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Old 03-26-2010, 09:07 PM
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Aaron Aaron is offline
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Join Date: Feb 2007
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Arrow nh3 production from air, water and electricity

Here are a handful of references - some I posted before - some I haven't.
I said what some were but haven't seen that anyone actually searched them
out. They are just showing that 100+ year old science has seen nh3 creation
from low energy, relatively low temps and pressures, etc...

These are all references, which I yanked out of a very lengthy paper that
I wrote up and have decided I am not going to release anymore. Here are
some of the references, everyone is welcome to search out the truth on
their own. It is all spelled out in this thread anyway, so that paper isn't
needed. I'm deleting it because it revolved around these references and
more so everyone can explain it to themselves.

Anyway, anyone that appreciates what I'm sharing below should see that
NH3 is actually required to be produced with hho + ionization of ambient
air and then the heat/pressure in combustion chamber and with a serious
plasma ignition = results.

I hope this helps some people realize the reality of on demand nh3 from
low energy really.

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Nascent Hydrogen. The doctrine of the nascent state has been developed, for the most part, in terms of hydrogen. Davy noticed in 1807 that electrolytic hydrogen will combine with nitrogen in the presence of water, while ordinary hydrogen will not.

The Nascent State, J. H. Reedy and E. D. Biggers, J. Chem. Educ., 1942, 19 (9), p 403, DOI: 10.1021/ed019, p403, Publication Date: September 1942.


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Below are several excerpts from a paper showing the synthesis of ammonia directly from hydrogen and nitrogen mixes with and without metal catalysts and at various voltages.

The following is an account of experiments on the rate of production of ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen as a function of the energy of thermions used to activate molecules and atoms.

Heidemann described the production of ammonia even at the lowest voltages, but subsequent work by Andersen and Storch and Olson did not confirm this. They detected no combination until the molecular ionization potential of N2 (circa 17 V) was reached, after which the reaction rate increased abruptly every 4-7 V. The mechanism proposed was that H2+ and N2+ appearing at 16 V and 17V respectively gave H and N atoms on collision, and that later increased combination was due to the activation of H by 4 V electrons. Later Kwei found that NH3 band spectrum was not excited in hydrogen mixtures until 23V was reached. This voltage corresponds to the second jump in Storch and Olson’s curve. In a subsequent note Olson explained the failure of Kwei to detect ammonia at 17 V by postulating that NH3+ must be present for the spectrum to appear. Thus at 17 V the reactions were considered to be N2+ + e à N’2, N’2 + N2 à N2 + 2N, the nitrogen atoms then combining with H2 or H produced by the reaction N2 + H2 à 2N + 2H; white at 23 V the voltage at which N+ begins to appear, NH3+ is obtained in the same way.

As regards dissociation at the filament, Langmuir has shown that hydrogen molecules are dissociated by tungsten at temperatures above about 1,300°.

These results demonstrate conclusively that combination to form ammonia takes place between H atoms and N2 molecules both in the presence of the nickel and platinum anodes and in the presence of 13 V electrons.

In the second case “active hydrogen,” formed by Wood’s method was mixed with ordinary nitrogen. The “active hydrogen” from the arc would, undoubtedly, contain H’ owing to the high potential employed. It is only necessary to postulate that the life of the H’ species is sufficiently large for a small amount to reach the mixing tube from the discharge to account for the production of ammonia by a reaction between H’ and N2.

The various possible mechanisms for the production of ammonia in a nitrogen hydrogen mixture by means of thermions have been investigated in detail. It is shown that synthesis can occur due to the following reaction –

N2 + H at the surface of platinum or nickel.
N2 + H’ in the bulk at 13 volts.

The following molecular species are shown to be chemically reactive –

N2+ in the bulk at 17 volts,
N+ in the bulk at 23 volts,
And possible modes of mechanisms involving N2’ and H’ are elaborated.

The Combination of Nitrogen and Hydrogen Activated by Electrons, A. Caress and E. K. Rideal, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 1 August 1927 vol. 115 no. 772 684-700, DOI: 10.1098/rspa.1927.0117






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In mixtures of H2 with N2, evidence was obtained which indicates that the ultraviolet band of ammonia, associated with the 22.5 volt critical potential, is due to a molecule NHx, where x is probably 3, and that the Schuster band is emitted only in the presence of oxygen and is due to a molecule NxHyOz, possibly NH4OH. This band was observed only at voltages higher than the critical voltage for "active nitrogen,

Characteristics and Spectra of Low Voltage Arcs in H2, N2 and in Mixtures of H2 with Hg and N2, C. T. Kwei, Phys. Rev., 26, 537-560 (1925), DOI: 10.1103/PhysRev.26.537


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The following is yet another paper discussing the fact that nitrogen and hydrogen can be combined with electricity:

The Mechanism of Ammonia Synthesis in Low-Voltage Arcs. The formation of ammonia from gaseous mixtures of nitrogen and hydrogen by means of slowly moving electrons was studied by Storch and Olson. They determined the rate of the reaction by pressure methods and the products of the reaction by chemical indicators. From their experiments ammonia forms where the applied potential is 17 volts, the rate of formation then remains constant until the potential reaches 23 volts, at which point an abrupt increase in ammonia synthesis occurs.

Recently Kwei published a spectroscopic study of low-voltage arcs in nitrogen-hydrogen mixtures. He detected the ammonia bands at 23 volts, thus confirming Storch and Olson’s second point…

It should not be blatantly obvious that under various circumstances, nitrogen can easily bind to hydrogen in order to form NH3 or Ammonia, especially when the hydrogen comes from electrolysis and there is moisture present.

Stanley Meyer was producing ammonia water fuel from water, air and electricity. The nitrogen also serves another purpose other than just binding to hydrogen to form ammonia.

The Mechanism of Ammonia Synthesis in Low-Voltage Arcs, A. R. Olson, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1926, 48 (5), pp 1298–1299, DOI: 10.1021/ja01416a501


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In more recent times, others have been able to also achieve ammonia synthesis from nothing other than nitrogen, hydrogen and electricity. And, this process is more energy efficient and doesn’t require a high-pressure environment such as the commonly used Haber-Bosch Process.

NHThree is a company in Washington state where a process to form ammonia from air, water and electricity was developed. It is called Solid-State Ammonia Synthesis (SSAS). They have also applied for patents regarding their process: Method and Apparatus for Anhydrous Ammonia Production. WO2008/097644A1 and US2008193360A1.

Now that we understand that ammonia can indeed be produced with nothing more than air, water and electricity at low temperatures and pressures, lets look at the application as it relates to a water fueled Internal Combustion Engine (ICE).

Haber-Bosch Process

Solid-State Ammonia Synthesis, Powerpoint presentation in PDF format.

Method and Apparatus for Anhydrous Ammonia Production, WO2008/097644A1

Method and Apparatus for Anhydrous Ammonia Production, US2008193360A1


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I even give you links to the abstracts... so you can go copy what you can. The full articles
are available for free around the net, some aren't - you just have to search. If anyone finds
the other free full articles, please post them if you want to return the favor.
__________________
Sincerely,
Aaron Murakami

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