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Old 11-28-2012, 08:27 AM
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0A4G Neon Detector Tube

1) The 0A4-G cold cathode tube is a small power trigatron. Once the tube is triggered the tube can only be extinguished by interupting the main current flow. This is the reason for the "circuit breaking contact" in the 0A4_G cathode circuit. The armature of the bell can be fitted to this pair of contacts. Bell actuation must break the circuit, making ready for the detection of a new impulse.

Note a circuit modification in the diagram, in order to limit the discharge current through the tube by the 8 microfarad electrolytic condenser. A resistance of 100 to 200 Ohms, and an inductance of a few milliHenries should be placed in series with this condenser. The resulting series combination of 8 microFarads, a few hundred Ohms, and a few milliHenry is the Pulse Forming Network, PFN.

To begin testing the trigger ability of the 0A4G circuit, the receptor tube is replaced by a small mica condenser and a small pair of contacts such as a bell push button. Arrange to charge and discharge this mica condenser as shown in figure one. Try different sizes of mica condensers, from 10 picoFarad to 10,000 picoFarad and observe the best size for triggering the 0A4G. Hereby exists the opportunity to perfect the breaker contact, and also find the right bell condenser, 2 microFarad is a good start. This is a TESLA TECHNOLOGY DEVICE so the use of any microchips or solid state components is prohibited. A Geiger tube that rings a bell, a basic demonstration device.

2) It is unfortunate how many people who engage in this sort of work do not care to learn first about what is going on, but are seeking only stimulus. I have no use for such personal disorders. Questions are asked forgetting the answer has already been given. I have provided all the references, material types and components, as wells as a unified theory of electrical behavior.

One particular aspect has not been presented however. This is the matter of Crookes, and the cathodes utilized by Nikola Tesla and Philo Farnsworth. These cathodes are not thermionic, that is they do not require high heat in order to "emit" corposcular entities. Many different entities are wrongly lumped into an electron. Without going into detail or theory the specific objective here and now is to consider the Cosmic Ray Detector. This pre-supposes that the 0A4G circuit is working properly.

The cold cathode is the object of study, the hot cathode, or thermionic emitter, is well worked out.

3) Where thermionic emission is that brought about by the violent agitation of molecular dimension, "boiling" off "electrons", cold cathodes work on a process of secondary emission and field emission. Both can be equated to a "photo-electric" process, where a corpuscular entity of some form impacts the cathode dislodging a quantity of so called electronic corpuscular entities. The cosmic ray can constitute such a primary corpuscular entity.

Three basic form of cold cathode tubes exist. The first is the gas tube, such as the 0A4G. These are the most common. Here it is that positive corpuscular entities are formed by ionization of the surrounding gas. Upon being drawn to the cathode and impacting it, electronic corpuscules are prodigiously released. The second type is the photo tube. This tube cathode emits electronic corpuscules upon impact of radiant entities, usually given as photons. It is considered by Einstein that a one to one exchange exists, one photon in, one electron out. Farnsworth operated his photo cathodes in a different manner, emitted electrons now are the result of impacting electrons rather than impacting photons. This is called secondary emission. Farnsworth observed that one impacting electron gave rise to several emitted electrons. This gave rise to current regeneration, a new type of amplification. Finally, the third type of emission is field emission. This is found in spark gap tubes such as the 1B22. Most of these tubes contain gas, which converts the field emission into a positive corpuscular avalanche. Field emission is brought about through generation of a concentrated electrostatic flux. The lines of flux are stretched very tight (high potential) and this in turn tears loose the holdfast for the line of flux, the line snapping it through space like a spring. The holdfast is considered to be an electron. Field emission works best in a complete vacuum. It should be noted that Crookes and Tesla cathodes gave rise to field emission in a different manner. Here the cathode emits by internal repulsion rather than by external attraction. The emitted corpuscular entity is thrown, or projected, from the cathode material. This now carries a line of flux outward, expanding rather than contracting. Hence the ability for "Tesla Rays" to charge condensers through space. It is best to call these CATHODE RAYS to distinguish them from thermionic electrons.

4) It is important to consider the differences between hot cathode and cold cathode electron tubes. In both types it is ALWAYS the cathode that glows. This is the identifying feature of the cathode in both. However, the physical form of each is opposite. In the thermionic tube the cathode is always the rod, or wire, central structure, this heated to incandescence. The anode, or plate, is an enclosing co-axial structure of a large radius of curvature. It is exactly the opposite in the Cold Cathode Tube, here now it is the anode that is the rod or wire as a central structure and the cathode is of a large radius of curvature. This is either a photo emissive surface, or it is surrounded in a positive corpuscular plasma sheath in an ionic glow characteristic of the gas.

It is that this distinction between cathode and anode can become misleading in schematic representation. Figure 2 is the thermionic representation of a vacuum diode such as the 1B3, or 1X2 rectifier tube. Figure 3 is the cold cathode representation of a photo diode such as the 930 or 931 photo tube. Figure 4 is the common misleading schematic representation of the 0A2, 0B2, etc cold cathode gas diode. Note the proper representation in figure 5. Both are often used!

5) Actual experimental cold cathode tubes for use with the 0A4G can now be considered. The first is the Geiger-Mueller tube. The G.M. tube is a special form of spark gap tube, similar to the 1B22. In fact many G.M. tubes bear the 1B-- number. In the GM tube it is important that the gas de-ionize quickly and completely after breakdown. This "breakdown" of the gas is initiated by the passage of a corpuscule of radiant matter. The gas in a GM tube is often alcohol. This alcohol is impaired by the repetition of breakdowns leading to short tube life. It is thus of the utmost importance that the capacitance across the tube discharge be absolutely minimized. Here the stray capacitance of a co-axial cable leading to the tube can shorten its life. Thus the tube operates best if in its own circuit as a component.

The second tube type to be applied to the 0A4G is the gas and vacuum photo diodes. Their rated values are published, the 900 series of universal vacuum tubes, UV. This rated positive potential is applied to the anode of the photo diode and the photo cathode is connected to the trigger anode of the 0A4G. For stability, a very minute leakage conductance, that is, a very high resistance, is connected from the 0A4G trigger anode to its cathode, as an electrostatic drain. 10 to 100 MegaOhm resistors made up of smaller units in a series string is a good drain. Such would be 5 each, 5 MegaOhm resistors in series, 25 MegaOhm total.

6) The photo cathode of the vacuum photo diode can work as a cathode ray emitter. Here the anode of the photo tube is not utilized, and it remains unconnected, floating. Now the photo cathode is brought to an exceedingly high electro static potential, these propelling cathode rays. The cathode is made at this potential by a high voltage condenser charge to this potential. The condenser is now in series with the photo cathode and the trigger anode. Obviously the positive terminal of the condenser connects to the trigger anode and the negative terminal of the condenser to the photo cathode. Diagrams will follow



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