Thread: Eric Dollard
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Old 07-12-2012, 09:25 PM
garrettm4 garrettm4 is offline
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Preview to Angle of Hysteresis & the Continuity of Energy

I found that T-rex transmission to be a refreshing and incredibly lucid account of the general workings of the magnetic induction circuit and early American radio history. It reads off as a "master at work" writing, something you don't get the privilege to see every day.

Mr. Dollard, thank you for your always thoughtful and informative writings. I really appreciate your clear and concise descriptions, really helps people like myself see electrical concepts more clearly.

On another note, I have been doing some research regarding synchronous parameter variation and have found a few pertinent quotes by Heaviside, that might be of interest regarding the general concept and the very recent transmissions by Mr. Dollard. Also, I thought I would present a shortened preview of my article "Angle of Hysteresis & the Continuity of Energy" that I have been writing for a while now.

Below is a page from "Forces, Stresses & Fluxes of Energy in the Electromagnetic Field". Published in 1891 in the Proceedings of the Royal Society. Here, Heaviside was preaching his version of Maxwell's electro-magnetic gospel. Heaviside had many disagreements with Maxwell's explanation, and in doing so came to a conclusion that explains, inadvertently, the general principle behind synchronous parameter variation in certain magnetic circuits.

I would like to point out more clearly, that "free-space" is considered un-magnetizable. Furthermore, anything that has a greater or lesser permeability than free-space has to be something that "occupies space", i.e. matter. More simply, the presence of matter alters the permeability of the ether, or space itself, at that local point of its presence. Therefore, we always have two different magnetic (or dielectric) quantities, the intrinsic magnetic field H and the induced magnetic field B, due to the magnetization of matter. Furthermore, the synchronicity of the two cannot be made into perfect alignment. While the Intrinsic Field H moves at the speed of light, the Induced Field B has a delay or Hysteresis associated with its propagation due to the magnetization time delay of material entities, seen as the alignment of magnetic domains. This is made more apparent when operating at high frequencies, and is one of the reasons the inductance of an inductor decreases with increasing frequency. (However, at very high frequencies, distributed capacitance becomes the dominant reason.)

While we generally can't change the absolute permeability of any medium or material directly, we can however, easily change the effective amount of the relative permeability of a ferromagnetic material. Thus, to change the permeability of the "medium", you have to do it in a very round-about manner. However, Heaviside's commentary remains a concise account, regardless of how you achieve the desired action.

This now brings us to the question of "how do we achieve a gain in energy" and "where does this energy actually come from"?

The key point to these questions is what happens in the reverse, or "what takes place when energy is removed from the system" and "where is it going". Since this is the norm, it would make sense to study these actions first, then devise a method that does the exact reverse to achieve a gain in electrical energy.

*To avoid an incredibly long and undoubtedly boring explanation from me, I will give an abridged summary of how I see the situation. Which is always subject to change with new understanding and personal growth. To meet this end, no accompanying math will be presented, minimal pictures and terse descriptions used. The full report would span many separate posts due to the large amount of content, however, it is hoped that the presented details will suffice in giving the basic outline and theory of the principle.

Energy Movement

In general, in a reactive circuit, if there is no resistance, there is a phase angle of exactly 90 between the vectors of voltage and current, this represents Circulatory Energy and not necessarily Power as we usually understand it. To describe this specific situation, we use the term called "Reactive Power".

I should point out, that the definition of power, is the time rate of work done or time rate of relative energy used, which boils down to "energy being moved in time", joules per second. While this description is accurate it is however overly broad, a circulation of energy without any change in original quantity does not constitute a unidirectional movement generally associated with the word "Power", or more appropriately "Real Power". A circulation of energy is in essence a form of kinetic storage. Therefore, we will conclude that "Real Power" represents a uni-directional movement of energy from one point to the other with no ability to circulate or be stored and returned. Reactive Power however, is merely the storage and return or circulation of energy, whereby there can be no losses or gains in this oscillatory movement.

In quick summary, series resistance r and shunt conductance g, represent electrical energy being removed from the circuit as an equal quantity of heat radiated to the ambient. Series Inductance L and shunt Capacitance C represent storage mediums and therefore "trap" electrical energy in their bounding structures. This trapped (or stored) energy can be returned back to the source and stored once again forming a circulatory loop of energy movement.

If we place a resistance in series with our reactive circuit element and source supply, we cause a change in the phase angle of the vectors of voltage and current. We are now no longer watt-less, or purely reactive, we now have a uni-directional transfer of energy and simultaneously a circulation of energy taking place. This forms a complex movement of energy, we are no longer purely real, unidirectional. Nor are we completely imaginary, circulatory, but now a gradient of the two.

In essence, the greater the positive resistance in an Lr or rC alternating current circuit, the lesser the phase angle between the voltage and current vectors, i.e phase difference approaches 0, but cannot reach 0 due to the reactive element. Conversely the lesser the resistance seen the greater the phase angle, limited to 90 for zero resistance and realistically, only approaches 90 due to the resistive element.

The above given resistance is called "ohmic resistance" and is considered constant at all frequencies, or retains the same magnitude regardless of conditions involving time. However, it is seen that in situations not involving DC or low frequency AC, that the effective resistance seen is not in proportion with the DC-ohmic resistance. Here, we have a time-variant resistance, due impart to a multitude of factors. Notably; radiation resistance, hysteresis, Foucault (eddy) currents, and AC-ohmic resistance. All of these distinct effects contribute to unidirectional exchanges of energy from the circuit into the ambient and all increase with increasing frequency.

Natural & Artificially Induced Hysteresis; Variation of a Storage Parameter in Time

The time-variant phenomena that we will focus on and is most pertinent for our discussion is the hysteresis loss. In Reactive circuits, this phenomena is explicitly associated with the interaction of the Intrinsic and Induced fields.

If the naturally existent hysteresis of the permeable matter causes a loss of energy, by a lagging field of induction to its intrinsic source. An artificial source of hysteresis, engendered by placing a time-variant storage element in the circuit, adroitly controlled and timed, can cause the storage parameters magnitude to lag at an appropriate time that causes an excess release of magnetic induction which is greater than the magnetic induction originally stored.

With instrumentation, this is visually seen as a distortion of one or both of the vectors of current and voltage. This, as a displacement of the node maxima of the affected quantity. Curiously, the zero crossings of the respective vector quantities remain in quadrature relation but the displaced node maxima can either return more energy than stored or alternately, store a portion of energy that won't ever be returned, where this energy goes is unknown. These actions cause the wave of the electric field (power) to be distorted and asymmetric, thus denoting the excess return or excess consumption taken. Here, energy is either converging into the circuit from an outside source or is diverging into an unknown sink, presumably not as thermal radiation.

Arguably, this action is seen as a negative resistance in the circuit because, reactive elements can only store energy and cannot impart energy to themselves. If they are merely storage elements, the energy source that filled the time-variant storage medium cannot be the storage medium itself, and cannot be the original source due to the energy increase happening on the falling quarter period, or return of stored energy. Furthermore, despite the quadrature relation of the zero-crossings, the node maxima are displaced causing the constituent waves to align asymmetrically, either with opposing signs (negative power factor) or same (positive power factor). If a positive resistance was seen as a voltage drop and a divergence of energy from the circuit into the ambient, seen as a load. By the law of duality, a negative resistance would have to be seen as a voltage rise and a convergence of energy into the circuit, seen as a source. If we return more energy than was stored, a negative resistance would be seen as a negative power factor. Whereby the source becomes a sink and the load becomes a source for a select portion of time.

Energy Synthesis; Continuity of Energy vs. Conservation of Energy

O' say, can you see where the energy came from? While the actions and conditions are known, the outside source imparting the excess energy isn't. If I were to speculate, which I don't profess to be right, I would say since we have been talking about negative power factor and negative resistance, that negative time would appear to be involved. Lets take a look at what the ever astute Heaviside has to say on energy, its motions and the continuity of its existence.

Will finish this latter,

Garrett M

Last edited by garrettm4; 07-16-2012 at 04:01 PM.
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