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Old 07-11-2012, 07:09 PM
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Law (Theory) Electro-Magnetic Induction:

(1) Electro-Motive Force, or E.M.F., is a consequence of the law of electromagnetic induction, Faraday's Law. This is his Electro-Tonic State. It is dimensionally the time rate at which magnetic induction is produced or consumed, or in other words “moved about”. The dimensional relation is given as

Weber per Second,

This defines E.M.F. in Volts.

(2) The notion exists that the electro-motive force, E.M.F. in volts, is established by “cutting” lines of magnetic induction via a so called electric conductor. This “cutting” is then said to impel the motions of so called electrons within the conducting material. It is however that a perfect conductor cannot “cut” thru lines of induction, or flux lines, Phi. Heaviside points out that the perfect conductor is a perfect obstructor and magnetic induction cannot gain entry into the so called conducting material. So where is the current, how then does an E.M.F. come about? Now enters the complication; it can be inferred that an electrical generator that is wound with perfect conducting material cannot produce an E.M.F. No lines of flux can be cut and the aether gets wound up in a knot. Heaviside remarks that the practitioners of His Day “do a good deal of churning up the aether in their dynamos”.

(3) A good analogy exists between the induction generator, and its hydraulic counterpart, the centrifugal pump. The pump casing is filled with water in order to operate. Once filled with water, in the condition that the suction and discharge valves are shut thereby confining water to the pump casing, the pump consumes no energy from its shaft. The pump impeller rotates with no damaging pressure, and the water and impeller rotate in step within the pump casing. Upon opening the valves the shaft is loaded by the energy required to move the water thru the pump casing. The law of energy continuity is established in that the energy consumed by the pump shaft is continued as the energy delivered to the motion of the water. Also by the law of reciprocity the energy can be extracted from the flow of water and continued as the delivery of energy to the shaft. Now the centrifugal pump is a centrifugal turbine.

In this configuration the centrifugal apparatus is connected with an electro-dynamic machine, this an induction motor. This induction motor delivers motive energy to the centrifugal pump. It is however that the centrifugal apparatus is also capable of serving as a centrifugal turbine delivering energy to the motor shaft and hence now this induction machine is and induction generator. Again the law of energy continuity is established in that the motive energy taken from the flow of water is delivered to the shaft of the induction machine. The law of reciprocity is established in that the energy continuity is equivalent in both directions of power flow. (This is not possible with an engine)

(4) The induction machine is in some ways analogous to the centrifugal machine. In order for the centrifugal machine to function the casing must be filled with water. Likewise, the induction machine must be filled with magnetism, this in order to function as a generator or motor, otherwise the shaft & rotor spin free transferring no energy. This describes the torque converter in an automatic transmission, a fluidic clutch. As with the centrifugal machine, once it is filled with magnetism, it is that no load appears on the shaft of the induction machine when its circuit breaker is open. Only upon closing the breaker can energy be supplied to the shaft as an induction generator, or taken from the shaft as an induction motor. This analogy between the centrifugal machine and the induction machine fails in one aspect, where the body of water in the casing is moved along with the flow, the magnetism in the induction machine remains stationary and static. No magnetic energy is required beyond that necessary to fill the induction machine. Hence this magnetizing force can be maintained by an electro-static condenser.

It is however that a large electro-magnetic energy is developed by the induction generator, taking this from the rotor shaft and its prime mover. Here the magnetic induction & E.M.F. developed greatly exceeds that involved in the excitation of the induction machine. This opens the question as to where exactly does this generated electricity come from, and likewise with an induction motor where does the consumed electricity go. A sea of partial differential equations is of no assistance in finding the answer. It is occult to human kind, and the actual dimensions of electricity remain unknown. Here is where we begin.

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