous cases, while the other is in shunt to the primary coil. In this manner currents of great volume are produced in the latter and the secondary effects are accordingly magnified. The introduction of an additional tuned circuit secures also other advantages but the adjustments are rendered more difficult and for this reason it is desirable to use such an instrument in the production of currents of a definite and unchanging frequency.


Fig. 8 illustrates a transformer with rotary break. There are two condensers of the same capacity in the box which can be connected in series or multiple. The charging inductances are in the form of two long spools upon which are supported the secondary terminals. A small direct current motor, the speed of which can be varied within wide limits, is employed to drive a specially constructed make and break. In other features the oscillator is like the one illustrated in Fig. 3 and its operation will be readily understood from the foregoing. This transformer was used in my wireless experiments and frequently also for lighting the laboratory by my vacuum tubes and was likewise exhibited at my lecture before the New York Academy of Sciences above mentioned.


Coming now to machines of the second class, Fig. 9 shows an oscillatory transformer comprising a condenser and charging inductance enclosed in a box, a transformer and a mercury circuit controller, the latter being of a construction described for the first time in my patent No. 609,251 of August 16, 1898. It consists of a motor driven hollow pulley containing a small quantity of mercury which is thrown outwardly against the walls of the vessel by centrifugal force and entrains a contact wheel which periodically closes and opens the condenser circuit. By means of adjusting screws above the pulley, the depth of immersion of the vanes and consequently, also, the duration of each contact can be varied at desire and thus the intensity of the effects and their character controlled. This form of break has given thorough satisfaction, working continuously with currents of 20 to 25 amperes. The number of interruptions is usually from 500 to 1,000 per second but higher frequencies are practicable. The space occupied is about 10" X 8" X 10" and the output approximately 1/2 K.W.


In the transformer just described the break is exposed to the atmosphere and a slow oxidation of the mercury takes place. This disadvantage is overcome in the instrument shown in Fig. 10, which consists of a perforated metal box containing the condenser and charging inductance and carrying on the top a motor driving the break, and a transformer. The mercury break is of a kind to be described and operates on the principle of a jet which establishes, intermittently, contact with a rotating wheel in the interior of the pulley. The stationary parts are supported in the vessel on a bar passing through the long hollow shaft of the motor and a mercury seal is employed to effect hermetic closure of the chamber enclosing the circuit controller. The current is led into the interior of the pulley through two sliding rings on the top which are in series with the condenser and primary. The exclusion of the oxygen is a decided improvement, the deterioration of the metal and attendant trouble being eliminated and perfect working.


Fig. 11 is a photograph of a similar oscillator with hermetically inclosed mercury break. In this machine the stationary parts of the interrupter in the interior of the pulley were supported on a tube through which was led an insulated wire connecting to one terminal of the break while the other was in contact with the vessel. The sliding rings were, in this manner, avoided and the construction simplified. The instrument was designed for oscillations of lower tension and frequency requiring primary currents of comparatively smaller amperage and was used to excite other resonant circuits.


Fig. 12 shows an improved form of oscillator of the kind described in Fig. 10, in which the supporting bar through the hollow motor shaft was done away with, the device pumping the mercury being kept in position by gravity, as will be more fully explained with reference to another figure. Both the capacity of the condenser and primary turns were made variable with the view of producing oscillations of several frequencies.


Fig. 13 is a photographic view of another form of oscillatory transformer with hermetically sealed mercury interrupter, and Fig. 14 diagrams showing the circuit connections and arrangement of parts reproduced from my patent, No. 609,245, of August 16, 1898, describing this particular device. The condenser, inductance, transformer and circuit controller are disposed as before, but the latter is of different construction, which will be clear from an inspection of Fig. 14. The hollow pulley a is secured to a shaft c which is mounted in a vertical bearing passing through the stationary field magnet d of the motor. In the interior of the vessel is supported, on frictionless bearings, a body h of magnetic material which is surrounded by a dome b in the center of a laminated iron ring, with pole pieces oo wound with energizing coils p. The ring is supported on four columns and, when magnetized, keeps the body h in position while the pulley is rotated. The latter is of steel, but the dome is preferably made of German silver burnt black by acid or nickeled. The body h carries a short tube k bent, as indicated, to catch the fluid as it is whirled around, and project it against the teeth of a wheel fastened to the pulley. The wheel is insulated and contact from it to the external circuit is established through a mercury cup. As the pulley is rapidly rotated a jet of the fluid is thrown against the wheel, thus making and breaking contact about 1,000 times per second. The instrument works silently and, owing to the absence of all deteriorating agents, keeps continually clean and in perfect condition. The number of interruptions per second may be much greater, however, so as to make the currents suitable for wireless telephony and like purposes.



Fig. 18. Tesla Transformer With Mercury Jet Interrupter.


A modified form of oscillator is represented in Figs. 15 and 16, the former being a photographic view and the latter a diagrammatic illustration showing the arrangement of the interior parts of the controller. In this instance the shaft b carrying the vessel a is hollow and supports, in frictionless bearings, a spindle j to which is fastened a weight k. Insulated from the latter, but mechanically fixed to it, is a curved arm L upon which is supported, freely rotatable, a break-wheel with projections QQ. The wheel is in electrical connection with the external circuit through a mercury cup and an insulated plug supported from the top of the pulley. Owing to the inclined position of the motor the weight k keeps the break-wheel in place by the force of gravity and as the pulley is rotated the circuit, including the condenser and primary coil of the transformer, is, rapidly made and broken.


Fig. 17 shows a similar instrument in which, however, the make and break device is a jet of mercury impinging against an insulated toothed wheel carried on an insulated stud in the center of the cover of the pulley as shown. Connection to the condenser circuit is made by brushes bearing on this plug.


Fig. 18 is a photograph of another transformer with a mercury circuit controller of the wheel type, modified in some features on which it is unnecessary to dwell.


These are but a few of the oscillatory transformers I have perfected and constitute only a small part of my high frequency apparatus of which I hope to give a full description, when I shall have freed myself of pressing duties, at some future date.


(end)
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Last edited by garrettm4; 05-20-2012 at 04:26 PM.
  #469  
Old 05-19-2012, 08:54 PM
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Interlude

The four field diagrams of a pair of round conductor, 1/4 inch diameter, 3 inch spacing need to be produced here,

1) L, 100 Ampere in opposite directions in each conductor
2) M, 100 Ampere in same direction in each direction in each conductor
3) C, 10 Kilovolts, same polarity on each conductor
4) K, 10 Kilovolts of opposite polarity on each conductor

The diagramatic superposition of each of these flux diagrams with its various conjugate flux diagrams will give the patterns of LC, MK, L/k and M/C. Who can do this? It is important here!

As for the moon bounce, there are a few starting ideas of practical construction.

1) The Integratron, a Caduceus space scalar oscillator and regenerative detector,
2) The log-periodic M.W.O. as conceived and operated by E.P. Dollard,
3) An isolated extra coil excited by magnetic uni-directional impulses from a hydrogen thyratron radar modulator,
4) A particular waveguide mode coupled through a transverse mode suppresor into space,
5) An Alexanderson type flat-top structure.

Items (1) and (2) are a U.H.F. antennae form of geometry. The Caduceus is expected to produce a space scalar transmission between identical units, like an Integratron on earth and one on Mars, the log M.W.O. is a space wave structure and transmission between antennae is an easy experiment, if you can find a pair.

Item (3) is a dialectric impulse projector and will produce the pure dielectric translation through space, it cannot be a wave, it is like CK, hyperbolic. (See Steinmetz "lightning wave")

Item (4) is an end-fire and item (5) is a broadside, longitudinal electro-dynamic transmitter. (4) is end to end transmission between units and (5) is side by side transmission, face to face, between units.

Only items (2), (4), and (5) are useful with a reflector antenna, impulse and scalar cannot be reflected since no "wave" in space exists. This makes a moon bounce hard to conceive in a normal sense, maybe an E.M. wave will come back, as a secondary.

Note C.R.I. :
As for the Telluric vs ionosphere velocity differential, this using the detected audio signals of the A.M. broadcast station, one receiver goes into the scope vertical the other receiver goes into the scope horizontal. No time difference is a 45 degree line, a quarter cycle lag/lead is a circle. It is important that the luminal receiver have no neutral and be on a balanced dipole antenna, cut in middle and as long as possible. This can be coupled with the radio loopstick by putting another coil on this loopstick like a transformer.

It would be nice if someone could post a diagram of a radar modulator with a 5C22 hydrogen thyratron and a Guillimen network. (See MIT radiation laboratory series.) The Integratron coils were a caduceus pair of flat spiral coils, 90 turns each and about 50 feet wide. Each coil used about 5000 feet of wire, one 10 gauge copper, the other 14 gauge iron. The women in white ripped these windings out when they seized the Integratron, at Landers California in the mid 1980's.

Finally, on the hand of god tuning the monochord. It was considered in certain experiments with Navy sonar crystals that one over c square is not constant. These crystals would charge to powerful levels, 5 kilovolts at .015 microfarads, just sitting on the table. The position of the moon played a significant part. If the luminal "velocity" varies, then its dimensions of capacitance, one over c square varies. Capacitance varies as the speed of light. Therefore a static condenser will produce small displacement currents during variation. This was done at Landers with Chris Carson and myself, putting the variation of potential on a chart recorder. This is an area of further experimentation in "primary induction".

73 DE N6KPH
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Old 05-19-2012, 10:12 PM
jpolakow jpolakow is offline
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Hi Garrett,

Eric was wondering if there are anymore diagrams from the Tesla article? Specifically, ones that showed the internals and operation of the mercury switches. If those could be located that would be excellent!

Also, Eric wanted me to add that the ones in the article that are push pull(balanced) can't transmit, so they don't relate to the TMT directly.

Thanks,
John
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Old 05-19-2012, 10:51 PM
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Old 05-19-2012, 11:08 PM
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Interesting!

Quote:
Originally Posted by Gestalt View Post
Mutual Inductance, 1/4 Wavelength and how it Relates to Standing Waves and Longitudinal Propagation - A Visual Dimensional Analysis

Warning: This is my personal Theory and Wild-Conjecture.

Firstly let me quote O'Neill from The Prodigal Genius pg.119

"Tesla did not invent the idea of electrical resonance. It was inherent in the mathematical description of the condenser discharge as developed by Lord Kelvin, and in the physical nature of alternating currents; but Tesla changed it from a buried mathematical equation to sparking physical reality. It is the analogy of acoustical resonance which is a natural property of matter.

However, there were no practical circuits in which resonance could manifest itself until Tesla developed alternating currents, particularly the high-frequency currents. He put the master's touch to the research in this field by developing the principle of resonance in individual circuits through adjustment of capacity and inductance; the amplification of effects by inductive coupling of two tuned circuits, and the peculiar manifestations of resonance in a circuit tuned to a quarter of the wavelength of the energizing current.

This latter development was a stroke of pure genius. In the vibrating string, two loops measure a complete wavelength and one loop measures half a wavelength, since one of the loops is up when the other is down. Between the two loops is a nodal point which does not move. From the nodal point to the top of a loop is a quarter wavelength.Taking the quarter wavelength as a unit, one end is motionless and the other end swings through the greatest amplitude of vibration. By tuning his coils to quarter wavelengths, one end of the coil, Tesla found, would be entirely inactive while the other end would swing through tremendous electrical activity.

Here was a unique situation, one end of a small coil inert and the other end spouting a flood of sparks of hundreds of thousands or even millions of volts. In a physical analogy it seemed like the Niagara River reaching the edge of the precipice--and then its waters shooting mountain high in a gigantic fountain instead of fallinginto the chasm. The quarter-wavelength coil is the electrical counterpart of the vibrating tine of the tuning fork, the ordinary clock pendulum, or the vibrating reed. Once accomplished,it was a simple thing--but its discovery was a work of genius."

In order to understand mutual inductance and therefore how longitudinal propagation arises within the secondary of the Tesla Magnifying Transformer it is crucial to understand how it relates to standing waves, especially the quarter wavelength component of a standing wave. First lets start with a stereotypical AC standing wave. A standing wave is created by sending a wave in one direction and then it REFLECTING back upon itself. Having a mirror like reflection point is key in order to create a standing wave. Image from Patrick Kelly.



--->Starting Point ---------------- Reflecting point ----> |
------->>> Blue wave is the incident travelling in this direction ----->>>

<<<------ Red Wave is the REFLECTED wave travelling in this direction <<<----

The Standing wave is the resultant combination of the two opposing travelling waves. Superimposition. The red points are the nodes, the maximal swing point is the anti-node.

I can't post the following animation here because it is a Java applet, however please click on the link and watch how a Standing wave is created in Slow Motion.

Standing wave Java Animation

Now if you were to take a top-down look at a single coil of which has a standing wave on it, it would look something like this:



What is important to note is that at certain points along the perimeter of the circular wire there are massive voltage fluctuations, and NO voltage fluctuations at the nodal points.

The secondary of the TMT has multiple loops of wire stacked on top of each other. So now imagine how if each one had a Standing wave on it what that might look like. If they are aligned it would look the same..or uniform all the way down. If the standing waves were out of sync, it would look more like a haphazard jagged saw blade. I believe the key to proper TMT tuning is to have all the nodes and anti-nodes on each winding line up with all the nodes and anti-nodes of the other windings. This in effect is that separate standing waves are synchronized with each other geometrically and spatially.

The Importance of Quarter Wavelength:
As O'Neill stated above, Quarter wavelength represents the maximum swing point. The point of greatest amplitude variation. These pictures show how a quarter wavelength is created. (Image from Patrick Kelly)



Now the important thing to note here is that the TMT DOES NOT USE AC WAVES. Thus all the animations/pictures above are WRONG. They merely convey the concepts. Tesla used IMPULSES in his TMT to create standing waves/oscillation. These are quite a different animal than AC waves and look VERY different.

Ok, so now what does a standing wave of quarter wavelength look like in a TMT? First lets relate how an Impulse wave compares to an AC sine wave.



Notice how the 1/4 wave length is in a different spot for the impulse compared to that of the sine wave. This is very important because the maximum amplitude point is of crucial importance. The quarter wavelength for a sine wave is DIFFERENT than that of an impulse.

Now this is more like how I Imagine an unidirectional impulse wave creates a standing wave. The forward wave and the reflected wave compound on each other giving power magnification. So not only is an impulse compress energy in time, when an impulse superimposes itself upon another impulse...well you get some massive power amplification.




A Standing Longitudndal wave in the aether or any medium such as a wire probably looks more like this.



A Java Animation representation of the above - pleas click.

What is important to note is the zones of compression is where maximum amplitude exists of the impulse wave. I hypothesize that the compression points are Peak L activity and Peak C activity in unison.

Now if we look at a coil of winding like the secondary of TMT:



The Red Arrows represent zones of compression or peak nodal points of Mutual induction (M) and Capacitance (C) from one impulse peak to another adjacent impulse peak, from one winding to another.

It is hypothesized that the longitudinal waves travel orthogonal or at 90 degrees to the direction of propagation of the impulses along the wire. Thus in a way it might be likely to suppose that you have TWO standing waves here. One travelling along the wire, and another being created at 90 degrees.

What's interesting here, and of course this all hypothetical talk, is that if Mutual inductance is occurring in counter space at 90 degrees to L then, it is directly in line with C. M and C are now in phase. The two lines of force are now geometrically aligned. M in counterspace and C in space. This is because the dielectric lines of force naturally jump across the space between the winding's, attaching themselves to the conductors on either side.

This creates a rather interesting picture. We have a magnetic transfer of energy phenomenon happening in counterspace, and a naturally counterspaicial phenomena of Dielectric occurring in space. Regular L...magnetism appears to be left behind, and really is of only use to creating M. What happens with K!? Does that play a part in this?

On a separate side note, I had to throw this in here:


That is an impulse waveform.....and it's a heartbeat! Nature as its source of power operates using impulses, not sinusoidal AC. Tesla was really onto something here. The impulse is another one of those fundamental archetypes of the universe.
Assuming you're correct here, Gestalt, this was the best explanation I've read so far on this topic. However, I'd be glad to hear other people's opinion on this (especially Eric's). Not that I want to undervalue your reasoning Gestalt, I just want to be as sure as I can be before attaching myself to this way of thinking about the problem.

/fefish
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Old 05-19-2012, 11:15 PM
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Old 05-19-2012, 11:19 PM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by T-rex View Post
The writing "Tesla's big mistake" is a misrepresentation of Tesla's work. The diagram shown has nothing to do with Tesla, but is actually a strange wave called a boundary wave. Ernst Guillemen discusses this in the introductory chapter of his second volume of "Communications Networks".

73 DE N6KPH
First of all, thank you for replying, Eric, it's kind of an honor to receive a reply from you!

So I guess you would you say that this wave is not a longitudinal one; is it just an EM wave behaving "weirdly" then? Is there any "established" theory on this that you know of (I know you mentioned Guillemen's discussion about this, but that's not theory as I see it)?
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Old 05-19-2012, 11:27 PM
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I heard from a reliable source that this violet ray machine will burn out any implants the government may install in people. The violet ray machine creates strong displacement currents. It creates the type of transients that burn out transistors.


The device is kind of like a Tesla coil in box, that connects to glow tube. Kind of similar to the Lakhovsky coil hooked up to a Tesla coil. This way using the glow tube it get current into the skin without using a metal conductor (its glass). So no burning of the skin. It is like a capacitor. The displacement currents go into the body along with ionized gas. Between the two of them that destroys the integrated circuits.

As an interesting side note the violet ray tube is what Dr. Frankenstein brought the monster to life with in the movie.
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Old 05-19-2012, 11:51 PM
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SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 609,245, dated August 16, 1898.

Application filed December 2, 1897. Serial No. 660,518. (No model.)

To all whom it may concern:

Be it known that I, NIKOLA TESLA, a citizen of the United States, residing at New York, in the county and State of New York, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Electrical-Circuit Controllers, of which the following is a specification, reference being had to the drawings accompanying and forming a part of the same.

In every form of electrical apparatus involving a means for making and breaking, more or less abruptly, a circuit a waste of energy occurs during the periods of make or break, or both, due to the passage of the current through an arc formed between the receding or approaching terminal or contacts, or, more generally, through a path of high resistance. The tendency of the current to persist after the actual disjunction or to precede the conjunction of the terminal exists in varying degrees in different forms of apparatus, according to the special conditions present. For example, in the case of an ordinary induction-coil the tendency to the formation of an arc at the break is, as a rule, the greater, while in certain forms of apparatus I have invented in which the discharge of a condenser is utilized this tendency is greatest at the instant immediately preceding the conjunction of the contacts of the circuit-controller which effects the discharge of the condenser.

The loss of energy occasioned by the causes mentioned may be very considerable and is generally such as to greatly restrict the use of the circuit-controller and render impossible a practical and economical conversion of considerable amounts of electrical energy by its means, particularly in cases in which a high frequency of the makes and breaks is required.

Extended experiment and investigation conducted with the aim of discovering a means for avoiding the loss incident to the use of ordinary forms of circuit-controllers have led me to recognize certain laws governing the waste of energy and making it dependent chiefly on the velocity with which the terminal approach and recede from one another and also more or less on the form of the current-wave. Briefly stated, from both theoretical considerations and practical experiment it appears that the loss of energy in any device for making and breaking a circuit, other conditions being the same, is inversely proportional rather to the square than to the first power of the speed or relative velocity of the terminals in approaching and receding from one another in an instant in which the current-curve is not so steep as to materially depart from one which may be represented by a sine function of the time; but such a case seldom obtains in practice. On the contrary, the current-curve resulting from a make and break is generally very steep and particularly so when, as in my system, the circuit-controller effects the charging and discharging of a condenser, and consequently the loss of energy is still more rapidly reduced by increased velocity of approach and separation. The demonstration of these facts and the recognition of the impossibility of attaining the desired results by using ordinary forms of circuit-controllers led me to invent new and essentially different means for making and breaking a circuit in which I have utilized a conducting fluid, such as mercury, as the material for one or both of the terminals and devised novel means for effecting a rapidly-intermittent contact between the fluid and a conductor or series of conductors forming the other terminal.

With a view, however, to securing a more practical and efficient circuit-controller in which not only the relative speed of the terminals but also the frequency of the makes and breaks should be very high I devised the form of instrument described in an application filed by me June 3, 1897, Serial No. 639,227, in which a receptacle is rotated to impart a rapid movement to a body of conducting fluid contained herein, which is brought in rapidly-intermittent contact with a conductor having peripheral projections extending into the fluid, the movement of the latter being conveniently utilized to rotate the conductor. Such a device, though meeting fully many requirements in practice, is nevertheless subject to certain limitations in the matter of attaining a high relative speed of approach and separation of the terminals, since the path of movement of the conducting projections is not directly away from and toward the fluid, but more or less tangential to the surface of the latter, the velocity of approach and separation being of course the smaller the greater the diameter of the rotated conductor or terminal.

With the object of securing a greater relative speed of the terminals and a consequently more efficient form of circuit-controller of this type I devised the modified form of apparatus which constitutes the subject of my present application.

In this apparatus one of the members or terminals is a conducting fluid which is caused to issue from an orifice against a series of spaced conductors in rapid succession. For this purpose the series of conductors, or it may be a single conductor, is moved transversely through the stream or jet of fluid, or the jet is moved so as to impinge upon the conductors, or both jet and conductors are moved. This is preferably accomplished by mounting the conductors and the tube or duct from which the fluid issues concentrically and revolving one or both.

The chief feature of novelty which distinguishes the apparatus and in which my improvement resides is the plan adopted for maintaining the stream or jet of conducting fluid. This consists in utilizing the same power that actuates or drives the circuit-controller in effecting the necessary relative movement of its terminals to maintain the proper circulation of the conducting fluid by combining the two mechanisms (the controller and the means for maintaining a circulation of the conducting fluid) in one. This feature is of great practical advantage and may be effected in many ways. A typical arrangement for this purpose is to provide a tube or duct having an orifice at one end directed toward the spaced conductors and its other end in a position to take up a portion of the rapidly-rotating body of conducting fluid, divert it through the duct, and discharge it against the conductors. With this object when a closed receptacle is used a holder for the tube is employed, mounted within the receptacle and concentrically therewith, and this holder, when the receptacle is revolved, is held or influenced by any suitable means, as by magnetic attraction exerted from the outside or otherwise, in such manner as to keep it either in a fixed position or impress upon it a velocity different from that of the rotated fluid.

Such other improvements in details as I have devised and applied to the construction and operation of my improved circuit-controller will be more fully hereinafter described; but from the above general statement of the nature of the device it will be observed that by means of the same the velocity of relative movement of the two parts or elements may be enormously increased and the duration of the arc or discharge between them at the periods of make and break thereby greatly reduced without material increase in the power required to effect it and without impairing the quality of contact or deteriorating the terminals.

In the drawings hereto annexed, Figure 1 is a diagram illustrating the system for which the improvement was more especially designed. Fig. 2 is a top plan view of the circuit-controller. Fig. 3 is a view showing the induction-coil of Fig. 1 with its condenser-case in side elevation and the circuit-controller in vertical central section.

The general scheme of the system for use with which my improved circuit-controller is more especially designed will be understood by a brief reference to Fig 1. In said figure, A A represent the terminals of a source of current. A' is a self-induction or choking coil included in one branch of the circuit and permanently connected to one side of a condenser A''. The opposite terminal of this condenser is connected to the other terminal of the source through the primary B of a transformer, the secondary B' of which supplies the working circuit containing any suitable translating devices, as B''.

The circuit-controller C, which is represented conventionally, operates to make and break a bridge from one terminal of the source to a point between the choking-coil A' and the condenser A'', from which it will result that when the circuit is completed through the controller the choking-coil A' is short-circuited and stores energy which is discharged into the condenser when the controller-circuit is broken, to be in turn discharged from the condenser through the primary B when these two are short-circuited by the subsequent completion of the controller-circuit.

Continued...
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  #477  
Old 05-19-2012, 11:52 PM
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dR-Green dR-Green is offline
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I refer now to Figs. 2 and 3 for an illustration of the more important and typical features of my improved circuit-controller. The parts marked a compose a closed receptacle of cylindrical form having a dome or extension of smaller diameter. The receptacle is secured to the end of a spindle c, which is mounted vertically in bearings of any character suitable for the purpose. As it is intended to impart a rapid rotation to the receptacle a, I have shown a convenient device for this purpose comprising a field-magnet d, secured to the base or frame e, and an annular armature f, secured to the receptacle a. The coils of the armature are connected with the plates g of a commutator secured to the receptacle a and made in cylindrical form, so as to surround the socket in which the spindle c is stepped. A body of magnetic material h, which serves as an armature, is mounted on antifriction-bearings on an extension of the spindle c, so that the receptacle and the body h may have freely independent movements of rotation. Surrounding the dome b, in which the armature h is contained, is a core with pole-pieces o, which are magnetized by coils p, wound on the core. The said core is stationary, being supported by arms r, Fig. 2, independently of the receptacle, so that when the receptacle is rotated and the core energized the attractive force exerted by the poles o upon the armature h within the receptacle a holds the said armature against rotation. To prevent loss from currents set up in the shell of the dome b, the latter should be made of German silver or other similar precaution taken. An arm i is secured to the armature h within the receptacle a and carries at its end a short tube k, bent, as shown in Fig. 2, so that one open end is tangential to the receptacle-wall and the other directed toward the center of the same. Secured to the top plate of the receptacle a are a series of conducting-plates l. The part of the top plate s from which said conducting-plates l depend is insulated from the receptacle proper by insulating packing-rings t, but is electrically connected with the dome b, and in order to maintain electrical connection from an external circuit to the conductors 1 a mercury-cup w is set in the top of the dome, into which cup extends a stationary terminal plug n. A small quantity of a conducting fluid, such as mercury, is put into the receptacle a, and when the latter is rotated the mercury by centrifugal action is forced out toward its periphery and rises up along its inner wall. When it reaches the level of the open-mouthed tube k, a portion is taken up by the latter, which is stationary, and forced by its momentum through the tube and discharged against the conductors l as the latter pass in rapid succession by the orifice of said tube. In this way the circuit between the receptacle and the conductors l is completed during the periods in which the stream or jet of mercury impinges upon any of the conductors l and broken whenever the stream is discharged through the spaces between the conductors.

From the nature of the construction and mode of operation of the above-described apparatus it is evident that the relative speed of separation and approach of the two elements or terminals (the jet and the conductors l) may be extremely high, while such increased speed affects in no material respect the quality of contact.

A circuit-controller of the kind described is applicable and useful in many other systems and apparatus than that particularly described herein, and may be greatly modified in construction without departure from the invention.

I am aware that a jet or stream of conducting fluid has heretofore been employed as a means for completing an electric circuit, and I do not claim, broadly, the employment of a conducting fluid in such form as a contact or terminal; but so far as I am aware both purpose for which I employ such form of contact or terminal and the manner in which I apply it are wholly of my invention, neither having been heretofore proposed.

What I claim is—

1. The combination with a receptacle of a conductor or series of spaced conductors, a nozzle or tube for directing a jet or stream of fluid against the same, the nozzle and conductor being capable of movement relatively to each other, and means for maintaining a circulation of conducting fluid, contained in the receptacle, through the said nozzle, and dependent for operation upon such relative movement, as set forth.

2. The combination with a closed receptacle of a conductor or series of spaced conductors, a nozzle or tube for directing a jet or stream of fluid against the same, and means for forcing a conducting fluid contained in the receptacle through the said nozzle, these parts being associated within the receptacle and adapted to be operated by the application of a single actuating power, as set forth.

3. The combination with a receptacle containing a series of spaced conductors, a duct within the receptacle having one of its ends directed toward the said conductors, means for maintaining a rapid movement of relative rotation between the said end and the conductors and means for maintaining a circulation of a conducting fluid contained in the receptacle through the duct against the conductors, the said conductors and jet constituting respectively the terminals or elements of an electric-circuit controller.

4. The combination with a receptacle capable of rotation and containing a series of spaced conductors, a duct within the receptacle having an orifice directed toward the said conductors, and an open end in position to take up a conducting fluid from a body of the same contained in the receptacle, when the latter is rotated, and direct it against the conductors, the said conductors and the fluid constituting the terminal or elements of an electric-circuit controller.

5. The combination with a receptacle for containing a conducting fluid and a series of spaced conductors thereon, of a duct having an orifice directed toward the said conductors and forming a conduit through which the fluid when the receptacle is rotated is forced and thrown upon the conductors.

6. The combination with a receptacle capable of rotation, and a series of conductors mounted therein, of a duct having an orifice directed toward the conductors, a holder for said duct mounted on bearings within the receptacle which permit of a free relative rotation of said receptacle and holder, and means for opposing the rotation of the said holder in the direction of the movement of the fluid while the receptacle is rotated, whereby the conducting fluid within the receptacle will be caused to flow through the duct against the conductors.

7. The combination with a receptacle and a motor for rotating the same, of a magnetic body mounted in the receptacle, a magnet exterior to the receptacle for maintaining the body stationary while the receptacle rotates, a series of conductors in the receptacle and a duct carried by the said magnetic body and adapted to take up at one end a conducting fluid in the receptacle when the latter rotates and to direct such fluid from its opposite end against the series of conductors.

8. The combination with a receptacle for containing a conducting fluid, a series of spaced conductors within the same, and a motor, the armature of which is connected with the receptacle so as to impart rotation thereto, a magnetic body capable of turning freely within the receptacle about an axis concentric with that of the latter, a duct carried by the said body having one end in position to take up the conducting fluid and the other in position to discharge it against the spaced conductors, and a magnet exterior to the receptacle for holding the magnetic body stationary when the receptacle is rotated.

NIKOLA TESLA.



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Last edited by dR-Green; 05-20-2012 at 12:11 AM.
  #478  
Old 05-20-2012, 01:08 AM
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Patent US611719 - NIKOLA TESLA - Google Patents



"Nikola Tesla on His Work With Alternating Currents and Their Application to Wireless Telegraphy, Telephony, and Transmission of Power"

Page 80

Nikola Tesla on His Work With Alternating Currents and Their Application to ... - Nikola Tesla - Google Books

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"Knowledge is cosmic. It does not evolve or unfold in man. Man unfolds to an awareness of it. He gradually discovers it." - Walter Russell

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  #479  
Old 05-20-2012, 01:27 AM
David G Dawson David G Dawson is offline
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MIT Radiation Lab Series V5 Pulse Generators

Eric,
Many Thanks for your direction with respect to propogation delay and will apply later.

Have downloaded the Pulse Generator V5 Lab Series from MIT and what exactly would you like out of that document that you require?

I have a brand new 5C22 Hydrogen Thyratron here as well as a RCA 829 which is an equivalent to your 3E29 plus many more like 5D22, 715A, CV2130, 327, 15E, 3-400Z, 705A plus many Twin Triodes like the 6SN7 but rated for higher Kv.
Earlier Research told me that I had to get involved with Impulse technology and thus my interest in Vacuum Tubes and particularly Radar and Thyratron types.
All these Tubes were picked up from Ebay from an old Radar guru and others and hopefully they will still work.
Have focussed with particular interest on the 327 and 15E Radar Triodes plus many Triode Acorns and Disc Seal Triodes all for high frequency.
Later.

Smokey
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  #480  
Old 05-20-2012, 07:59 AM
David G Dawson David G Dawson is offline
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Radar Modulators

This one may be of interest with respect to the 5C22:

http://edocs.nps.edu/npspubs/scholar...9/49_Brown.pdf

Dept of Navy and has some schematics to follow plus the pulse data.
Have considerable data on Vacuum Tubes with respect to Pulse as I have been collecting this material for some years now in anticipation.

Smokey
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