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Old 05-07-2012, 12:18 PM
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Are you guys familiar with :

Palmer Craig: Hall Effect Device (Battery, rectifier, amplifier)

Radio World (January 29, 1927), p. 11

"Tubeless Receiver Claimed by Professor, Using Bismuth & Copper"


bismuth is also an element used in the construction of a Moe Joe Cell: Official Website of The Moe-Joe Cell Spherical 316 Non-Magnetic Stainless Steel Joe Cell

.. I think you will recognize the design as it match your post

Q - How much hydrogen gas does the Moe-Joe cell produce?

A - Initially, the Moe-Joe cell was not conceived as a hydrogen producer. It was created because it concentrates orgone energy, which can be used for combustion in internal combustion engines and also for healing. However, since some people have thought of using it as a HHO producer, it has shown some considerable results. (See Brett's 3000GT results on the Testimonials page)

an excerpt from the link on the Hall Effect Device

Recently it was announced at Mercer University (Macon GA), that the Westinghouse Electric & manufacturing Co. had offered Dr. Palmer H. Craig, head of the physics department of the university, $100,000 for a new device which is supposed to replace vacuum tubes as amplifiers and detectors.

The device is called an "electromagnetic detector and amplifier" and consists of a series of bismuth plates stacked in a pile and interlaced with copper wires. The bismuth plates are protected by a coating of sulfur because bismuth, a very brittle substance, is likely to crumble.
Long Sought After

Many attempts have been made by various investigators to make use in this manner of the this property of bismuth and of similar properties of allied metals but so far there has been no claim of success, until Dr. Craig came along. The most common attempted application is to the rectification of AC for filament and plate voltage supply. Lack of efficiency and of dependability have been the main causes of failure. Another limitation is the supply of suitable metals in commercial quantity.

One of the metals which displays similar properties is molybdenum. This has been used by scientists of the Bureau of Standards for converting light energy from the sun into electricity.

From Earth To Sun!

A certain amount of success has been achieved and it seems possible that power may soon be derived directly from the sun in this manner. Here, also, lack of efficiency and of adequate supply of the metal are limitations. There is plenty of molybdenum to be had in different parts of the world, but not all molybdenum is suitable for the purpose. There seems to be an active component in the metal which is responsible for the peculiar property, and it is now the aim of the scientists to isolate this substance.

Apropos the offer to Dr. Craig, Dr. Alfred N. Goldsmith, of the Radio Corporation of America, denied that any such offer has been made for Dr. Craig’s device. Dr. Goldsmith, chief broadcast engineer of the corporation, deprecates the idea that the peculiar property of bismuth can be used for the purpose claimed by Dr. Craig.
He styled the device “an application of bismuth plates as detectors and amplifiers”, which could be used in place of present batteries and vacuum tubes in a radio.

What He Found Out

In his research for his Ph. D. degree at the University of Cincinnati, Dr. Craig found that the bismuth plates might be so used and the actual invention is described in part in his doctor’s thesis.

The inventor today spoke of the device as “a series of about 10 thin bismuth plates, piled one on the other, with wires running between them and finally on out to the actual radio set.”

Because of the delicate nature of the bismuth plates, Dr. Craig has protected them with a covering of sulfur. According to the inventor, the bismuth plates will generate the energy necessary to operate the radio and serve as a detector and amplifier.
Abstract --- The Hall effect in bismuth for a magnetic field strength of from 0.07 to 1.00 gauss was accurately determined by improved methods. Production of the bismuth films. Various methods for obtaining excessively thin, homogenous bismuth films were tried and compared, such as casting, electroplating, evaporating, sputtering, and metallic spraying, of which the last three methods were particularly successful. Measurement of very low voltages. By refinements made in the potentiometer and measuring circuits, reading to one-tenth microvolt were accurate and reproducible. Magnitude of the Hall effect at low fields. The value of the Hall coefficient, R, is abnormally large between 0.07 and 0.30 gauss, having a value of -171 at 0.07 gauss, as compared with a value of -11 which R had for this film at 15 gausses. The value at 4220 gausses was -29, A curve is plotted showing the rapid decrease in the value of -R between 0.07 and 0.30 gauss, and comparison is made with higher values of field strength. It is noted that by putting the Hall potential of one film in series with one or more other films we obtain comparatively high values of the Hall emf, which may be applied to great advantage as an alternating current rectifier in radio and similar applications.

you should read the entrire article when you can

Bismuth and tellurium, which have the highest Hall coefficient of the ordinary metals,
The additive principle used in this connection produces a Hall potential of several volts in low fields with thin bismuth films, and thus gives the Hall effect a practical importance as a rectifier,

------------------------- Now you'll ask yourself why is he talking about this

well a recent news triggered the idea:

Researchers demonstrate new way to control nonvolatile magnetic memory devices

Researchers demonstrate new way to control nonvolatile magnetic memory devices
Reported online in the journal Science May 3, the researchers use a physical phenomenon called the spin Hall effect, that turns out to be useful for memory applications because it can switch magnetic poles back and forth -- the basic mechanism needed to make magnet-based computer memory.

The Cornell researchers discovered that the spin Hall effect in the metal tantalum can be twice as strong as in any material investigated previously, and it can provide an efficient new way to manipulate magnetic moments. The Cornell device could give the leading nonvolatile magnetic memory technology, called the magnetic tunnel junction, a run for its money.

"The spin Hall effect is interesting because it's a bit of physics people haven't paid all that much attention to using in applications," said Dan Ralph, the Horace White Professor of Physics, member of the Kavli Institute at Cornell for Nanoscale Science and the paper's senior co-author with Robert A. Buhrman, the J.E. Sweet Professor of Engineering.

The spin Hall effect works like this: In a heavy metal like tantalum, electrons with intrinsic spins pointing at different angles (electrons, in quantum mechanics, spin like a top) are deflected sideways in different directions. Consequently, a charge current produces a net-sideways flow of spins. This spin current can be absorbed by an adjacent magnetic layer, applying a torque to flip the magnetic orientation. The magnet stays in place even when no current flows, making the memory nonvolatile.

Currently, the leading technology for developing nonvolatile magnetic memory devices is the magnetic tunnel junction, which consists of two magnetic layers sandwiching a thin barrier. When an electrical current passes perpendicular to the layers of a magnetic tunnel junction, one magnetic layer polarizes the electrons, acting as a filter to produce a spin-polarized current. The next layer can absorb this spin current and receive a torque to flip the magnet.

Bismuth is on the Nitrogen Line (lower blue square / Sphere of Magnetic Domination ) ) and Copper close to it (just before zinc )

Signs and symbols rule the world, not words nor laws.” -Confucius.

Last edited by MonsieurM; 05-07-2012 at 12:27 PM.
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