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Old 04-01-2012, 01:05 PM
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Lead Books of Sacromonte - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Lead Books of Sacromonte (Spanish: Los Libros Plúmbeos del Sacromonte) are a series of texts inscribed on circular lead leaves, now considered to be 16th century forgeries

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History

They were discovered in the caves of Sacromonte, a hillside outside the old city of Granada, Spain, between 1595 and 1606, and comprise 22 volumes of "lead books", each one consisting of a number of inscribed circular lead leaves, laced together with lead wire and bound within folded lead covers; which were found together with burned human remains, identified by lead plaques as being those of Caecilius of Elvira (Cecilio, Cecil) and eleven followers, supposedly martyred under the Emperor Nero. References in the "books" claim that they were inscribed by Arabic-speaking Christians during the Roman period, and deposited with the martyrs' remains. The books are conserved in the Abbey of the Sacromonte.

The "lead books" appeared to be written in a combination of Arabic and Latin, using characters that 16th century Morisco scholars claimed to recognise as 'Solomonic' and which they identified as pre-Islamic Arabic. Many letter forms were uncertain, and the texts themselves were cryptic and obscure, so that the Catholic authorities found themselves entirely reliant on Morisco translators; chief amongst whom were Miguel de Luna and Alonso del Castillo, who by fortunate chance lived in the nearby Albaicin, and who had indeed been instrumental in the rediscovery of some of the books. One complete book, the so-called "Libro Mudo," or "Mute Book," has remained undeciphered and untranslated to this day.

As reported by the Christian Morisco translators, the books recorded the prophetic and liturgical teachings of the Blessed Virgin Mary, chiefly addressed through Saint Peter, in which she gave instructions for Saint James the Great and Saint Caecilius to be dispatched on a mission to evangelise Spain, stating her love for the Arabic peoples and language of that land, and promising her particular guardianship over the city of Granada. Taken together, the books may be regarded as a supplement to the canonical Acts of the Apostles (and taken together, are indeed of similar length), but recording an alternative mission history in which Saint Paul does not appear. The Virgin's words had apparently been delivered in Latin, but were claimed to have been translated and interpreted into Arabic by Caecilius. The texts include an explicit reference to the Counter-Reformation formulation of the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception: Mariam non comprehendit peccatum originale; but also employ terminology otherwise closer to Islamic formulae: God is One. There is no God but God, and Jesus is the Spirit of God.
ps : Granada was a Great Center of Knowledge

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Averroes
(Abul Walid Mahommed Ibn Achmed, Ibn Mahommed Ibn Roschd).

Arabian philosopher, astronomer, and writer on jurisprudence; born at Cordova, 1126; died at Morocco, 1198. Ibn Roschd, or Averroes, as he was called by the Latins, was educated in his native city, where his father and grandfather had held the office of cadi (judge in civil affairs) and had played an important part in the political history of Andalusia. He devoted himself to jurisprudence, medicine, and mathematics, as well as to philosophy and theology. Under the Califs Abu Jacub Jusuf and his son, Jacub Al Mansur, he enjoyed extraordinary favor at court and was entrusted with several important civil offices at Morocco, Seville, and Cordova
-------------------- Golden age of Jewish culture in Spain - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Birth of the Golden Age

After 681, the Christian Visigoths of Hispania persecuted the Jews severely; therefore, the Jews welcomed the Muslim Arab and mainly Berber conquerors in the 8th century. The conquered cities of Córdoba, Málaga, Granada, Seville, and Toledo were briefly placed under the control of the Jewish inhabitants, who had been armed by the Moorish invaders. The victors removed the Christian Visigoths' oppressive restrictions and granted the Jews full religious liberty, requiring them only to pay the tribute of one golden dinar per capita (Jizya).

A period of tolerance thus dawned for the Jews of the Iberian Peninsula, whose number was considerably augmented by immigration from Africa in the wake of the Muslim conquest. Especially after 912, during the reign of Abd-ar-Rahman III and his son, Al-Hakam II, the Jews prospered, devoting themselves to the service of the Caliphate of Cordoba, to the study of the sciences, and to commerce and industry, especially to trading in silk and slaves, in this way promoting the prosperity of the country. Jewish economic expansion was unparalleled. In Toledo, Jews were involved in translating Arabic texts to the romance languages, as well as translating Greek and Hebrew texts into Arabic. Jews also contributed to botany, geography, medicine, mathematics, poetry and philosophy.[5]
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'Abd al-Rahman's court physician and minister was Hasdai ben Isaac ibn Shaprut, the patron of Menahem ben Saruq, Dunash ben Labrat, and other Jewish scholars and poets. Jewish thought during this period flourished under famous figures such as Samuel Ha-Nagid, Moses ibn Ezra, Solomon ibn Gabirol Judah Halevi and Moses Maimonides.[5] During 'Abd al-Rahman's term of power, the scholar Moses ben Enoch was appointed rabbi of Córdoba, and as a consequence al-Andalus became the center of Talmudic study, and Córdoba the meeting-place of Jewish savants.
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Comparing the treatment of Jews in the medieval Islamic world and medieval Christian Europe, the Jews were far more integrated in the political and economic life of Islamic society,[7] and usually faced far less violence from Muslims, though there were some instances of persecution in the Islamic world as well from the 11th century.[8] The Islamic world classified Jews (and Christians) as dhimmi and allowed them to practice their religion more freely than they could do in Christian Europe
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