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Old 07-12-2012, 03:24 AM
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Law of Electro-Magnetic Induction, Two

(1) In this series of writings the principle objective is the theoretical treatment of the magnetic amplifier as applied to synchronous parameter variation. The magnetic amplifier is a development of Ernst Alexanderson, a Swedish born engineer. Alexanderson worked directly with Steinmetz at General Electric. Here developed was the Alexanderson system of wireless transmission. This system was the only wireless development to show novelty over all of the encompassing patents of Nikola Tesla. The magnetic amplifier is an important element in the Alexanderson system of transmission.

(2) After the fall of Nikola Tesla and Wardenclyffe in 1904, a dark age fell upon the wireless. Promotional efforts, fraud, monopolistic practices, all ensued. Names like Lee DeForest, G. Marconi were the rulers of this age. See “Empire of the Air”. A morass of interference developed from the stations of inventors and experimenters. With the onset of World War One, it became a matter of national security. The Alexanderson system was developed by 1917 and would effect greatly the course of radio history.

(3) During the dark ages the U.S. Navy became increasing disillusioned with the wireless developments provided to them. Poor and unreliable performance along with the dependence upon civilian technicians frustrated the efforts of establishing a reliable and effective naval radio communication system. The Alexanderson system along with later developments by Edwin Howard Armstrong would mark the end of the radio dark ages. The U.S.Navy was quick to co-opt the Alexanderson system into its communication network. KET and WII were its first Alexanderson stations for V.L.F. transmission. The Navy froze all radio patents from the dark ages, ending the relentless patent wars. The assistant secretary of the Navy Franklin D. Roosevelt used this opportunity to outlaw radio for civilian use, ending the radio experimenter. Under the direction of Admiral Bullard, U.S.N. A “Radio Corporation” was organized to serve as a holding company for radio patents and developments. Hence the birth of R.C.A. in 1919, and also the birth of radio as it has become known. The year 1919 begins the age of electromagnetic radio and its domination of transmission theory. But today we are interested in the unknown radio of yesterday, that before 1919, that of Tesla and Alexanderson.

(4) The development of the thermionic vacuum tube by General Electric and Bell Telephone put this device in the forefront of radio advancements. This could never happen in the hands of the inventor, Lee DeForest, so he was bought out by A.T.T. And his patents placed into the patent pool of the Radio Corporation, developing into a monopolistic trust. The efforts of Edwin H. Armstrong for R.C.A. and Langmir for G.E. Led to the Pliotron Power Oscillator utilizing the UV-207 thermionic, water cooled, vacuum triode. This instantly obsoleted use of the Alexanderson alternator for the production of large quantities of radio frequency power. His system became obsolete almost as soon as it was installed (1921), R.C.A. Radio Central, Rocky Point, NY. Thus the Alexanderson system became a dinosaur, to be buried and then forgotten. In the American tradition it was all smashed into rubble and then thrown over the cliffs into the sea. (Bolinas). Another historic “elimination”.

(5) Becoming obsolete, the Alexanderson system was regarded as of no significance to the “modern understanding” of electricity. As electronic ideas began to overtake electrical ideas a misunderstanding developed with regard to the electric wireless of Tesla and Alexanderson. Radio became married to electro-magnetism, and electricity became married to the electron. It is however that the Alexanderson system is electrical, not electronic. It was in fact developed specifically to avoid the electronic patents, and also work in a way not already specified in the patents of Nikola Tesla. The magnetic amplifier served as a kind of magnetic transistor, eliminating the need for the electronic vacuum triode of DeForest. The Alexanderson aerial is unlike the structures of Tesla and Marconi and also is not an electro-magnetic radiator. The developments of Ernst Alexanderson operate in a unique fasion, unlike more commonly known electrical developments. Hence the importance of the study of the elements of the Alexanderson system.

(6) The Alexanderson system consists of three principle elements;

I) The Variable Reluctance Alternator, for the generation of V.L.F. Power.

II) The Magnetic Amplifier, for the modulation of this V.L.F. Power.

III) The Multiple Loaded Aerial, for the transmission of the modulated V.L.F. Power.

All three of these elements are based upon radical departures from more conventional electrical designs. The Law of Electromagnetic Induction finds a new meaning in these particular developments of Alexanderson. These represent a “third way” in the development of electromotive force. It can be expected that certain anomalies as well as certain oppositions by “the group” in the Law of Energy Continuity are to be found in the elements that comprise the Alexanderson system. Such is demonstrated with the Variable Reluctance Generator seen in the Borderland video, this machine similar to the Alexanderson alternator in principle.

(7) Electro-Motive Force is brought about by magnetism in motion. The motional relationship between magnetism and its bounding metallic-dielectric geometry give rise to E.M.F., this E.M.F. as a reaction to magnetic motion is and inertial force, at least as it is commonly understood. The production or consumption of electro-motive force is developed by three distinct relations;

I) The E.M.F. of Variable Magnetic Induction, such as with the static transformer,

II) The E.M.F. of Motional Magnetic Induction, such as with the rotating motor-generator,

III) The E.M.F. of Variable Magnetic Inductivity, such as the static magnetic amplifier, or rotating variable reluctance alternator.

In basic terminology, with the static transformer it is the intensity of the magnetism is variable, in the motor-generator the position of the magnetism is variable, and in the magamp or Alexanderson alternator it is the containment of the magnetism is variable.

In the static transformer the magnetizing force is made to vary, as with alternating current. This gives rise to a continuously variable quantity of magnetic induction developing a continuously variable E.M.F. Induction is the variable.

In the motor-generator the position of the magnetic induction is made to vary via rotation. This rotation is constant developing an E.M.F. which is also constant and constantly rotating as is the magnetism. Here the E.M.F. is not alternating as with the static transformer, but has a vector of constant length in constant rotation. Hence this E.M.F. is in a polyphase or direct current relation. Orientation in Space is the variable.

In the magnetic amplifier, or Alexanderson alternator, the inductivity of the medium supporting the magnetic induction is made to vary, this by saturation or relative motion. Hereby magnetism is made to enter or leave the magnetic medium thru the variation of the storage capability of that medium. The E.M.F. developed is in order to facilitate the flow of magnetic energy into, or out of, the medium of variable magnetic inductivity. Storage Capability is the variable. This is the “third way”.

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