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Old 04-19-2012, 07:00 PM
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Camp David Antenna, Final (1 of 2)

1) In sections one of the “Camp David Antenna” the log-periodic scaling factor was developed. The derived log-periodic sequence is a prelude to a more extended versor system. This leads to a complex versor operator for hyperbolic as well as circular functions. In addition the self-replicating “Golden Ratio” log base was utilized in the derivation of a physical geometric structure, a broadband broadside array.


(2) In section two the concept of sequential loading on a transmission system was developed. It was shown how Alexanderson employed sequential counter-spatial loading elements in his aerials. These are the mutual co-efficients, elastance, K, and enductance, M. This sequential loading gives a concatenated alternating series of counter-spatial and spatial elements. The pair of dimensional relations, space and counter-space, serve to neutralized each other. Hereby derived is propagating without delay. This loading configuration can be called the “Alexanderson Principle”, (space scalar). Concluding section two was the actual physical development of a linear sequential Alexanderson array, this is commonly known as a “Slow Wave” structure (0.33c). This arrangement is applicable to the high frequency band, 3 to 30 mega-cycles, as a vertical aerial.


(3) In this final section the log-periodic, the golden ratio, and the Alexanderson, principles are all united into the “Bolinas Antenna”. Also in this final section the Earth connection requirements for the telluric systems here described are given. Finally the general application of engineerable telluric transmission systems is considered. “So let the pots and pans go black and let us begin the work”. (Oliver Heaviside).


(4) The system developed by Tesla as well as the system developed by Alexanderson are both distinctly single frequency arrangements (this is what we seek to overcome). These telluric systems involve resonance or in general employ the cancellation of reactance by a conjugate suceptance. This condition can only exist at one frequency, or in some cases (Tesla), this one frequency along with its odd order harmonics. The adulteration of the Tesla system by Marconi led to very high magnification factors that prohibited high speed keying. Moreover this magnification did not contribute to the transmission process. In an effort initiated by the U.S. Navy, the Alexanderson aerial developments were applied to the Marconi aerials at station KET in Bolinas, California, and at station WII in New Brunswick, New Jersey. Thru sequential loading and subdivision of these Marconi aerials, Alexanderson redirected the energy of the aerials into the transmission process. This multiple tuned circuit configuration accordingly broadened the modulation bandwidth of the system.


(5) Because the Alexanderson aerial is a sequentially loaded transmission network the log-periodic principle can directly be applied. The resulting structure is shown in Fig-1. This is developed for 5 logarithmic periods. In table-1 is a specific set of dimensions for operation in the high frequency band. The fundamental frequency is 7100 kilocycles per second. This aerial is a slow wave broadband vertical co-linear log-periodic array for both telluric and ionospheric applications. A suitable ground plane is required for its operation, the minimum is 80 wires in a radial configuration. Each wire is 18 gauge or larger and 20 feet or longer. (1600 feet of wire). This should be buried in a watered garden plot. The roots of plants are excellent connections to the Earth. Construction details for a “plumbing” version is shown in Figs-2&3. This is not something one is likely to see in QST magazine. The foremost application of this Aerial-Earth structure is operation in locations where height is a prohibitive restriction.












(6) The Earth connection in telluric systems is of difficult and costly construction, and here exists little room for compromise. The series impedance must be extremely low, and ohm or less. As for the Tesla system the “roots” of Wardenclyff attest to this. The Earth connection at Bolinas is 750 thousand square feet, with plates out to sea! The systems of Tesla and Alexanderson possess very low radiation resistance losses and this gives rise to very large Earth currents. These currents must find their way to the system neutral without opposition. In a complimentary manner very high potentials are developed at the conjugate aerial terminals of these telluric systems. The large currents and high potentials both serve as principle obstacle in the attainment of effective telluric transmission and reception. It should be noted there the meaning of high potentials and large currents. In a receiving system transforming one micro-watt a potential of one volt is a very high voltage and a current of one milli-ampere is a large current. If the same system is transforming 100 watts the potential is now 10 kilo-volts and the current is now 10 amperes. Therefore receiving systems are required to have a “copper investment” similar to that of a transmitting system in order to be effective in its transforming ability.

The bane of large neutral currents is any form of back E.M.F. The primary sources of back E.M.F. are resistance and reactance, giving rise to an effective SERIES IMPEDANCE, this impedance between neutral and ground. Hence a common ground rod in the dirt is no more than a series resistor, and likewise, the connecting wire is now a series reactive parasitic antenna. In common “grounding” it is indeed resistance and reactance are abundant. Moreover these only burden the neutral of the telluric transmission system. In contra-distinction, the bane of a high terminal potential is conductance and suceptance, these giving rise to an effective SHUNT ADMITTANCE. Corona, lousy insulation, and even nearby objects all act to burden the terminal potential. The suppression of spark discharges becomes a primary obstacle in situations involving considerable power. The burdens on the system give rise to detuning effects and resulting off resonance conditions.


(7) The dimensional relation of impedance is here the principle transmission impairment. This dimensional relation can hereby be neutralized thru the employment of a conjugate dimensional relation, admittance. Impedance is the versor combination of the molecular resistance in ohms and of the magnetic field reactance in Henry per second. These are the sources of back E.M.F. Admittance is the versor combination of these molecular conductance in Siemens and dielectric suceptance in farad per second. Under ideal circumstances these two dimensional relations cancel each other, this giving a node of zero E.M.F. at the system neutral. This removes the burden upon the transmission system. Here the transmission characteristics of the Earth become part of the process. Except that power due to energy transmission, this node is a point of zero power flow. (See “Impulses, Waves, and Discharges” page 114, compound circuits).


(8) From a less ideal standpoint an effective Earth connection is an admittance consisting of the molecular conductivity of water and the capacitance of large metallic surface areas. This admittance, as the parallel connection of G and B, appears in series with the impedance, R and X, to the neutral. The objective is the complete elimination of any magnetic induction or reactance. This is achieved by directing the paths of current flow normal to the surface of the metallic structures of the ground system.

Because of the difficulty and expense of constructing a suitable Earth terminal it is best to find one already in existence. Most low frequency radio navigation stations are long gone but in many locations the ground systems are still intact. These sites are optimum for the development of telluric transmission systems. It should be noted that the entire 100 Kc/sec Loran system has been recently shut down making possible the development of a naval telluric transmission system. Also there exists numerous abandoned ground systems left behind by A.M. broadcasting stations. It is possible to share existing grounds with active on air stations in some applications.


(9) Following the successful experimental efforts at Camp David in Bolinas, California the objective was thereafter the implementation of an operating telluric transmission system at the nearby R.C.A. - Marconi radio transmission facility, station KPH. KPH was a commercial ship to shore communications service. Ships in water of course are optimum Earth connections. KPH Bolinas held license to its original low frequency allocation of 126 kilocycles per second. To help facilitate this effort the Alexanderson KET grounding network was found to be intact as well as its connecting points on the still standing shunt coil bases. And further, the self resonant frequency of the Alexanderson shunt (M) coils was near to 126 Kc/sec. With these important factors in place the plan was the utilization of a replicated shunt coil standing on, and grounded to, the existing base. By the addition of a primary resonator, this shunt coil would operate as a Tesla mode resonant transformer producing strong telluric currents at the licensed frequency of 126 Kc/sec. It was a good idea but KPH was put out of operation and I was locked out by the “Greenie”S.S. Here existed one practical telluric transmission application, this as non-Maxwellian ship to shore communication. Nein!
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