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Old 02-22-2012, 01:41 PM
evolvingape evolvingape is offline
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Join Date: Dec 2011
Posts: 164
Innovative Hydrodynamic Cavitation Technologies from Arisdyne

Hydrodynamic Cavitation can occur in any turbulent fluid. The turbulence produces an area of greatly reduced fluid pressure. The fluid vaporizes due to the low pressure, forming a cavity. At the edges of the cavity, small amounts of vapor break off. These form smaller cavities 100 nm to 3 mm in diameter. The smaller cavities implode under the high pressure surrounding them. This process of formation and collapse is called cavitation.

Cavitation is an enormously powerful process. Conditions in the collapsing cavity can reach 5000°C and 1000 atmospheres. The implosion takes place during the cavitation process in milliseconds, releasing tremendous energy in the form of shockwaves. The power of these waves generated by the cavitation process disrupts anything in their path. Whether the waves are destructive or productive depends on Arisdyne's process control.

How does hydrodynamic cavitation differ from ultrasonic cavitation?

Ultrasonic cavitation is dependent on a source of vibrations. This makes them difficult or impossible to scale up and often creates "hot spots" in the dispersion/emulsion. There is no upper or lower flow rate limitations to a CFC™ system, and all fluids flow continuously through the cavitation zone.

Won’t CFC™ cause my equipment to wear more quickly?

Uncontrolled cavitation is a very destructive force. The CFC™ system uses controlled cavitation. Optimal process conditions also protect your equipment from impingement. In fact, CFC™ systems last longer than those with moving parts.

What if one of my reactants is a particulate?

CFC™ works equally well on solid and liquid reactants. Solids are fractured into smaller pieces (100 nm to 3 mm in diameter). Smaller particles mean a better dispersion and greater surface.

Much research has been done on preventing cavitation. Its uncontrolled form causes damage to turbulent-flow systems. But Arisdyne Systems’ patented hydrodynamic cavitation technology harnesses it’s power.

CFC™ (Controlled Flow Cavitation™) controls the location, size, density, and intensity of cavity implosions. The system is calibrated to produce optimum process conditions. Shockwaves resulting from the implosions impact the surrounding process fluid. Tiny droplets or particles result producing high-quality emulsions and dispersions.

Innovative Hydrodynamic Cavitation Technologies from Arisdyne

And a video cool... hmmm... those shapes look familiar... where have I seen them before ? what do they do ?

A de Laval nozzle (or convergent-divergent nozzle, CD nozzle or con-di nozzle) is a tube that is pinched in the middle, making a carefully balanced, asymmetric hourglass-shape. It is used to accelerate a hot, pressurized gas passing through it to a supersonic speed, and upon expansion, to shape the exhaust flow so that the heat energy propelling the flow is maximally converted into directed kinetic energy.

Because of this, the nozzle is widely used in some types of steam turbines, and is an essential part of the modern rocket engine. It also sees use in supersonic jet engines.

Similar flow properties have been applied to jet streams within astrophysics.

Nozzles can be (top to bottom):

Grossly overexpanded

If under or overexpanded then loss of efficiency occurs. Grossly overexpanded nozzles have improved efficiency, but the exhaust jet is unstable.

A jet is an efflux of fluid that is projected into a surrounding medium, usually from some kind of a nozzle, aperture or orifice. Jets can travel long distances without dissipating. In the Earth's atmosphere there exist jet streams that travel thousands of miles.

Jet fluid has higher momentum compared to the surrounding fluid medium.In the case where the surrounding medium is assumed to be made up of the same fluid as the jet and this fluid has a viscosity then the surrounding fluid near the jet is assumed to be carried along with the jet by a process called entrainment.

Some animals, notably cephalopods use a jet to propel themselves in water. Similarly, a jet engine as it name suggests, emits a jet used to propel rockets, aircraft, jetboats, and submarines.

A supercritical fluid is any substance at a temperature and pressure above its critical point
, where distinct liquid and gas phases do not exist. It can effuse through solids like a gas, and dissolve materials like a liquid. In addition, close to the critical point, small changes in pressure or temperature result in large changes in density, allowing many properties of a supercritical fluid to be "fine-tuned".

Supercritical fluids are suitable as a substitute for organic solvents in a range of industrial and laboratory processes. Carbon dioxide and water are the most commonly used supercritical fluids, being used for decaffeination and power generation, respectively.

Water Steam - Critical Point

When water and steam reach the level of absolute pressure 3206.2 psia (221.2 bar) and a corresponding saturation temperature 705.40oF (374.15oC), the vapor and liquid are indistinguishable.
This level is called the Critical Point.

At the critical point there is no change of state when pressure is increased or if heat is added. At the critical point the water and steam can't be distinguished, and there is no point referring to water or steam.

For states above the critical point the steam is supercritical. Supercritical is not the same as superheated - which is saturated steam at lower pressures and temperatures heated above the saturation temperature.

Water physics

The supercritical water reactor (SCWR) is a Generation IV reactor concept that uses supercritical water (referring to the critical point of water, not the critical mass of the nuclear fuel) as the working fluid. SCWRs resemble light water reactors (LWRs) but operating at higher pressure and temperature, with a direct once-through cycle like a boiling water reactor (BWR), and the water always in a single, fluid state like the pressurized water reactor (PWR). The BWR, PWR and the supercritical boiler are all proven technologies[clarification needed]. The SCWR is a promising advanced nuclear system because of its high thermal efficiency (~45% vs. ~33% for current LWRs) and simpler design, and is being investigated by 32 organizations in 13 countries.

The PRotoMax on the other hand is a Generation I reactor that operates via controlled plasma ionisation and hydrogen detonation events in an environment with sub and supersonic fluids, jet's and mediums, while undergoing controlled expansion and implosion phenomena in an environment that is experiencing standing shock waves due to controlled cavitation of the jet stream.

The PRotoMax and related technologies are currently the focus of a small but talented community of open source energy researchers spread across the globe. The PRotoMax technology's are not, and never will be, subjected to patent restrictions by the inventor.

Water achieves supercritical point at 374oC, 647.096 K and 217.7 atm, 22060 kPa.

These temperature and pressure limits are heavily exceeded in a cavitation event. An event which is itself on it's way somewhere because it is occurring in a fluid that possesses inertial momentum and angular velocity, while undergoing rapid positive and negative acceleration, and experiencing extremes of pressure and vacuum, expansion and implosion events.

What is going to happen to the water, the fluid medium of immersion ?

And the good thing about the Plasma RotoMax is... the housing is the rotor...

Attached Images
File Type: png de Laval nozzle.png (6.3 KB, 1 views)
File Type: jpg Rocket nozzle exhaust expansion.jpg (7.6 KB, 1 views)
File Type: jpg Phase Diagram Vapor Liquid Critical Point.jpg (14.7 KB, 1 views)
File Type: png Supercritical Water Reactor system.png (23.2 KB, 4 views)

Last edited by evolvingape; 02-22-2012 at 01:44 PM.
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