View Single Post
 
Old 12-25-2014, 07:38 PM
Vinyasi Vinyasi is offline
Senior Member
 
Join Date: May 2013
Posts: 317
Arrow Selective Chemistry via Electronegativity and Electron Affinity from HV+ Ionization

Selective Chemistry via Electronegativity & Electron Affinity resulting from a High Voltage, Positive Ionization

Oxidation state - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
List of oxidation states of the elements - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
https://sites.google.com/site/ionica...onic-compounds
Electronegativities of the elements (data page) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

It's seemingly impossible for me to find the Wikipedia article that gave me everything I needed to know to validate the idea that a highly positive ionization of oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen will favor the formation of ammonium ion (NH3) over the formation of a hydroxyl ion (HO) and release more energy upon combustion (ignoring the increased difficulty of burning ammonia by itself by comparison to hydrogen alone since we're going to combine these two ingredients before they get to the engine). But maybe I can derive what I need to figure out from these four links above?

Hydrogen has three possible oxidation states of -1, 0, +1.
Oxygen has five: −2, −1, 0, +1, +2.
Nitrogen has nine: -3, -2, -1, 0, +1, +2, +3, +4, +5.

Hydrogen's electronegativity is: 2.2
Oxygen is: 3.44
Nitrogen is: 3.04

The principle of electronegativity explains the affinity for one element to ionically bind with another.

The principle of oxidation state explains the energy contained in an ionic bond, and hence explains the powerful or weak storage of energy upon combustion. So...

Three hydrogen atoms of 6.6 electronegativity versus 3.04 for one nitrogen atom yields an absolute value difference of 2.96.

One hydrogen atom's electronegativity is 2.2 versus that of one oxygen atom's 3.44. Their difference is 1.24.

An electronegative difference of greater than 2 favors ionic bonding. Hence, ammonium ion wins out over hydroxyl ion.

Furthermore...
Hydrogen's oxidation state at maximum positive ionization is +1, oxygen is +2, and nitrogen is +5.

The absolute value difference between one hydrogen and one oxygen is: (+1) - (+2) = |+1|.

Conversely, the absolute value difference between three hydrogen atoms and one nitrogen atom is a bit larger: [3 x (+1)] - (+5) = |+2|.

So, when under the influence of a powerful positive ionization (Herman Anderson used an excess of 70,000 volts) nitrogen will have a greater affinity for hydrogen as well as have a greater release of energy upon combustion. By comparison, the formation of a hydroxyl ion will not be as easy to form, nor contain as much energy, as will ammonium. All of this is in contradistinction to a non-ionized state, ie: the conventional norm of assumed operation of our internal combustion engines.

It's interesting to note that this principle of using a high voltage to effect a chemical favoritism between what would otherwise be unfavorable associations, is similar to the more advanced concept of using high voltage to split the water molecule (and thus save expenditure of electrical energy) rather than using high amperage (and drain the battery!).

Herman Anderson Water Fuel Car, Lost Video (Stanley Meyer)

All credit goes to Peter Lindemann and Aaron Murakami for opening up my world.
__________________
 
Reply With Quote